Nerve Tissue. Muscle Tissue. Connective Tissue

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1 Human Body Tissues Levels of Organization 1. Cells 2. = groups of similar cells that perform a 3. Organ = 4. = group of organs Four Major Tissues Epithelial Tissue Nerve Tissue Muscle Tissue Connective Tissue Anatomical Compass Consider the planes of the body. Understanding these will facilitate learning terms related to position of structures relative to each other and movement of various parts of the body. FRONTAL (or coronal) separates the body into and parts MEDIAN (or midsagittal) separates body into and parts HORIZONTAL separates the body into and parts SAGITTAL any plane parallel to the plane

2 Terms of Relation or Position Most of these are pairs of opposites. superior (closer to the head) inferior (closer to the feet) reference point -- horizontal plane posterior (dorsal) closer to the posterior surface of the body medial (lying closer to the midline) proximal closer to the origin of a structure anterior (ventral) closer to the anterior surface of the body lateral (lying further away from the midline) distal further away from the origin of a structure reference point -- frontal or coronal plane reference point -- sagittal plane reference point -- the origin of a structure superficial deep reference point -- surface of body or organ median reference point -- along the midsagittal or median plane intermediate between two other structures Nervous System (Chapter 35-2 through 35-4) Labeling: Label the diagram of the brain, using the following terms: frontal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital lobe, temporal lobe, cerebral cortex, cerebellum, medulla, brain stem/spinal cord, pituitary, hypothalamus, and thalamus. Short Answer 1. What role does the nervous system play in the functions of the body? 2. What is the function of a neuron? 3. Compare the autonomic and somatic nervous systems. Labeling Identify the parts of the neuron, using the following terms: dendrites, axon, myelin sheath, nodes, cell body, nucleus and axon terminals.

3 Sequencing Write the correct sequence of events that occur during the transmission of a nerve impulse. 1. Action potential continues to move along the axon. 2. Sodium gates open. Action potential occurs. 3. Neuron returns to rest. 4. Neuron is stimulated by another neuron or stimulus from environment. 5. As the action potential passes, the potassium gates open. 6. Neuron is at rest. Classifying Indicate each of the following functions as somatic or autonomic or both. 1. heart beating 2. turning a page 3. chewing food 4. digesting food 5. breathing Skeletal System (Chapter 36-1) Directions: Label the following skeleton using these terms: pelvis, radius, cranium, metacarpals, femur, ulna, tibia, mandible, tarsals, sternum, rib, phalanges, humerus, clavicle, carpals, patella, vertebra, rib, fibula, and metatarsals. The skeleton is the central part of the skeleton used to protect vital organs such as the brain, heart, and lungs. The skeleton is used for movement and includes the pectoral and pelvic girdle and the extremities attached to them. Short Answer: Answer the following questions about the skeletal system. 1. What are the functions of the skeletal system? 2. What types of tissues make up the skeletal system? 3. What are bones?

4 4. What is the advantage of spongy bone issue in the ends of long bones? 5. Which cells are produced in red bone marrow? 6. Describe the four joint movements. Labeling: Use your textbook to label the parts of the bone. Tendons are connective tissues that join to. Ligaments are connective tissue that holds together at a.

5 Muscular System (Chapter 36-2) Labeling Using the diagram below, label the major front and back muscles. Short Answer: 1. What are the 3 types of muscles and their function? 2. Explain the statement: Most skeletal muscles work in opposing pairs. (Use Page 931.) 3. What connects skeletal muscles to bones? (See Skeletal notes.) Identify Identify the type of muscle.

6 Compare and Contrast Complete the following chart using the words YES or NO to compare the three types of muscles. Skeletal Smooth Cardiac Voluntary Control Striated Individual Nuclei in cells Attached to bone Can contract Spindle shaped Integumentary System (Chapter 36-3) Labeling Label the diagram of the skin. Structure: Functions:

7 Short Answer 1. What are the functions of sebaceous glands and sweat glands? 2. You cut your arm and it begins to bleed. Which layer of skin must have been penetrated for the cut to begin bleeding? 3. What is the function of melanin? 4. What are the two functions of integumentary system? 5. How does the humidity of the air around you affect how well your skin cools your body? Application Read the following article about Acne and answer the following questions for homework. Contrary to one popular belief, pimples are not caused by chocolate. Pimples are caused by acne, a disorder of the sebaceous glands in the skin. Sebaceous glands secrete a fatty lubricant, know as sebum, through the pores and hair follicles. Humans have sebaceous glands all over the body, except the palms of the hands and soles of the feet. Acne occurs when sebum from the sebaceous glands clogs the pores in these areas of the body. Blackheads are external plugs made of sebum and dead cells. If the plugs are invaded by bacteria, they become pimples, or pus-filled inflammations. Hormones trigger the production of sebum. Hormone cycles change throughout adolescence, so adolescents are most likely to suffer from acne. The exact cause of acne is not clear. Genetic factors, as well as hormonal changes, seem to trigger the disorder. While they do not cause acne, poor skin care, lack of sunlight, and lack of exercise may aggravate it. In some people, certain foods may also irritate symptoms of the disorder. Most adolescents, and many adults, suffer from some form of mild acne; a few people have more severe cases. Treatments vary greatly. For minor cases, gently cleansing the skin with mild soap and warm not hot water can help irritations heal more quickly. For more severe cases, antibiotics, especially tetracycline, can reduce infections and prevent new infections. When antibiotics are used over a long period of time, however, bacteria often become resistant to them. Two drugs have been developed from treating acne, both related to vitamin A. Tretinoin (Retin A) and isotrertinoin (Accutane) have successfully been used to treat acne. Both drugs, however may have side effects. 1. Do different types of food cause pimples? Explain your answer. 2. What are some possible factors that cause acne?

8 Immune System (Chapter 40) *Review* Complete as homework. Function: Antigen Key Terms Explanations Antibody Spleen: Lymph Nodes: Bone Marrow: Thymus: Nonspecific Defense Mechanisms Specific Defense Mechanisms (Immune Response) First Line of Defense Second Line of Defense Third Line of Defense Goal: Goal: Details: Details:

9 Digestive System (Chapter 38-2) Labeling and Explaining Label the organs of the digestive system and describe each organs function. Use the following terms: pancreas, gallbladder, large intestine, rectum, salivary glands, small intestine, stomach, mouth, esophagus, liver and pharynx. Short Answer 1. What are two functions of the digestive system? 2. What is the difference between mechanical and chemical digestion? 3. What is the route food takes through the body? 4. How are the internal intestines structures, called villi, adapted to absorb food? 5. Describe two diseases of the digestive system.

10 Excretory System (Chapter 38-3) Labeling and Explaining Label the parts of the excretory system and describe their function. Use the following terms: bladder, ureter, urethra, and kidneys. Short Answer 1. Explain the function of the kidneys in maintaining homeostasis in the body. 2. Approximately how long does it take the kidneys to filter all the blood in the body? 3. Explain what a kidney stone is made from and how sounds can be used to alleviate the pain of kidney stones. Respiratory System (Chapter 37-3) Labeling Label the diagram of the respiratory system. Short Answer 1. What are the functions of the respiratory system?

11 2. What part of the brain controls breathing? 3. How does emphysema affect the respiratory system? 4. How does the diaphragm aid in breathing? 5. Explain how the respiratory and the circulatory system work together to respond to your body s needs during exercise. Drawing Conclusion Illustrate the capillaries in the alveoli and show how gas exchanges. Describe the process of gas exchange. Circulatory System (Chapter 37-1) The circulatory system can simply be diagramed in a box, like below. We will complete this together and then you will label the real parts at the bottom of the page.

12 Labeling Label the parts of the heart. Use the following terms: pulmonary vein, bicuspid valve, ventricle (right, left), superior vena cava, aorta, pulmonary artery, and tricuspid valve. Completion Complete the outline tracing the pathway of blood through the heart. 1. A large vein called the brings the blood from the upper part of the body to the heart, where it enters the. 2. The blood is pumped out of the right atrium into the. 3. Travels through the to the, where it picks up oxygen. 4. From the lungs, blood travels through the and returns to the heart, where it enters the. 5. Finally, the blood is forced from the into the, which carries it to the tissues of the body. Short Answer 1. What are the major components of blood? 2. What are the 3 types of vessels and their function? 3. What might happen if a blood clot forms inside in the circulatory system and lodges in a major blood vessel? 4. The only vein that carries oxygenated blood is the and the only artery that carries deoxygenated blood is the.

13 Endocrine System (Chapter 39-1) Labeling Label the diagram of the endocrine system and list its major function. Use the terms: thyroid, testes, pituitary, pancreas, ovaries, parathyroid, thymus, and pineal. Short Answer 1. What is a hormone? 2. What is the relationship between a hormone and a target cell? Use a specific example to explain your answer.

14 Endocrine gland Hormone(s) Secreted Hormone Function(s)

15 Reproductive System (Chapter 39-3) Labeling Label the female and male reproductive system and state each part s function. Labeling Label the drawing of a sperm with the following structures: head, tail, nucleus, and midpiece.

16 Trace the pathway of sperm out of the body, from where it is produced to where it exits. Interpreting Graphics Use the diagram to answer the following questions. LH is luteinizing hormone and FSH is follicle stimulating hormone. 1. What occurs when the hormone LH peaks? 2. What days on the chart show the menstruation phase?

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