North Bergen School District Benchmarks

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1 Grade: 10,11, and 12 Subject: Anatomy and Physiology First Marking Period Define anatomy and physiology, and describe various subspecialties of each discipline. Describe the five basic functions of living systems. (HSLS1 3) Identify the levels of organization in living systems. (HSLS1 2) Identify the 11 organ systems of the human body, the organs that compose them, and their main functions. (HSLS1 2) Explain the significance of homeostasis. (HSLS1 3) Describe negative feedback as the basis of homeostatic regulation. (HSLS1 3) Introduce the anatomical terms that describe body sections, body regions, and relative positions. (CCCS.ELA.LITERACY.RST ; ) Identify the main body cavity and its subdivisions. (HSLS1 2) Describe an atom and an element. (HSPS1 3) Compare the ways in which atoms combine to form molecules and compounds. (HSPS1 2) Use chemical notation to symbolize chemical reactions. (HSPS1 2) Distinguish among the three major types of chemical reactions that are important for studying physiology. (HSPS1 2) Describe the important role of enzymes in metabolism. (HSLS1 3) Distinguish between organic and inorganic compounds. Explain how the chemical properties of water make life possible. (HSPS1 3) Describe the ph scale and the role of buffers in body fluids. (HSLS1 3) Describe the physiological roles of inorganic compounds. (HSLA1 3) Discuss the structure and functions of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids, and high energy compounds. (HSPS1 6) List the main points of the cell theory. (HSLS1 2) (CCCS.ELA.LITERACY.RST ; ) Describe the functions of the cell membrane and the structures that enable it to perform those functions. (HSLS1 3) Describe the various mechanisms that cells use to transport substances across the cell membrane. (HSLS1 3) Describe the organelles of a typical cell and indicate their specific functions. (HSLS1 2)

2 Second Marking Period Explain the functions of the cell nucleus. (HSLS1 3) Summarize the process of protein synthesis. (HSLS1 1) Describe the process of mitosis and explain its significance. (HSLS1 4) Define differentiation and explain its importance. (HSLS2 2) Identify the body s four major tissue types and describe their roles. (HSLS1 2) Discuss the types and functions of epithelial cells. (HSLS1 2) Describe the relationship between form and function for each epithelial type. Compare the structures and functions of the various types of connective tissues. (HSLS1 2) Explain how epithelial and connective tissues combine to form four types of membranes and specify the functions of each. Describe the three types of muscle tissue and the special structural features of each. (HSLS1 2) Discuss the basic structure and role of neural tissue. Explain how tissues respond in a coordinated manner to maintain homeostasis. (HSLS1 3) (HSLS1 2) Describe how aging affects the tissues of the body. Describe the functions of the skeletal system. (HSLS1 2) Compare the structures and functions of compact and spongy bone. Discuss bone growth and development, and account for variations in the internal structure of specific bones. (HSLS1 2) Describe the remodeling and repair of the skeleton, and discuss homeostatic mechanisms responsible for regulating mineral deposition and turnover. Name the components and functions of the axial and appendicular skeletons. Identify the bones of the skull. (HSLS1 2) Discuss the differences in structure and function of the various vertebrae. (HSLS4 1) Relate the structural differences between the pectoral and pelvic girdles to their various functional roles. Distinguish among different types of joints, and link structural features to joint functions. (HSLS4 1) Describe the dynamic movements of the skeleton and the structure of representative articulations. Explain the relationship between joint structure and mobility, using specific examples. (HSLS4 1) Discuss the functional relationships between the skeletal system and other body systems. (CCCS.ELA.LITERACY.RST )

3 Third Marking Period Describe the functions of skeletal muscle tissue. (HSLS1 2) Describe the organization of muscle at the tissue level. Identify the structural components of a sarcomere. Explain the key steps involved in the contraction of a skeletal muscle fiber. (HSLS2 3) Compare the different types of muscle contractions. (HSLS2 3) Describe the mechanisms by which muscles obtain and use energy to power contractions. (HSLS1 7) Relate the types of muscle fibers to muscular performance. Distinguish between aerobic and anaerobic endurance, and explain their implications for muscular performance. (HSLS2 3) Contrast skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscles in terms of structure and function. (HSLS4 1) Identify the main axial muscles of the body, along with their actions. Identify the main appendicular muscles of the body, along with their actions. Describe the effects of aging on muscle tissue. (HSLS4 1) Discuss the functional relationships between the muscular system and other body systems. (HSLS1 3) Describe the two anatomical divisions of the nervous system and their general functions. Distinguish between neurons and neuroglia on the basis of their structure and function. (HSPS2 6) Discuss the events that generate action potentials in the membranes of nerve cells. Explain the mechanism of nerve impulse transmission at the synapse. Describe the three meningeal layers that surround the central nervous system. Discuss the structure and functions of the spinal cord. Name the major regions of the brain and describe their functions. (HSLS1 2) Locate the motor, sensory, and association areas of the cerebral cortex and discuss their functions. Identify the cranial nerves, and relate each pair of cranial nerves to its principal functions. (HSLS1 2) Relate the distribution pattern of spinal nerves to the regions they innervate. Describe the components of a reflex arc. Identify the principal sensory and motor pathways. (HSLS1 2) Compare and contrast the functions and structures of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions.

4 Summarize the effects of aging on the nervous system. (HSLS1 2) Discuss the interrelationships between the nervous system and other organ systems. Distinguish between the general senses and the special senses. Identify the receptors for the general senses, and describe how they function. Describe the receptors and processes involved in the sense of smell. Describe the receptors and processes involved in the sense of taste. Identify the parts of the eye and their functions. Explain how we are able to see objects and distinguish colors. (HSPS4 4) Discuss how the central nervous system processes information related to vision. Discuss the receptors and processes involved in the sense of equilibrium. Describe the parts of the ear and their roles in the process of hearing. Describe the effects of aging on smell, taste, vision, and hearing.

5 Fourth Marking Period Describe the location and general features of the heart. (HSLS1 2) Identify the layers of the heart wall. Trace the flow of blood through the heart, identifying the major blood vessels, chambers, and heart valves. (HSLS1 3) Describe the differences in the action potentials and twitch contractions of skeletal muscle fibers and cardiac muscle cells. (HSPS1 2) Describe the components and functions of the conducting system of the heart. (HSLS4 1) Explain the events of the cardiac cycle and relate the heart sounds to specific events in this cycle. Define stroke volume and cardiac output, and describe the factors that influence these values. Describe the primary functions of the respiratory system. (HSLS1 6) Explain how the delicate respiratory exchange surfaces are protected from pathogens, debris, and other hazards. (HSLS1 6) Relate respiratory functions to the structural specializations of the tissues and organs in the respiratory system. (HSLS1 6) Describe the physical principles governing the movement of air into the lungs and the diffusion of gases into and out of the blood. (HSLS1 6) Describe the actions of respiratory muscles on respiratory movements. (HSLS1 2) Describe how oxygen and carbon dioxide are transported in the blood. (CCCS.ELA.LITERACY.RST ; ) Describe the major factors that influence the rate of respiration. Identify the reflexes that regulate respiration. (HSLS4 5) Describe the changes that occur in the respiratory system at birth and with aging. (HSLS1 3) Discuss the interrelationships between the respiratory system and other systems. (HSLS1 2) Identify the organs of the digestive tract and the accessory organs of digestion. List the functions of the digestive system. (HSLS1 3) Describe the histology of each digestive tract segment in relation to its function. (HSLS1 7) Explain how ingested materials are propelled through the digestive tract. (HSLS1 2)(HSLS1 3) Describe how food is processed in the mouth and describe the key events of the swallowing process.

6 Describe the anatomy of the stomach, its histological features, and its roles in digestion and absorption. (HSLS1 7) Explain the functions of the intestinal secretions and discuss the significance of digestion in the small intestine. (HSLS1 7) Describe the structure and functions of the pancreas, liver, and gall bladder, and explain how their activities are regulated. (HSLS1 2) (HSLS1 3) Describe the structure of the large intestine, its movements, and its absorptive functions. (HSLS1 2) (HSLS1 3) Describe the digestion and absorption of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins. (HSLS1 7) Describe the changes in the digestive system that occur with aging. Discuss the interactions between the digestive system and other organ systems. (HSLS1 3) Laboratory experiments are completed generally once a week for the school year. Each Lab generally contains a written report/mathematical graph. The English language standards that are touched upon are (CCCS.ELA.LITERACY.RST ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; )

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