Concepts of the. Human Body. chapter outline. 1 The Human Body and Disease. The Study of the. Human Body. Organization of the.

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1 1 UNIT 1 The Human Body and Disease Concepts of the Human Body chapter outline The Study of the Human Body Organization of the Human Body Body Cavities, Regions, and Quadrants Anatomical Terminology LifeS pan 2

2 outcomes learning AFTER COMPLETING THIS CHAPTER, YOU WILL BE ABLE TO: 1.1 Compare anatomy and physiology and their interconnectivity. 1.2 Classify the organization of the body from the chemical level to the organism. 1.3 Describe the different body cavities, abdominal s, and quadrants and list the organs found in each. 1.4 Identify the anatomical position and explain its importance and recall anatomical terminology for the study of anatomy and physiology. essential terms anatomical (ana-tom-ical ) position anterior (an-ter-e-or ) caudal (KAW-dal ) cranial (KRAY-nee-al ) deep distal (DISS-tal ) dorsal (DOOR-sal ) homeostasis (ho-me-o-sta-sis) lateral (LAT-er-al ) medial (MEE-dee-al ) oblique (o-blek) posterior (pos-ter-e-or) proximal (PROX-im-al ) sagittal (SAJ-it-al ) superficial (soop-er-fish-al ) tissue (TISH-oo) transverse (trans-verse ) ventral ( VEN-tral ) 1.5 Summarize how knowledge of anatomy and physiology will benefit activities of daily living and life span. case study Use the case study to focus on as you go through the chapter. The questions will guide you as you learn anatomy and physiology and understand the pathology associated with each body system. CASE STUDY 1 Aspiring Medical Assistant Ellen Besler is an aspiring medical assistant as well as a 38-year-old wife and mother of two. She has always had an interest in medicine. She would love to become a medical assistant and help others. Ellen has been encouraged by her family to pursue her dream. She really does not know much about anatomy or physiology. She wonders why she has to take the course, and what she can do to increase her chances of success. As you go through the chapter, keep the following questions in mind: 1. What is anatomy? And what are the different categories of anatomy? 2. What is physiology? 3. How are physiology and anatomy interconnected? 4. What study techniques can you suggest to help Ellen succeed? Additional key terms in the chapter are italicized and defined intheglo ssary. 3

3 study tips 1. Choose a quiet place that has everything you need to study effectively: textbooks, reference books, paper, pencils, note cards, and a computer. 2. Write out a schedule for each week and chapter. Be specific. Most authorities say for every hour of class time you should be spending two to three hours of study time. Do not try to do too much at one time. Divide your time into manageable units and include scheduled breaks. 3. Preview, read, and review the chapter. 4. Make flash cards for the essential terms of the chapter. 5. Look at illustrations and tables and read the captions. 6. Outline the chapter. After each section, ask yourself what you just read. 7. Write down one to three questions to ask your instructor. 8. Meet with a study group and review and quiz each other. 9. Answer the questions at the end of the chapter. 10. What other ideas do you have that will help you be the best anatomista ndp hysiologisty ouc an? Introduction The study of anatomy and physiology is one of the most fascinating topics you can undertake. The human body is a complex machine; it is amazing how so many different cells, tissues, and organs, each with a specific purpose, work together to produce a highly efficient organism. Your study will begin at the chemical level and work all the way up to the organism ( Figure 1-1 ). You will also be learning a new language the language of science and the body. Whether you are learning anatomy and physiology because it is required for the profession you have chosen or strictly for personal reasons, we are confident you will be delighted with the knowledge and understanding you will achieve. check Why have you chosen to study anatomy and physiology? 4 UNIT 1 The Human Body and Disease

4 O Atom (oxygen) H O H (tissue of stomach wall) H 2 O molecule (water) Chemical level Tissue level Stomach (digestive system) Cellular level System level Organ level (typical cell) Stomach wall Organism LO 1.1 (stomach) FIGURE 1-1 The human body is organized in levels, beginning with the chemical level and progressing to the cellular, tissue, organ, system, and organism (whole body) levels. (human) The Study of the Human Body Anatomy ( ana 5 up; tomy 5 to cut) is the science of the study of body structures. There are several branches of anatomy. Gross anatomy is the study of the body at a macroscopic level (unaided by a microscope). Dissection is often used for this study. In this textbook, we will devote our studies to gross anatomy. Physiology is the study of the function of the body s organs. We study anatomy and physiology together because they are interconnected. Essentially the shape or structure of cells, tissues, organs, and the organism (the person) as a whole will determine the function. By having a thorough understanding of normal anatomy and physiology, it is much easier to recognize abnormal situations when we encounter them. This knowledge will help you grasp the meaning of diagnostic and procedural codes if you are going into billing. It can also help you understand the clinical procedures you will perform as a medical assistant, x-ray technician, nurse, or other health care professional. It will be easier to see how and why certain diseases develop. 1.1 Compare anatomy and physiology and their interconnectivity. CHAPTER 1 Concepts of the Human Body 5

5 homeostasis Relative consistency of the body s internal environment. Homeostasis is defined as the relative consistency of the body s internal environment. Body conditions that must remain within a stable range include body temperature, blood pressure, and the concentration of various chemicals within the blood. Individual cells must also maintain homeostasis. We will learn how the different organ systems work together to maintain homeostasis and help us remain healthy ( Figure 1-2 ). check What is the effect on the organism when homeostasis is disrupted? Hair Skull Temporalis Skin Ribs Pelvis Clavicle Sternum Humerus Vertebral column Radius Ulna Pectoralis major Biceps brachii Rectus abdominis Femur Sartorius Quadriceps femoris Integumentary System Serves as a sense organ for the body, provides protection, regulates temperature, prevents water loss, and produces vitamin D precursors. Consists of skin, hair, nails, and sweat glands. Tibia Fibula Skeletal System Provides protection and support, allows body movements, produces blood cells, and stores minerals and fat. Consists of bones, associated cartilages, ligaments, and joints. Gastrocnemius Muscular System Produces body movements, maintains posture, and produces body heat. Consists of muscles attached to the skeleton by tendons. Thymus Axillary lymph node Lymphatic vessel Tonsils Cervical lymph node Mammary plexus Thoracic duct Spleen Inguinal lymph node Nose Nasal cavity Pharynx (throat) Larynx Trachea Bronchi Lungs Pharynx (throat) Oral cavity (mouth) Liver Gallbladder Appendix Salivary glands Esophagus Stomach Pancreas Small intestine Large intestine Rectum Anus Lymphatic System Respiratory System Removes foreign substances from the Exchanges oxygen and carbon dioxide blood and lymph, combats disease, between the blood and air and regulates maintains tissue fluid balance, and blood ph. Consists of the lungs and absorbs fats from the digestive tract. respiratory passages. Consists of the lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, and other lymphatic organs. FIGURE 1-2 Organ systems of the body. Digestive System Performs the mechanical and chemical processes of digestion, absorption of nutrients, and elimination of wastes. Consists of the mouth, esophagus, stomach, intestines, and accessory organs. 6 UNIT 1 The Human Body and Disease

6 Brain Hypothalamus Pituitary Pineal body Carotid artery Spinal cord Nerve Cauda equina Thyroid Thymus Adrenals Ovaries (female) Parathyroids (posterior part of thyroid) Pancreas (islets) Testes (male) Jugular vein Heart Brachial artery Inferior vena cava Superior vena cava Pulmonary trunk Aorta Femoral artery and vein Nervous System A major regulatory system that detects sensations and controls movements, physiologic processes, and intellectual functions. Consists of the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and sensory receptors. Endocrine System A major regulatory system that influences metabolism, growth, reproduction, and many other functions. Consists of glands, such as the pituitary, that secrete hormones. Cardiovascular System Transports nutrients, waste products, gases, and hormones throughout the body; plays a role in the immune response and the regulation of body temperature. Consists of the heart, blood vessels, and blood. Mammary gland (in breast) Kidney Ureter Urinary bladder Uterine tube Ovary Uterus Ductus deferens Seminal vesicle Prostate gland Testis LO 1.2 Urethra Vagina Epididymis Penis Urinary System Removes waste products from the blood and regulates blood ph, ion balance, and water balance. Consists of the kidneys, urinary bladder, and ducts that carry urine. FIGURE 1-2 (concluded) Female Reproductive System Produces oocytes and is the site of fertilization and fetal development; produces milk for the newborn; produces hormones that influence sexual function and behaviors. Consists of the ovaries, vagina, uterus, mammary glands, and associated structures. Male Reproductive System Produces and transfers sperm cells to the female and produces hormones that influence sexual functions and behaviors. Consists of the testes, accessory structures, ducts, and penis. Organization of the Human Body The structure of the body can be divided into six different levels of organization with increasing complexity: chemical, cellular, tissue, organ, organ system, and organism (whole body). The chemical level is the most basic level and is made up of atoms and molecules (two or more atoms joined together by chemical bonds). Atoms are the simplest units of all matter. Matter is anything that takes up space and has weight. Certain elements or atoms are required for life. These include carbon (C), hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), calcium (Ca), and sulfur (S). These essential atoms combine to make the essential molecules needed for life including water, glucose, proteins, and 1.2 Classify the organization of the body from the chemical level to the organism. Basic Chemistry (Organic Molecules) CHAPTER 1 Concepts of the Human Body 7

7 tissue A group of similar cells that combine to perform a specific function. deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). We will look at the chemistry of life more closely in Chapter 2, Concepts of Chemistry. The next level of organization, the basic structural and functional unit of life, is the cell. Individual cells require a microscope to be looked at closely. When cells act together to perform a specific function, the next level of organization, they are classified as tissue. The four basic types of tissues in the body are epithelial, connective, muscle, and nervous tissue ( Figure 1-3 ). Chapter 3, Concepts of Cells and Tissues, will introduce you to the world of organelles, cells, and tissues. A Skeletal muscle: Elongated cylindrical cells with striations and several nuclei Locations: Throughout the body where voluntary movement takes place Functions: Movement of body parts such as the extremities, head and neck, and spine D Epithelium: Cells can be squamous (flat), cuboidal, columnar, or transitional; cells can be arranged in a single layer (simple), stratified, or pseudostratified Locations: Epithelium lines body surfaces and cavities; for example, it makes up the skin and lining of the digestive tract B Cardiac muscle: Short, branching cells with striations and a single nucleus; has intercalated discs between cells for intercellular communication Location: Heart Function: Contraction of the heart for blood circulation E Connective tissue: The most abundant and varied of the four tissue types; consists of cells and extracellular matrix Locations: Throughout the body; bone, cartilage, blood, and collagen are examples of connective tissue Functions: Movement, storage of minerals, transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide, a source of energy, protection, and support C Smooth muscle: Short tapered cells, not striated with a single nucleus Locations: Walls of blood vessels and walls of hollow organs such as the stomach and uterus Functions: Maintains blood vessel diameter; controls movement of food through the digestive tract, as well as urine in the urinary system and the egg and sperm in the reproductive tract F Nervous tissue: Consists of neurons and neuroglia (supporting cells) Locations: Brain, spinal cord, and nerves Functions: Receives, integrates, and responds to various internal and external stimuli FIGURE 1-3 Four basic tissue types. 8 UNIT 1 The Human Body and Disease

8 focus on Wellness: The Human Body The human body is an amazing machine. Each organ system works in sync with other organ systems. Each level of the body organization is built on simpler levels of organization. Understanding how the body works will provide you with a better understanding of how to keep it working and maintain the most optimal state of health and wellness. Two or more tissue types combine to form organs, and organs that perform a common function are called organ systems the next two organizational levels of the human body. For example, the heart is made of cardiac muscle tissue, connective tissue, and epithelial tissue. The heart and blood vessels unite to form the cardiovascular system. The function of the cardiovascular system is to supply oxygen and nutrients to the cells and tissues of the body and remove carbon dioxide and waste products. The organism consists of all the organ systems working together to function as a unit or living individual. check What are the four basic tissue types? BodyC avities,r egions, and Quadrants Body cavities are spaces that help protect and support organs ( Figure 1-4 ). Two major body cavities are the dorsal cavity, located on the posterior aspect of the body, and the ventral cavity, located on the front of the body. The dorsal cavity is divided into the cranial cavity and the spinal cavity (vertebral canal). The cranial cavity contains the brain and the spinal cavity contains the spinal cord. The organs of the dorsal cavity are well protected because of the skull and the vertebral column. The ventral cavity is divided into the thoracic cavity (chest cavity) and the abdominopelvic cavity. The diaphragm separates the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities. The thoracic cavity is divided into two pleural cavities, pericardial cavity, and mediastinum. The lungs are found in the pleural cavities. The heart is located in the pericardial cavity which is found in the mediastinum. The mediastinum is a space located between the two lungs laterally and the sternum anterior and the vertebral column posterior. It runs from the first rib superiorly to the diaphragm inferiorly. The abdominopelvic cavity is divided into a superior abdominal cavity and an inferior pelvic cavity. The stomach, small and large intestines, gallbladder, liver, spleen, kidneys, and pancreas are located in the abdominal cavity. The bladder and internal reproductive organs are located in the pelvic cavity. The body cavities with the exception of the abdominopelvic cavity provide protection to the internal organs because of the surrounding skeletal structures. Also, the cavities are lined with protective connective tissue membranes and small amounts of lubricating fluids. 1.3 Describe the different body cavities, abdominal s, and quadrants and list the organs found in each. dorsal Toward the back of the body. ventral Toward the front of the body. cranial Above or close to the head. LO 1.3 CHAPTER 1 Concepts of the Human Body 9

9 Cranial cavity Vertebral canal Thoracic cavity Diaphragm Abdominal cavity Abdominopelvic cavity Pelvic cavity A Lateral view Cranial cavity Vertebral canal Thoracic cavity Right pleural cavity Pericardial cavity Mediastinum Left pleural cavity Diaphragm Thoracic cavity Abdominal cavity Abdominopelvic cavity Pelvic cavity B Anterior view FIGURE 1-4 Major body cavities. The abdominal area is further divided into nine s or four quadrants ( Figure 1-5 ). The s and quadrants help physicians and other medical personnel such as x-ray technicians and medical assistants easily locate organs and vital structures ( Figure 1-6 ). When using the nine- method, 10 UNIT 1 The Human Body and Disease

10 Right hypochondriac Epigastric Left hypochondriac Right upper quadrant (RUQ) Left upper quadrant (LUQ) Right lumbar Umbilical Left lumbar Right lower quadrant (RLQ) Left lower quadrant (LLQ) Right iliac (inguinal) Hypogastric Left iliac (inguinal) A B FIGURE 1-5 (A) The abdominal area divided into nine s and (B) the abdominal area divided into four quadrants. a tic-tac-toe grid is drawn. Two horizontal lines and two vertical lines are drawn. The top horizontal line is drawn just below the rib cage and the lower horizontal line is drawn just below the tops of the hip bones. The two vertical lines are drawn just medial to the nipples through the middle of the clavicles. The nine s are named right hypochondriac, epigastric, left hypochondriac, and right lumbar, umbilical, left lumbar, right inguinal, hypogastric, and left inguinal. A simpler method of locating structures is the quadrant method. To form the quadrants, a horizontal line and a vertical line are drawn through the umbilicus. The four quadrants are named the right upper quadrant, left upper quadrant, right lower quadrant, and left lower quadrant. check List all the cavities that the heart is found in. FIGURE 1-6 Knowledge of anatomy is essential to x-ray technicians. from the perspective of... AN ADMINISTRATIVE MEDICAL ASSISTANT Anadmin istrative medical assistant updates and maintains patients medical records, fills out insurance forms, and arranges for hospital admissions and laboratory services as well as other duties depending on where he or she works.how will learning the different directional terms help you communicate more effectively with other health care providers? CHAPTER 1 Concepts of the Human Body 11

11 1.4 Identify the anatomical position and explain its importance and recall anatomical terminology for the study of anatomy and physiology. anatomical position The body is standing upright, facing forward, with the arms at the sides and the palms of the hands also facing forward. sagittal A plane that divides the body into left and right portions. transverse A plane that is also described as horizontal and divides the body into upper and lower portions. AnatomicalT erminology Anatomical terms are used to describe the location of body parts and various body s. Learning anatomy and physiology terms is like learning a new language one that all health care professionals must speak. To begin with, you must understand the concept of anatomical position ( Figure 1-7 ). This is described as a body standing upright and facing forward with the arms at the sides and the palms of the hands facing forward. A person lying on the stomach is said to be in the prone position, and someone lying on the back is in the supine position. Planes and Sections Flat surfaces or planes passing through the body are useful in identifying structures. There are several planes or sections you should become familiar with ( Figure 1-8 ). Medical professionals often use the following terms to describe how the body is divided into sections: sagittal, transverse, and frontal (coronal). A sagittal plane divides the body into left and right portions. A midsagittal plane runs lengthwise down the midline of the body and divides it into equal left and right halves. A transverse (horizontal) plane divides the body into superior (upper) and inferior (lower) LO 1.4 FIGURE 1-7 Anatomical position: The individual is facing forward with the arms at the sides and the palms of the hands facing forward as well. Right Midline Left Superior REMEMBER ELLEN, our aspiring medical assistant? Why do you think it is important for Ellen to have a thorough understanding of the anatomical position? Proximal Distal Medial Lateral Anterior (ventral) Posterior (dorsal) Proximal Distal Inferior 12 UNIT 1 The Human Body and Disease

12 Median (midsagittal) plane Parasagittal plane A section along the median plane Transverse (horizontal) plane A section along a transverse plane A section along a frontal plane Frontal (coronal) plane FIGURE 1-8 Sectioning the body along various planes allows observation and identification of internal structures. portions. A frontal, or coronal, plane divides the body into anterior (frontal) and posterior (rear) portions. Although not a main body plane, an oblique plane is one that runs at an angle other than perpendicular to a sagittal, horizontal, or coronal plane. It is used in radiology, describing x-ray views. check List the planes that would run perpendicular to a sagittal plane. Directional Anatomical Terms Directional anatomical terms are used to identify the position of body structures relative to other body structures ( Figure 1-9 and Table 1-1 ). The directional anatomical terms are cranial, cephalad, caudal, inferior, ventral, anterior, dorsal, posterior, medial, lateral, proximal, distal, superficial, and deep. A structure that is described as cranial would be approaching or close to the head or skull. Cephalad and superior are often used interchangeably with cranial. Caudal or inferior refers to away from the head. As stated previously, ventral or anterior means the front of the body and dorsal or posterior, the back. Medial refers to being comparatively closer to the midline of the body. Lateral refers to relatively farther from the midline. For example, the eyes are medial to the ears but lateral to the nose. Proximal refers to a structure anterior Toward the front of the body when in anatomical position or in front of another structure. posterior Toward the back of the body when in anatomical position or in behind another structure. oblique At an angle other than perpendicular to a sagittal, horizontal, or coronal plane. caudal Away from the head. medial Near the midline of the body. lateral Away from the midline of the body. proximal Nearer to the attachment of an extremity to the trunk or nearer to the point of attachment or origin. CHAPTER 1 Concepts of the Human Body 13

13 TABLE 1-1 Directional Anatomical Terms Term Definition Example Superior (cranial or cephalad) Above or close to the head The thoracic cavity is superior to the abdominal cavity. Inferior (caudal) Below or close to the feet The neck is inferior to the head. Anterior (ventral) Toward the front of the body The nose is anterior to the ears. Posterior (dorsal) Toward the back of the body The brain is posterior to the eyes. Medial Close to the midline of the body The nose is medial to the ear. Lateral Proximal Distal Farther away from the midline of the body Close to a point of attachment or to the trunk of the body Farther away from a point of attachment or from the trunk of the body The ears are lateral to the nose. The knee is proximal to the ankle. The fingers are distal to the wrist. Superficial Close to the surface of the body The skin is superficial to muscle. Deep More internal The bones are deep to the skin. Superior (cranial) Midline Lateral Dorsal (posterior) Ventral (anterior) Medial Deep Proximal end of forearm Midline Superficial Distal end of forearm Proximal end of thigh Dorsal surface of hand Distal end of thigh Ventral surface of leg Inferior (caudal) FIGURE 1-9 Directional terms provide mapping instructions for locating organs and body parts. 14 UNIT 1 The Human Body and Disease

14 being closer to the trunk or a specified part. Distal is farther from the trunk or specified part. For example, the wrist is more proximal to the elbow than are the fingers. The fingers would be more distal to the elbow than the wrist. Superficial is closer to the surface of the body. For example, the skin is more superficial than the heart. Deep would be farther from the surface of the body. check Is the right shoulder or right ankle more proximal to the right knee? Anatomical Terms Used to Describe Body Parts Many other anatomical terms are used to describe different s or parts of the body ( Figure 1-10 ). For example, the term brachium refers to the arm and the term femoral refers to the thigh. distal Farther from the attachment of an extremity to the trunk or farther from the point of attachment or origin. superficial Located on or near the surface of the body or organ. deep Away from the surface of the body or organ. Acromial (point of shoulder) Axillary (armpit) Mammary (breast) Brachial (arm) Antecubital (front of elbow) Abdominal (abdomen) Antebrachial (forearm) Carpal (wrist) Palmar (palm) Otic (ear) Nasal (nose) Oral (mouth) Cervical (neck) Cephalic (head) Frontal (forehead) Orbital (eye cavity) Buccal (cheek) Mental (chin) Sternal Pectoral (chest) Umbilical (navel) Inguinal (groin) Coxal (hip) Occipital (back of head) Acromial (point of shoulder) Vertebral (spinal column) Brachial (arm) Dorsum (back) Cubital (elbow) Lumbar (lower back) Sacral (between hips) Gluteal (buttocks) Perineal Digital (finger) Genital (reproductive organs) Patellar (front of knee) Femoral (thigh) Popliteal (back of knee) Crural (leg) Crural (leg) Tarsal (instep) Pedal (foot) Plantar (sole) A B FIGURE 1-10 Numerous anatomical terms are used to describe s of the body: (A) anterior view and (B) posterior view. CHAPTER 1 Concepts of the Human Body 15

15 1.5 Summarize how knowledge of anatomy and physiology will benefit activities of daily living and life span. LifeS pan From the moment we are conceived we start to age. As early as our twenties and thirties we may start to see subtle changes. We may not have the endurance we did when we were in our teens or early twenties. Skin changes occur with loss of elasticity, loss of subcutaneous fat, and presence of age spots. Metabolism also starts to slow down, which may affect diet as well as drug metabolism. We also become more susceptible to cancers as our body is not as quick to repair DNA damage. By becoming knowledgeable of anatomy and physiology, you will gain valuable insights into how you can assist your patients in living longer, healthier lives. Let s take a moment to see how Ellen, our medical assistant student, is doing. Do you think she now sees the importance of learning anatomy and physiology? What are your thoughts? summary learning outcomes key points LO 1.5 chapter Compare anatomy and physiology and their interconnectivity. 1.2 Classify the organization of the body from the chemical level to the organism. Anatomy is the study of structures of the body and physiology is the study of the function of those structures. Each has a dramatic impact on the other and that is why we often study them together. Humans, like other animals, are classified by simpler to more complex levels of organization. This begins at the chemical level and becomes more complex as we move through the cellular, tissue, organ, organ system, and finally the organism (whole body) level. The ventral cavity is divided into a thoracic and abdominopelvic cavity. The dorsal cavity is divided into a cranial and spinal cavity. You should be able to list the major organs and structures found in each of these cavities. The abdominal area can be divided into nine s or four quadrants. This further helps with location of structures. In the anatomical position, the individual is standing upright, facing forward with the arms at the sides and the palms also facing forward. This is an important concept to prevent misunderstanding when describing body structures. Knowing the correct terminology will allow you to communicate effectively with other health care providers. As soon as we are born we start to age. Endurance decreases, skin loses elasticity, and metabolism changes. We become more susceptible to cancers and other illnesses. Understanding normal anatomy and physiology will allow you to understand your own body and its needs as well as quickly recognize and appreciate pathology when it is encountered in your patients. 1.3 Describe the different body cavities, abdominal s, and quadrants and list the organs found in each. 1.4 Identify the anatomical position and explain its importance and recall anatomical terminology for the study of anatomy and physiology. 1.5 Summarize how knowledge of anatomy and physiology will benefit activities of daily living and life span.

16 case study 1 questions Can you answer the following questions that pertain to Ellen s case study presented earlier in this chapter? 1. How are anatomy and physiology related to each other? 2. Why is it important to understand normal anatomy and physiology before learning what is abnormal? 3. What would you recommend to help make learning effective and fun for Ellen? review questions 1. The heart is located in which of the following body cavities (there may be more than one correct answer)? a. Dorsal cavity b. Cranial cavity c. Ventral cavity d. Thoracic cavity 2. Which level of organization is immediately above the cellular level? a. Chemical b. Tissue c. Organism (whole body) d. Organ 3. Which one of the following statements is correct? a. The skin is superficial to the wrist. c. The spine is posterior to the abdomen. b. The head is ventral to the knee. d. The ankle is proximal to the abdomen. 4. Which one of the following is not a basic tissue type? a. Epithelial b. M uscle c. N ervous d. Con nective e. B one chapter 1 review critical thinking questions 1. Discuss how a problem at the cellular level would impact homeostasis of the organism. 2. Discuss the organs you would find in the various ventral cavities of the human body. 3. Discuss the organs you would find in the right upper quadrant. patient education You are asked to give a short presentation to a class of high school juniors on the benefits of learning human anatomy and physiology. What would be the main points of your talk? Include both personal and professional aspects. applying what you know Your best friend has been having some pain on her right side just above her hip. The physician suspects it may be her appendix. Using your knowledge of the quadrants and s of the abdomen, answer the following questions. 1. Which of the abdomen would the physician describe the pain as being located? a. Right lumbar c. Right hypochondriac b. Right iliac (inguinal) d. Hyp ogastricr egion 2. In what quadrant of the abdomen would the physician describe the pain as being located? a. RUQ b. LUQ c. LLQ d. RLQ CASE STUDY 2 Football Injury Mark Buchholz, a 22-year-old, plays left tackle for his college football team. He was hurt when he made a tackle that prevented the other team from winning the game. The sports physician suspects he may have injured his head and/or neck. 1. What body cavities may be involved? 2. What planes or sections would you want to look at using x-rays? CHAPTER 1 Concepts of the Human Body 17

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