Anatomy & Physiology Bio 2401 Lecture. Instructor: Daryl Beatty Day 1 Intro to Lecture 1

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1 Anatomy & Physiology Bio 2401 Lecture Instructor: Daryl Beatty Day 1 Intro to Lecture 1

2 Introduction: Daryl Beatty M.S. Microbiology 28 Years Dow, Research & TS&D. Family BC since 2007

3 More importantly: Why are you here? What are your goals? Where will you be in 5 years? What will you be doing? How will this class help you achieve your goals? How hard are you willing to work to make it happen?

4 Announcements Lab meets THIS week! No lab next week due to Labor Day

5 Help Resources A+ SI Program Included in your student fees For students who want to do more than pass, who want to excel!

6 Help Resources SI (Supplemental Instruction) program Meet your SI leader: Madison Richard Class Online with your book MasteringAandP.com

7 Help Resources Supplemental Instruction Meet your SI: Madison Richard Class

8 Instructions for Web of Life A&P1 Click on Anatomy & Physiology button Click on 2401 Human Anatomy & Physiology Click on Click on pdf link to open lab you want and print. Explore the website for other resources.

9 Course Syllabus (Open DB A&P 1 Lecture Syllabus)

10 Academic Honesty Carrot: Importance of Character in medical field Stick: Consequences of cheating

11 Anatomy & Physiology Lecture 1 What is anatomy? Anatomy the structure of body parts and their relationships to one another

12 Anatomy & Physiology What is physiology? Physiology Concerns the function of the body Together study of structure and function They cannot be separated

13 Terminology Gross (macroscopic) Anatomy Large body structures visible to the naked eye Regional Anatomy All the structures in a region Systemic Anatomy Study of functional systems (cardiovascular, etc.) Microscopic Anatomy Study of cells & tissues Developmental Anatomy

14 Overview of Anatomy and Physiology Tools in anatomy Mastery of anatomical terminology (Med Term.) Observation - Manipulation Palpation Feeling organs Auscultation - Listening

15 Terminology First and second labs will have Anatomical and Directional terms found on pages

16 Physiology Operation of specific organ systems, Interdisciplinary Ties in principles of chemistry and physics. May look at cellular level (chemistry?) Principle: Complementarity of Structure and Function

17 Overview of Anatomy and Physiology To study physiology Ability to focus at many levels (from systemic to cellular and molecular) Study of basic physical principles (e.g., electrical currents, pressure, and movement) Study of basic chemical principles

18 Levels of Structural Organization Reference Page 3-4

19 Levels of Structural Organization Chemical Level Molecules Atoms 1 Chemical level Atoms combine to form molecules. Figure 1.1

20 Levels of Structural Organization 2. Cellular Level 2 Smooth muscle cell Cellular level Cells are made up of molecules. Molecules Atoms 1 Chemical level Atoms combine to form molecules. Figure 1.1

21 Levels of Structural Organization 3. Tissue Level 2 Smooth muscle cell Cellular level Cells are made up of molecules. Molecules Atoms 1 Chemical level Atoms combine to form molecules. 3 Tissue level Tissues consist of similar types of cells. Smooth muscle tissue Figure 1.1

22 Levels of Structural Organization Smooth muscle cell Molecules 4. Organ Level 2 Cellular level Cells are made up of molecules. Atoms 1 Chemical level Atoms combine to form molecules. 3 Tissue level Tissues consist of similar types of cells. Smooth muscle tissue Epithelial tissue Smooth muscle tissue Connective tissue Blood vessel (organ) 4 Organ level Organs are made up of different types of tissues. Figure 1.1

23 Organ System Level 2 Smooth muscle cell Cellular level Cells are made up of molecules. Molecules Atoms 1 Chemical level Atoms combine to form molecules. 3 Tissue level Tissues consist of similar types of cells. Smooth muscle tissue Cardiovascular system Epithelial tissue Smooth muscle tissue Connective tissue Blood vessel (organ) Heart Blood vessels 4 Organ level Organs are made up of different types of tissues. 5 Organ system level Organ systems consist of different organs that work together closely. Figure 1.1

24 Organismal Level 2 Smooth muscle cell Cellular level Cells are made up of molecules. Molecules Atoms 1 Chemical level Atoms combine to form molecules. 3 Tissue level Tissues consist of similar types of cells. 4 Smooth muscle tissue Epithelial tissue Smooth muscle tissue Connective tissue Organ level Organs are made up of different types of tissues. Cardiovascular system Blood vessel (organ) Heart Blood vessels 5 Organ system level Organ systems consist of different organs that work together closely. 6 Organismal level The human organism is made up of many organ systems. Figure 1.1

25 Integumentary System Forms the external body covering Composed of the skin, sweat glands, oil glands, hair, and nails Protects deep tissues from injury and synthesizes vitamin D Figure 1.3a

26 Skeletal System Composed of bone, cartilage, and ligaments Protects and supports body organs Provides the framework for muscles Site of blood cell formation Stores minerals Figure 1.3b

27 Muscular System Composed of muscles and tendons Allows manipulation of the environment, locomotion, and facial expression Maintains posture Produces heat Figure 1.3c

28 Nervous System Composed of the brain, spinal column, and nerves Is the fast-acting control system of the body Responds to stimuli by activating muscles and glands Figure 1.3d

29 Cardiovascular System Composed of the heart and blood vessels The heart pumps blood The blood vessels transport blood throughout the body Figure 1.3f

30 Lymphatic System Composed of red bone marrow, thymus, spleen, lymph nodes, and lymphatic vessels Picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels and returns it to blood Disposes of debris in the lymphatic stream Houses white blood cells involved with immunity Figure 1.3g

31 Respiratory System Composed of the nasal cavity, pharynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs Keeps blood supplied with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide Figure 1.3h

32 Digestive System Composed of the oral cavity, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, anus, and liver Breaks down food into absorbable units that enter the blood Eliminates indigestible foodstuffs as feces Figure 1.3i

33 Urinary System Composed of kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra Eliminates nitrogenous wastes from the body Regulates water, electrolyte, and ph balance of the blood Figure 1.3j

34 Male Reproductive System Composed of prostate gland, penis, testes, scrotum, and ductus deferens Main function is the production of offspring Testes produce sperm and male sex hormones Ducts and glands deliver sperm to the female reproductive tract Figure 1.3k

35 Female Reproductive System Composed of mammary glands, ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, and vagina Main function is the production of offspring Ovaries produce eggs and female sex hormones Remaining structures serve as sites for fertilization and development of the fetus Mammary glands produce milk to nourish the newborn Figure 1.3l

36 Organ Systems Interrelationships The integumentary system protects the body from the external environment Digestive and respiratory systems, in contact with the external environment, take in nutrients and oxygen

37 Organ Systems Interrelationships Nutrients and oxygen are distributed by the blood Metabolic wastes are eliminated by the urinary and respiratory systems Figure 1.2

38 Figure 1.2

39 Necessary Life Functions Maintaining boundaries the internal environment remains distinct from the external environment Cellular level accomplished by plasma membranes Organismal level accomplished by the skin Movement locomotion, propulsion (peristalsis), and contractility Of body parts (skeletal muscle) Of substances (cardiac and smooth muscle)

40 Necessary Life Functions Responsiveness ability to sense changes in the environment and respond to them Ability to sense and respond to stimuli Withdrawal reflex Control of breathing rate Digestion breakdown and absorption of ingested foodstuffs Metabolism all the chemical reactions that occur in the body

41 Necessary Life Functions Excretion removal of wastes from the body Reproduction cellular and organismal levels Cellular an original cell divides and produces two identical daughter cells Organismal sperm and egg unite to make a whole new person Growth increase in size of a body part or of the organism

42 Survival Needs Nutrients needed for energy and cell building Oxygen necessary for metabolic reactions Water provides the necessary environment for chemical reactions Normal body temperature necessary for chemical reactions to occur at life-sustaining rates Atmospheric pressure required for proper breathing and gas exchange in the lungs

43 Homeostasis (Major concept) Homeostasis ability to maintain a relatively stable internal environment in an everchanging outside world The internal environment of the body is in a dynamic state of equilibrium Chemical, thermal, and neural factors interact to maintain homeostasis

44 Homeostatic Control Mechanisms Variables produce a change in the body The three interdependent components of control mechanisms: Receptor monitors the environments and responds to changes (stimuli) Control center determines the set point at which the variable is maintained Effector provides the means to respond to stimuli

45 Homeostatic Control Mechanisms 2 Receptor detects change. 3 Input: Information sent along afferent pathway to control center. Receptor Afferent pathway Control Center Efferent pathway 4 Output: Information sent along efferent pathway to effector. Effector Slide 1 1 Stimulus produces change in variable. Variable BALANCE 5 Response of effector feeds back to reduce the effect of stimulus and returns variable to homeostatic level.

46 Homeostatic Control Mechanisms Slide 2 1 Stimulus produces change in variable. BALANCE

47 Homeostatic Control Mechanisms Slide 3 2 Receptor detects change. Receptor 1 Stimulus produces change in variable. BALANCE

48 Homeostatic Control Slide 4 2 Receptor detects change. 1 Stimulus produces change in variable. 3 Input: Information sent along afferent pathway to control center. Receptor Afferent pathway Control Center BALANCE

49 Homeostatic Control Slide 5 2 Receptor detects change. 1 Stimulus produces change in variable. 3 Input: Information sent along afferent pathway to control center. Receptor Afferent pathway Control Center BALANCE Efferent pathway 4 Output: Information sent along efferent pathway to effector. Effector

50 Homeostatic Control Slide 6 2 Receptor detects change. 1 Stimulus produces change in variable. 3 Input: Information sent along afferent pathway to control center. Receptor Afferent pathway Control Center BALANCE Efferent pathway 4 Output: Information sent along efferent pathway to effector. Effector 5 Response of effector feeds back to reduce the effect of stimulus and returns variable to homeostatic level.

51 Negative Feedback Most feedback mechanisms in body Response reduces or shuts off original stimulus Variable changes in opposite direction of initial change Examples Regulation of body temperature (a nervous system mechanism) Regulation of blood volume by ADH (an endocrine system mechanism)

52 Figure 1.5 Body temperature is regulated by a negative feedback mechanism. Control Center (thermoregulatory center in brain) Afferent pathway Efferent pathway Receptors Temperature-sensitive cells in skin and brain) Effectors Sweet glands Body temperature rises Stimulus: Heat BALANCE Sweat glands activated Response Evaporation of sweat Body temperature falls; stimulus ends Response Body temperature rises; stimulus ends Stimulus: Cold Body temperature falls Effectors Skeletal muscles Receptors Temperature-sensitive cells in skin and brain Shivering begins Efferent pathway Afferent pathway Control Center (thermoregulatory center in brain)

53 Set point Control center (thermostat) Signal wire turns heater off Stimulus: rising room temperature Receptor-sensor (thermometer in Thermostat) Response; temperature rises Balance Heater off Effector (heater) Response; temperature drops Stimulus: dropping room temperature Heater on Effector (heater) Set point Signal wire turns heater on Receptor-sensor (thermometer in Thermostat) Control center (thermostat) Figure 1.5

54 Positive Feedback In positive feedback systems, the output enhances or exaggerates the original stimulus Example: Regulation of blood clotting Figure 1.6

55 1 Break or tear in blood vessel wall Feedback cycle initiated Figure 1.6

56 1 Break or tear in blood vessel wall Feedback cycle initiated 2 Clotting occurs as platelets adhere to site and release chemicals Figure 1.6

57 1 Break or tear in blood vessel wall Feedback cycle initiated 2 Clotting occurs as platelets adhere to site and release chemicals 3 Released chemicals attract more platelets Figure 1.6

58 1 Break or tear in blood vessel wall Feedback cycle initiated 2 Clotting occurs as platelets adhere to site and release chemicals 4 Clotting proceeds; newly forming clot grows 3 Released chemicals attract more platelets Figure 1.6

59 1 Break or tear in blood vessel wall Feedback cycle initiated Feedback cycle ends after clot seals break 2 Clotting occurs as platelets adhere to site and release chemicals 4 Clotting proceeds; newly forming clot grows 3 Released chemicals attract more platelets Figure 1.6

60 Homeostatic Imbalance Disturbance of homeostasis or the body s normal equilibrium Overwhelming the usual negative feedback mechanisms allows destructive positive feedback mechanisms to take over

61 Don t Panic Taos Al s run Come back next time don t drop yet!

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