Chapter 48. Nutrients in Food. Carbohydrates, Proteins, and Lipids. Carbohydrates, Proteins, and Lipids, continued

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1 Carbohydrates, Proteins, and Lipids The three nutrients needed by the body in the greatest amounts are carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids. Nutrients in Food All of these nutrients are called organic compounds, which are compounds that contain the elements carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. An example of a carbohydrate is pasta; an example of a protein is chicken; and an example of lipids is olive oil. Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are organic compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen that provide nutrients to the cells of living things. Carbohydrates contain sugars that can quickly be converted into usable energy. Carbohydrates, Carbohydrates can be monosaccharides, disaccharides, or polysaccharides. Monosaccharides are simple sugars. Disaccharides are sugars that consist of two chemically linked monosaccharides. Polysaccharides are complex molecules that consist of many monosaccharides bonded together. Proteins Proteins are organic compounds that are made of one or more chains of amino acids and are a principle component of all cells. Most proteins come from animal products such as eggs, milk, fish, and beef. Lipids Lipids are nonpolar molecules that are insoluble in water and can be found in fats, oils, and waxes. Lipids are used to make cell membranes and hormones and to store energy. The most common fat is called a triglyceride. Triglycerides can be used for energy and to build membranes and other cell parts. Fats are used in many ways throughout the body but can be harmful if eaten in excess.

2 Lipids, Fats can either be saturated or unsaturated based on which fatty acid they contain. Saturated fats contain saturated fatty acids. Saturated fatty acids contain carbon atoms attached to each other with a single bond. Unsaturated fats have unsaturated fatty acids. Unsaturated fatty acids have at least one double bond between carbon atoms. Vitamins, Minerals, and Water Vitamins, minerals, and water are nutrients that do not provide energy but are required for proper functioning of the body. Vitamins are organic compounds that participate in chemical reactions by helping to build various molecules in the body. Minerals are nutrients that are inorganic compounds and are necessary for certain body processes. Vitamins, Minerals, and Water, Vitamins Vitamins Vitamins work as coenzymes to enhance enzyme activity. A diet should include vitamins because they cannot usually be made in the body. An exception to this is vitamin D. Vitamins can dissolve in water or fat. Vitamins, Minerals, and Water, Minerals Minerals are used to make certain body structures, to carry out normal nerve and muscle function, and to maintain osmotic balance. Minerals can come from plants we eat directly or the plants other animals eat. Minerals are released out of the body through urine and by perspiration. Vitamins, Minerals, and Water, Water Water, which is a main component in blood, helps to transport gases, nutrients, and wastes throughout the body. Water also is a reagent in some of the body s chemical reactions. Water also helps regulate body temperature by absorbing and distributing the heat released in cellular reactions.

3 The Gastrointestinal Tract Digestive System in the Human Body The process of breaking down food into molecules the body can use is called digestion. Digestion occurs in the gastrointestinal tract, or digestive tract, which is a long tube which begins at the mouth and winds through the body to the anus. Organs next to the digestive tract also aid in the digestion of food through the secretions that they produce. The Mouth and Esophagus Digestion includes the mechanical and chemical breakdown of food into nutrients, the absorption of nutrients, and the elimination of waste. The Mouth and Esophagus, Mouth Mechanical digestion begins when the teeth cut and grind food. The tongue also aids in mechanical digestion by keeping the food between the chewing surfaces of the teeth. Digestion begins in the mouth with the first bite of food. The Mouth and Esophagus, Mouth, Saliva is produced by the salivary glands to begin chemical digestion of food. Saliva is a mixture of water, mucus, and a digestive enzyme called salivary amylase. Salivary amylase is the chemical in saliva that begins the chemical digestion of carbohydrates by breaking down certain starches into maltose. The Mouth and Esophagus, Esophagus The ball of food is then forced by swallowing action into the pharynx. The pharynx is an open area that begins at the back of the mout, and serves as a passageway for both air and food. The ball of food is then forced from the pharynx into the esophagus.

4 The Mouth and Esophagus, Esophagus, The esophagus has two muscle layers and by alternating contractions between these muscle layers, the ball of food can be pushed into the stomach. Stomach The stomach is an organ involved in both mechanical and chemical digestion. It is located in the upper left side of the abdominal cavity, just below the diaphragm. This series of alternating rhythmic muscular contractions and relaxation is called peristalsis. Stomach, Mechanical Digestion The stomach has three layers of smooth muscle a circular layer, a longitudinal layer, and a diagonal layer. These muscles churn the food within the stomach and help to carry out mechanical digestion. Stomach, Mechanical Digestion, The inner lining of the stomach is a mucous membrane that is composed of epithelial cells and openings called gastric pits. Gastric pits are the open ends of gastric glands that release secretions into the stomach. These secretions form the acidic digestive fluid that digests food in the stomach. Stomach, Chemical Digestion Gastric fluid carries out chemical digestion in the stomach. Gastric fluid is a liquid that is secreted by the gastric glands in the stomach. Hydrochloric acid within the gastric fluid helps dissolve food and minerals and keep bacteria at bay. Stomach, Chemical Digestion, Mucus secreted in the stomach forms a coating that protects the lining of the stomach from hydrochloric acid and other digestive enzymes. An ulcer will result if the mucous layer is absent from the stomach lining. An ulcer is a lesion of the surface of the skin or a mucous membrane of the stomach.

5 Stomach, Formation of Chyme After food enters the stomach, it closes by way of the cardiac sphincter. The cardiac sphincter is a circular muscle located between the esophagus and the stomach. While closed, the stomach churns to break up the food and mixes it with the gastric fluid. This process forms a mixture called chyme. Stomach, Formation of Chyme, Peristalsis forces the chyme into the small intestine from the stomach. The pyloric sphincter controls the amount of chyme that enters the small intestine from the stomach. Digestion in the stomach is also aided by other organs near the stomach. The Liver, Gallbladder, and Pancreas The other organs that help digestion are the liver, gallbladder, and pancreas. The Liver, Gallbladder, and Pancreas, Liver The liver performs numerous function in the body including storing glucose, making proteins, and breaking down toxic substances. The liver produces bile, which is vital to digesting fats. The Liver, Gallbladder, and Pancreas, Gallbladder After the liver produces bile it travels through a Y-shaped duct to the gallbladder. The gallbladder is a saclike organ that stores and concentrates bile. The gallbladder releases the bile through a common bile duct into the small intestine. The Liver, Gallbladder, and Pancreas, Pancreas The pancreas is an organ that lies behind the stomach. The pancreas serves two roles in its part in the digestive system. The first role it plays is to increase the ph of the stomach acid by producing sodium bicarbonate. The second role it plays is to secrete enzymes that help to further break down carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids.

6 Small Intestine The small intestine includes three sections the duodenum, the jejunum, and the ileum. The chyme from the stomach will further break down in the small intestine. Small Intestine, Absorption Absorption occurs mostly in the small intestine. Absorption occurs when the end products of digestion are transferred into the circulatory system through the blood and lymph vessels. Small Intestine, Absorption, The surface area of the small intestine is large due to the presence of many folds within the lining of the small intestine and the millions of villi that are also present. The surface area is further increased by the presence of microvilli. Microvilli are extensions of the cell membranes present on the villi. Small Intestine, Absorption, Nutrients are sent to the correct place by the lacteals. The lacteals are capillaries and tiny lymph vessels within the villi. The lacteals will take the nutrients to either the liver or the lymph vessels, and then the blood will take over delivery of the nutrients to the cells. Cross Section of the Small Intestine Large Intestine Once absorption is complete in the small intestine, peristalsis will move the remaining contents into the colon or large intestine. The colon has various sections, and all of these sections work together to finish the absorption of nutrients and water. The colon initiates contractions that move the material out of the body.

7 Large Intestine, As nutrients and water are absorbed from the matter in the colon, the matter solidifies into feces. Feces leave the body by passing through the rectum and the anal canal. Objectives Identify the major parts of the kidney. Relate the structure of a nephron to its function. Explain how the processes of filtration, reabsorption, and secretion help maintain homeostasis. Summarize the path in which urine is eliminated from the body. List the functions of each of the major excretory organs. Kidneys The kidneys closely monitor the removal of nitrogenous waste from the body. The kidneys are the main organs of the urinary system and also regulate the chemical composition of the blood. Kidneys, Structure The renal cortex is the outermost part of the kidney that filters blood brought by the renal artery. The renal medulla is the inner part of the kidney that carries urine to the renal pelvis. The renal pelvis is a structure at the center of the kidney that carries urine to the ureter. Kidneys, Human Kidney Structure Structure, The nitrogenous wastes are initially brought to the liver as ammonia, which cannot remain in the body for long without damaging cells. The liver converts ammonia to urea. Urea is the principle nitrogenous product of the metabolism of proteins. Urea is found in urine and other body fluids.

8 Nephrons Substances such as toxins, urea, salts, and water that are removed from the blood by the kidneys are collectively called urine. Urine is made within in the kidneys by nephrons. Nephrons are the functional units of the kidneys. Nephrons, At one end of the nephron is the Bowman s capsule. The Bowman s capsule is a cup-shaped capsule that surrounds a tight ball of capillaries. This ball of capillaries filters wastes from the blood, retains useful molecules, and produces urine. This ball of capillaries is called a glomerulus. The nephron and the capillaries of the circulatory system work closely together to remove wastes from the blood. Nephrons, Once the blood has been filtered, the material filtered out flows to the renal tubule. The renal tubule includes three parts: the proximal convoluted tubule, the loop of Henle, and the distal convoluted tubule. The blood still in the glomerulus travels through a bed of capillaries and to the renal vein. The three major processes that take place in the nephron are filtration, reabsorption, and secretion. Filtration Filtration is the process of separating dissolved substances, such as impurities in the blood, by passing them through a porous material. Filtration occurs between the glomerulus and the Bowman s capsule in the nephrons of a kidney. Filtration occurs because the blood in the glomerulus is under high pressure. Reabsorption and Secretion The process of reabsorption allows the body to retain many of the substances that were removed from the blood by filtration. Most reabsorption occurs in the proximal convoluted tubule, but some can occur in the distal convoluted tubule. In the distal convoluted tubule, some substances pass from the blood into the filtrate through a process called secretion. Reabsorption and Secretion, Formation of Urine The fluid and wastes that remain in the distal convoluted tubule form urine. The urine is further concentrated in the collecting duct by the osmosis of water through the wall of the duct. This process allows the body to conserve water.

9 Reabsorption and Secretion, The Loop of Henle Nephron Processes The loop of Henle is a long U-shaped part of a nephron that reabsorbs water and salts from the urine. The loop of Henle uses osmosis to further concentrate urine. The Excretory Organs The kidneys, lungs, and skin are all excretory organs. Excretory System in the Human Body The kidneys are the primary excretory organs and play a vital role in maintaining the homeostasis of body fluids. The lungs are the primary site of carbon dioxide excretion and carry out detoxification and excretion of volatile substances. The skin excretes nitrogen waste, water, andsome salts through perspiration.

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