Hole s Human Anatomy and Physiology Eleventh Edition. Mrs. Hummer Hanover Area Jr./Sr. High School. Chapter 1 Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology

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1 Hole s Human Anatomy and Physiology Eleventh Edition Mrs. Hummer Hanover Area Jr./Sr. High School Chapter 1 Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology 1

2 Chapter 1 Introduction to Human Anatomy and Physiology Why do we study anatomy and physiology? 2

3 Anatomy and Physiology Anatomy study of structure (Greek a cutting up ) Physiology study of function (Greek relationship to nature ) Structure is always related to function 3

4 Levels of Organization Subatomic Particles electrons, protons, neutrons Atom tiny particles that form everything, hydrogen atom Molecule atoms bound together, water molecule Macromolecule small molecules combined, protein molecule, DNA molecule Organelle structures in cells, mitochondrion, Golgi apparatus, nucleus Cell basic unit of structure and function, muscle cell, nerve cell Tissue groups of cells, simple squamous epithelium, loose connective tissue Organ groups of tissues working together, skin, femur, heart, kidney Organ System groups of organs working together, skeletal system, digestive system 4 Organism interacting organ systems, human

5 Levels of Organization 5

6 Clinical Application Medical Imaging Noninvasive procedures Provide images of soft internal structures Ultrasonography Use of high-frequency sound waves Relatively quick and inexpensive Magnetic Resonance Imaging Requires injection of dye Produces computerized images from different angles Uses a magnet and a specialized radio antenna 6

7 Characteristics of Life Movement change in position; motion Responsiveness reaction to a change Growth increase in body size; no change in shape Reproduction production of new organisms and new cells Respiration obtaining oxygen; removing carbon dioxide; releasing energy from foods 7

8 Characteristics of Life Digestion breakdown of food substances into simpler forms Absorption passage of substances through membranes and into body fluids Circulation movement of substances in body fluids Assimilation changing of absorbed substances into chemically different forms Excretion removal of wastes produced by metabolic reactions 8

9 Requirements of Organisms Metabolism- the physical and chemical events that obtain, release and utilize energy Life depends on five environmental factors water food oxygen heat pressure 9

10 Requirements of Organisms Water - most abundant substance in body - required for metabolic processes - required for transport of substances - regulates body temperature Food - provides necessary nutrients - supplies energy - supplies raw materials 10

11 Requirements of Organisms Oxygen (Gas) - one-fifth of air - used to release energy from nutrients Heat - form of energy - partly controls rate of metabolic reactions Pressure - application of force on an object - atmospheric pressure important for breathing - hydrostatic pressure keeps blood flowing 11

12 Homeostasis Body s maintenance of a stable internal environment Homeostatic Mechanisms monitor aspects of the internal environment and corrects any changes Receptors - provide information about stimuli Control center - tells what a particular value should be (includes a set point) Effectors - elicit responses that change conditions in the 12 internal environment (muscles, glands)

13 Homeostatic Mechanisms 13

14 Homeostatic Mechanisms 14

15 Notebook #1 Understanding Words pg.1 1. Why did the study of the human body begin with attempts to understand illness and injury rather than attempts to understand the human body? 2. List the changes in the disease spectrum that came with the change in life style from hunter gatherer to agriculture. 3. Describe the ways in which the rise in science paralleled human pre-history and history. 4. Dissection of the human body became an important activity in the study of the human body in the century. 15

16 16

17 Organ Systems 17

18 18

19 Organ Systems 19

20 20

21 Organ Systems 21

22 22

23 Organ Systems 23

24 24

25 Organ Systems 25

26 26

27 Organ Systems 27

28 Anatomical Terminology Anatomical Position standing erect, facing forward, upper limbs at the sides, palms facing forward Terms of Relative Position Superior versus Inferior -above/below Anterior versus Posterior -front/back Medial versus Lateral -midline/side Proximal versus Distal -close to trunk/farther from trunk Superficial versus Deep -surface/internal 28

29 Body Sections Sagittal- divides right and left portions Transverse or Horizontal- divides above and below portions Coronal or Frontal- front and back portions Cross section, Oblique, Longitudinal 29

30 Body Sections 30

31 Body Sections sagittal transverse coronal 31

32 Body Sections cross oblique longitudinal 32

33 Notebook #2 Critical Thinking Questions #1,4,5,6,7 Review Exercises Part A #1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,15,17 Part B #1 33

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