Anatomy & Physiology 120. Lab #7 Muscle Tissue and Skeletal Muscles

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1 Anatomy & Physiology 120 Lab #7 Muscle Tissue and Skeletal Muscles

2 What you Need to Know Look briefly at the Structure of: 1) Skeletal, 2) Smooth & 3) Cardiac Muscle Naming, Identification, Functions You are only responsible for the identification of ALL muscles which are on your Lab Packet In general: Generates force to move your bones Propel body fluids & ingested food Generate and distribute heat

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4 Skeletal Muscle Structure Skeletal Muscle is an organ of the muscular system How they move: utilizing the counter effects of a flexor & an extensor Antagonistic Agonist prime mover Antagonist - opposes the prime mover

5 Structure of Skeletal Muscle Connective Tissue coverings Epimysium = CT Surrounds muscle Perimysium = CT Separates fascicles Endomysium = CT Separates muscle fibers Skeletal Muscle Fibers Fiber = single muscle cell Thin Elongated Cylindrical Multinucleate CT Connective Tissue

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7 To Do: - Some Help Origin place where the muscle attaches (usually does not move Insertion Place where the muscle attaches (the end that moves (ex Biceps) Prime mover (agonist) / Synergist (helper) / Antagonist Very good website

8 Muscles of the Face / Head / Neck Facial Expression and mastication (chewing) Frontalis Raises Eyebrows Orbicularis oculi Closes Eyes (oculi = eye) Orbicularis oris Closes lips (oris = mouth) (Orbic = Round muscle) Platysma pull lower lip back & down Buccinator sucks in cheeks Masseter closes jaw (chewing) Temporalis closes jaw

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10 Muscles That move the Head Sternocleidomastoid Rotates head to opposite shoulder Muscles that move the Shoulder Trapezius Elevates & Retracts Scapula Serratus anterior Draws Scapula Forward Pectoralis minor Scapula Forward & Downward Muscles that move the Upper Arm Pectoralis major Flexes & adducts arm Latissimus dorsi Extends & adducts arm Deltoid Abducts arm

11 Trapezius Deltoid Pectoralis Major Latissimus dorsi

12 posterior anterior Location: Found beneath and posterior (to the pectoral muscle on the Lateral rib cage Location: Flat / thin muscle under the Pectoralis major Action: Draws Scapula Forward Action: Scapula Forward & Downward

13 Muscles of the Lower Arm (Forearm) Biceps brachii Flexes Brachialis Flexes (synergist) Triceps brachii Extends Know the general surface location of Flexors & Extensors of the Hand Flexor: Anterior forearm (Palm side anatomical position) ex: You flex to lift a dumbell Extensors: Posterior forearm (they pull the arm back once the flexors have done their job)

14 Triceps brachii Extends the forearm (Antagonist to the Biceps brachii) Brachialis - Synergist (helper) Flexes the Forearm

15 Extensors Flexors Anterior portion of the forearm Posterior portion of the forearm

16 Muscles that move the abdominal wall External oblique Compresses abdominal wall, trunk rotation & lateral flexion Internal oblique Compresses abdominal wall, trunk rotation & lateral flexion Transversus abdominis Compresses abdomen Rectus abdominis Flexes the vertebral column Muscles the move the chest wall External intercostals Elevates rib cage (inspiration) Internal intercostals Depresses rib cage (forced exhalation) Diaphragm - Inspiration

17 Action: Depresses rib cage (Forced exhalation) Location: Superficial & Lateral (Fibers run Medially) Action: Lateral flexion & Trunk rotation & Compresses abdominal wall

18 Location: Deepest muscle of the Abdominal wall Action: Compresses abdomen Location: Medial superficial abdominal muscle Action: Flexes the vertebral column (Bow or a sit up) & Forced expiration

19 External Intercostal Between the ribs (Fibers run downward Pull the ribs together) Action Raised the rib cage (Inspiration) Internal Intercostal - Between the ribs (Fibers run at a right angle to External Intercostal) Action Depresses the rib cage (Expiration)

20 Muscles that move the lower leg Quadriceps femoris group Extends the Knee Sartorius Flexes & Laterally rotates thigh So you can sit cross legged Hamstring group Extends thigh and flexes knee Muscles that move the thigh Iliopsoas Flexes the thigh (Psoas major & Iliacus muscle) Rectus femoris Extends knee & Flexes thigh Gluteus maximus Extends thigh Tensor fascia latae Flexes and abducts thigh

21 patella Hamstring Group 3 muscles Located on the Posterior thigh. Extension of the thigh & flexion of the lower leg Quadriceps consists of 4 muscles (united by a common tendon) Extension of the lower leg

22 Psoas major Iliopsoas Muscle Tensor fasciae latae Sartorius (Moves the lower leg) Rectus femoris

23 Rectus Femoris 1. Iliacus 2. Psoas major

24 Muscles that move the foot Tibialis anterior Dorsilflexes the foot Gastrocnemius Plantar flexes foot, flexes knee Soleus Planter flexes foot Deep flat muscle Under the Gastrocnemius Anterior surface of the leg Posterior surface of the leg

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26 Internet Figure Cites keletal_muscle.jpg yorku.ca/.../current/dept/dispatch/dsp4.htm /Lectures/37_Muscle_System_files/i mage010.jpg natomy/2front%20muscle.jpg rs/0/06/088/ jpg ee/biobk/muscle1.gif

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