Body cavities. Body Planes

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1 Body cavities Body Planes

2 Directional terms

3 abdomen abdominal front of elbow antecubital arm brachial groin inguinal armpit axillary head cephalic back dorsal hip coxal back of head occipital cheek buccal back of knee popliteal chest pectoral between hips sacral chin mental breast mammary instep tarsal breastbone sternal leg crural buttocks gluteal lower back lumbar ear otic navel umbilical elbow cubital neck cervical finger digital reproductive organs genital foot pedal sole plantar forearm antebrachial spinal column vertebral forehead frontal thigh femoral wrist carpal

4 INSPECTION WITH METHODS PALPATION DESCRIPTION MEASUREMENTS BEATS AUSCULTATION SYSTOLIC BREATHS PERCUSSION REVIEW DIASTOLIC MERCURY Key: Choosing a specialty Jill Mathews studied at the faculty of medicine and she has just graduated from medical school and is talking about her future: I haven t decided what to specialize in yet. I need more experience before I decide, but I m quite attracted to the idea of paediatrics because I like working with children. I d certainly prefer to work with children than, say, elderly patients so I don t fancy geriatrics. I was never very interested in detailed anatomy, so the surgical specialties like neurosurgery don t really appeal. You have to be good with your hands, which I don t think is a problem for me I ve assisted at operations several times, and I ve even done some minor ops by myself but surgeons have to be able to do the same thing again and again without getting bored, like tying off cut arteries and so on. I don t think that would be a problem for me, but they need to make decisions fast and I m not too good at that. I like to have time to think, which means surgery s probably not right for me. I considered becoming a general practitioner but to get your own consulting room (doctor s office) is so difficult nowadays. 2. Complete the sentences: The ventral (abdominal and pelvic) cavity contains the digestive, excretory, and reproductive organs. The dorsal/vertebral cavity contains the spinal cord. The ventral/thoracic cavity contains the heart, lungs, and associated structures. The dorsal/cranial cavity contains the brain. 3. Complete the sentences: The median/midsagittal plane divides the body into a right and left half. The transverse/horizontal/cross-section plane divides the body/organs into upper and lower portions. The sagittal/parasagittal plane divides the body into an unequal right and left side. The frontal/coronar plane divides the body into an anterior and posterior portion. 3. Match the corresponding terms and their directions. 1-L, 2-H, 3-D, 4-G, 5- F, 6-J, 7-I, 8-C, 9-E, 10-B, 11-K, 12-A 5. see table above

5 DIAGNOSIS Medical diagnosis, the determination of the nature and cause of an illness, begins (with) a patient history. This includes a history of the present illness with a (description) of symptoms, a past medical history, and a family and a social history. A physical examination, which includes a (review) of all systems and observation of any signs of illness, follows the history taking. Practitioners use the following (techniques, methods) in performing physicals: (Inspection): visual examination. (Palpation): touching the surface of the body with the hands or fingers. (Percussion): tapping the body and listening to the sounds produced. (Auscultation): listening to body sounds with a stethoscope. Vital signs (VS) are also recorded for comparison with normal ranges. Vital signs are (measurements) that reflect basic functions necessary to maintain life and include: Temperature (T). Pulse rate, measured in (beats) per minute (bpm). Respiration rate (R), measured in (breaths) per minute. Blood pressure (BP), measured in millimeters (mercury) (mm Hg) and recorded when the heart is contracting ( (systolic) pressure) and relaxing ( (diastolic) pressure).

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