Introduction to A&P (Chapter 1) Lecture Materials for Amy Warenda Czura, Ph.D. Suffolk County Community College. Eastern Campus

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1 Introduction to A&P (Chapter 1) Lecture Materials for Amy Warenda Czura, Ph.D. Suffolk County Community College Primary Sources for figures and content: Eastern Campus Marieb, E. N. Human Anatomy & Physiology 6th ed. San Francisco: Pearson Benjamin Cummings, Martini, F. H. Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology 6th ed. San Francisco: Pearson Benjamin Cummings, Anatomy & Physiology = study of characteristics Common Characteristics Of Living Things: 1. Organization: pattern that differs from environment, involves regulation of internal conditions within limits 2. Responsiveness: (irritability), responding to changes in environment. Adaptation = long term response 3. Growth and Differentiation Growth = increase in size/cell number Differentiation = specialization of cells to perform particular functions 4. Reproduction 5. Movement Internal transport substances in body External move around environment 6. Metabolism and Excretion Metabolism = all chemical processes in the body (building and breaking molecules) Form Follows Function the shape of a structure is related to its use Levels of Organization (on handout) Anatomy = study of internal and external structures of body and their relationships to each other: Form Gross Anatomy = macroscopic, see by eye Microscopic Anatomy = cell and molecule level, need microscope Cytology = study of cells Histology = study of tissues (groups of specialized cells that work together to perform functions) Physiology = study of how organism perform functions: ( Function ) Human Anatomy and Physiology = the study of the form and function of the human body The pattern of organization at the lower levels determines both the characteristics and functions at the higher levels Amy Warenda Czura, Ph.D. 1 SCCC BIO130 Chapter 1 Lecture Notes

2 Homeostasis = unchanging sameness, the maintenance of a relatively constant internal environment, essential to life Homeostatic Regulation (keeping within set limits) 1. Autoregulation (Intrinsic Regulation) activities of a cell/tissue/organ/system adjust automatically in response to environmental change. 2. Extrinsic Regulation results from activities of nervous or endocrine systems -Nervous system: directs rapid, short term, specific responses -Endocrine system: works through hormones, slow to act but long lasting effects Homeostatic Regulation Mechanism: 1. Receptor - sensor that detects stimulus (change) 2. Control/Integration Center - receives and processes info from receptor 3. Effector - cell/organ that responds to direction from control center to oppose or enhance the stimulus Negative Feedback -oscillations around a set point -effector activated by control center opposes stimulus -most common homeostatic regulation too much X =! X too little X = " X e.g. body temperature: too hot, sweat to cool too cold, shiver to heat Positive Feedback -effectors respond by exaggerating or enhancing the stimulus -typically used to deal with threat or stress e.g. blood clotting: clotting causes more clotting until wound is plugged birth: contractions promote more contractions until delivery Homeostasis use requires coordinated efforts of multiple organ systems: human body integrated to support life Normal runs a range, no absolute Amy Warenda Czura, Ph.D. 2 SCCC BIO130 Chapter 1 Lecture Notes

3 Anatomical Terms Anatomical position supine = face up prone = face down Body Regions: (on handout) -Cephalic = head -Cervical = neck -Thoracic = chest -Brachial = arm -Antebrachial = forearm -Carpal = wrist -Manual = hand -Abdominal = belly -Lumbar = lower back -Gluteal = butt -Pelvic = hips -Pubic = anterior pelvis -Inguinal = groin -Femoral = thigh -Crural = front of leg -Sural =calf -Tarsal = ankle -Pedal = top of foot -Plantar = sole of foot Abdominopelvic = trunk of body, contains most of the organs Clinicians divide it into 4 s: Anatomist recognize 9 abdominopelvic s: Right hypochondriac Right lumbar Right inguinal Epigastric Umbilical Hypogastric Amy Warenda Czura, Ph.D. 3 SCCC BIO130 Chapter 1 Lecture Notes

4 Directional Terms: -Anterior = front -Posterior = back (behind) -Ventral = belly -Dorsal = back (spine) -Cranial/Cephalic = head -Caudal = tail -Superior = above (hyper) -Inferior = below (hypo) -Medial = toward the center -Lateral = away from center, peripheral -Proximal = near the point of attachment -Distal = away from the point of attachment -Superficial = at the surface -Deep = farther from the surface Planes of Section 1. Transverse plane = -cross section -right angle to long axis -superior and inferior sections Transverse result 2. Frontal/Coronal plane -parallel to long axis -anterior and posterior sections result 3. Sagittal plane -parallel to long axis -right and left sections result Body Cavities Vital organs suspended in chambers called body cavities Functions: 1. Protect organs 2. Permit changes in size & shape of organs Two Major cavities: 1. Dorsal body cavity 2.Ventral body cavity Dorsal body cavity divided into: 1. Cranial cavity--brain 2. Spinal cavity--spinal cord Ventral Body Cavity: divided by diaphragm into: 1. Thoracic cavity- -heart and lungs 2. Abdominopelvic cavity- - guts (viscera) -Organs in ventral cavity are called viscera -Surrounded by serous membrane called serosa: -Visceral serosa surrounds organ -Parietal serosa lines cavity Amy Warenda Czura, Ph.D. 4 SCCC BIO130 Chapter 1 Lecture Notes

5 Thoracic cavity 1. Right and Left Pleural cavities -contain lungs -serosa = pleura: visceral pleura covers lung parietal pleura lines cavity 2. Pericardial cavity -contains heart -serosa = pericardium: visceral pericardium covers heart parietal pericardium lines cavity 3. Mediastinum -division between pleural cavities -contains: pericardial cavity (heart) esophagus, trachea, thymus Abdominopelvic cavity most also peritoneal cavity = anything contained in peritoneum (serosa of peritoneal cavity) if outside peritoneum = retroperitoneal 1. Abdominal cavity Peritoneal: -liver, -stomach, -spleen, -small intestine, -most of large intestine Retroperitoneal: -kidneys -pancreas 2. Pelvic cavity Retroperitoneal: -inferior large intestine, -inferior urinary bladder, -some reproductive organs Peritoneal: -superior urinary bladder, -ovaries, -uterus Amy Warenda Czura, Ph.D. 5 SCCC BIO130 Chapter 1 Lecture Notes

Introduction to A&P (Chapter 1) Lecture Materials for Amy Warenda Czura, Ph.D. Suffolk County Community College Eastern Campus

Introduction to A&P (Chapter 1) Lecture Materials for Amy Warenda Czura, Ph.D. Suffolk County Community College Eastern Campus Introduction to A&P (Chapter 1) Lecture Materials for Amy Warenda Czura, Ph.D. Suffolk County Community College Eastern Campus Primary Sources for figures and content: Marieb, E. N. Human Anatomy & Physiology

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