THE LANGUAGE OF ANATOMY

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1 THE LANGUAGE OF ANATOMY Know all the terms identified in these sections of this exercise: Correct anatomical position: When the body is erect, with feet only slightly apart, head and toes pointing forward, and the arms hanging at the sides (with palms facing forward). Anterior and posterior body landmarks. Body orientation and direction. Body planes and sections. Body cavities. Quadrants. Body regions. Serous membranes. Anterior Landmarks Definition Anterior Landmarks Definition Abdominal Hallux Antebrachial Inguinal Antecubital Mammary Axillary Mental Brachial Nasal Buccal Oral Carpal Orbital Cervical Palmar Coxal Patellar Crural Pedal Digital Pelvic Femoral Peroneal (fibular) Frontal Pollex 1

2 Pubic Sternal Tarsal Thoracic Umbilical Posterior Landmarks Definition Body Planes/Sections Definition Acromial Calcaneal Cephalic Dorsum Gluteal Sagittal plane Midsagittal (median) Parasagittal Frontal (coronal) Transverse Lumbar Manus Occipital Olecranal Otic Perineal Plantar Popliteal Sacrum Scapular Sural Regions Right hypochondriac Right lumbar Right iliac (inguinal) Left hypochondriac Left lumbar Left iliac (inguinal) Epigastric Umbilical Hypogastric Vertebral 2

3 Quadrants Upper left (ULQ) Lower left (LLQ) Upper right (URQ) Lower right (LRQ) Serous Membranes Parietal Visceral Peritoneum Pericardium Pleura Body Orientation Definition Body Cavities Definition Superior Inferior Anterior Posterior Medial Lateral Cephalad (Cranial) Caudad (Caudal) Dorsal Cranial Vertebral (spinal) Ventral Thoracic Abdominopelvic Abdominal Pelvic Dorsal Ventral Proximal Distal Superficial Deep 3

4 THE MICROSCOPE Know how to properly carry and store a microscope. Be able to define these terms: Simple Microscope Compound Microscope Monocular Binocular Dissecting Microscope Resolution Know and be able to identify the parts of a compound microscope and their functions: Ocular Objective lenses (low, medium, high dry, and high oil) Ocular lens (with pointer) Stage with mechanical stage Body Tube Base with light switch Head Condenser (with iris diaphragm) Arm Light adjustment base (light switch) Coarse and fine adjustment knobs Light adjustment condenser adjustment knobs Nosepiece Light adjustment disc adjustment (on base) Be able to compute magnification. View a slide of letter e first with your eye, then with all three dry lenses. Learn to use the immersion oil lens. Learn to make a temporary (wet mount) slide. Practice making temporary slides by preparing a slide of your own cheek cells. 4

5 CLASSIFICATION OF TISSUES Know these definitions: cells, tissues, organs, and histology. Know that humans have four basic types of tissues and know their names and characteristics: Epithelial Connective (CT) Muscle Nerve A. EPITHELIAL TISSUE: Be able to identify the classification and characteristics of epithelia. Define basement membrane. Compare simple, stratified and pseudostratified epithelium. Know the basic epithelial cell shapes: cuboidal, squamous, columnar, and transitional. Define and compare endocrine and exocrine glands. Know these epithelial slides and be able to recognize the cell type by viewing them through a microscope: Simple squamous epithelium Simple cuboidal epithelium Simple columnar epithelium Pseudostratified columnar epithelium Stratified squamous epithelium Transitional epithelium B. CONNECTIVE TISSUE: Know the definition and functions of connective (CT) tissue. Know the basic characteristics parts of any CT: cells, fibers, and matrix. 5

6 Cells include fibroblasts, fibrocytes, osteoblasts, osteocytes, osteoclasts, chondroblasts, chondrocytes, adipose, and blood cells (RBC s, WBC s, and platelets). Fibers include reticular, collagen and elastic. Matrix, which is composed of ground substance and fibers of various types. Know that the CT s are classified (distinguished from one another) based upon their type and quantity of cells, fibers, and matrix. Know these CT slides and their main features. Be able to recognize them by viewing them with a compound microscope. AREOLAR (LOOSE) HYALINE CARTILAGE ADIPOSE (LOOSE) ELASTIC CARTILAGE BLOOD BONE C. MUSCLE TISSUE: Know the definition and functions of the three types of muscle tissue: skeletal (striated), cardiac, and smooth (visceral). Know which muscle tissues are voluntary and which are involuntary. Be able to define the terms striated, visceral, cardiac, and intercalated disc(s). Be able to recognize each type of muscle tissue by viewing them with a compound microscope. D. NERVE TISSUE: Know the definition and functions of nerve tissue. Know the two cell types associated with nerve tissue: neuroglia and neuron. Know the basic structures associated with neurons: cell body, nucleus, dendrites, and axon. Be able to recognize a neuron and its processes (axon(s) and dendrites) when viewing with a compound microscope. 6

7 HISTOLOGY SLIDES FOR ANATOMY + PHYSIOLOGY I (BSC-1085L) Always check the microslides label. Very often several different types of slides are stored on a single tray. Make certain you have selected the correct slide! EPITHELIUM ( Covers and lines ) Simple Squamous Tray B-11 Look for the thin, tapered cells that comprise the walls of the air sacs (alveoli) in the lungs. Simple Cuboidal Tray A-24 The rounded cells in the walls of the kidney tubules are cuboidal cells. The cells are as tall as they are wide. They have a characteristic string of beads appearance. Simple Columnar Tray B-15 Simple columnar cells are taller than they are wide, and each has a distinct oval nucleus. Refer to the small intestine slides. Stratified Squamous Tray A-12 Look for flattened layers of tapered cells at the upper edge of the tissue sample. Pseudostratified Ciliated Columnar Tray A-23 View the cells at the upper edge of the tissue section. The trachea slide contains a good example of pseudostratified ciliated columnar. Transitional Tray A-19 Look along the top edge of the tissue sample. These cells are in layers. Some cells are plump and others are more tapered. CONNECTIVE TISSUE ( Binds, supports and protects ) Blood Tray A-1 The numerous pink-staining cells are red blood cells (erythrocytes; RBC s). The less numerous, larger cells with distinctive nuclei are white blood cells (leucocytes; WBC s). Platelets are visible as small specks in the background. Areolar Tissue Tray A-7 A mixed bag of cells, fibers and matrix. Looks like the tissue equivalent of minestrone soup! Adipose Tissue Tray A-10 These cells exhibit a signet ring shape because their cytoplasm, organelles and nucleus are pushed to the edge of the cell to create a large storage area in the center of the cell. Bone Tray A-4 Each group of concentric rings is referred to as an osteon. Each ring (lamella; pl = lamellae) within an osteon houses small spaces (lacuna) in which bone cells (osteocytes) are located. Tiny canals (canaliculi) connect the sections of the ring system together and associate them with the central canal, which provides space for blood vessel and nerve access to maintain the osteons. Hyaline Cartilage Tray A-23 A field of matrix with visible scattered cells (chondrocytes) situated within their individual lacuna. Elastic Cartilage Tray A-2 This type of cartilage is also a field of matrix with scattered cells (chondrocytes) that are located within individual lacuna. The presence of numerous elastic fibers within the matrix distinguishes this form of cartilage from hyaline cartilage. 7

8 MUSCLE TISSUE ( Facilitates movement ) Skeletal muscle Tray A-14 A/k/a striated muscle due to its ladder-like appearance. The cells of striated muscle are long and are therefore called fibers. Each fiber (cell) has many nuclei (multinucleate). Cardiac muscle Tray A-13 and A-14 This tissue is also striated, but the ladder-like cells are grouped in bunches by their supporting connective tissue (CT), giving the tissue a ropy appearance. In addition to striations, this type of muscle tissue also contains intercalated discs. Discs are actually groups of gap junctions and desmosomes, which assist with energy conduction. Smooth muscle Tray A-14 These short cells are tapered and non-striated. Each cell has a single nucleus. NERVE TISSUE ( Conducts energy ) Neurons Tray A-18 These cells conduct energy to assist with maintenance of homeostasis. Their dendrites (many and short) are visible extensions of their cell body and act as receivers of incoming energy. One or two axons emerge from their cell body (few and long) and transmit the energy to a target structure, such as another neuron. Neuroglial cells Tray A-18 Glial cells are those that in some way support the neurons. Some glial cells provide nourishment, others protection. They are visible on this motor neuron slide as only a pink background blur with scattered dark-staining nuclei. 8

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