Integumentary System Digestive System. Outline. Integumentary System 11/4/2008. Week 11 BA & BP November 4, 2008 Nadia Arora, ND

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1 Integumentary System Digestive System Week 11 BA & BP November 4, 2008 Nadia Arora, ND Outline Integumentary system and body membranes Types of body membranes and their function General structure and main functions of skin and its accessory system Role of skin as sensory and temperature-regulating organ Digestive system and processes of digestion Anatomy of digestive system organs of alimentary canal Accessory digestive organs Functions of the digestive system and activities of the organs of alimentary canal PMTI BA/BP Fall Integumentary System Integumentary system: skin and associated organs Skin: the largest (8-10% body weight), most versatile organ Vital in maintaining homeostasis PMTI BA/BP Fall

2 Functions of Skin Waterproof and puncture-resistant protective covering for underlying structures Guards against foreign invaders and excess fluid loss An excretory organ Reservoir of food and water Site of vitamin D synthesis PMTI BA/BP Fall Functions of Skin Stimulates maturation of certain T-lymphocytes Facilitates two-way passage of gases Sensory organ (has 640,000 sensory receptors, including pain, temperature, heat and cold receptors) Adaptable to demands placed upon (changes thickness in soles and palms) Can reproduce and regenerate remarkably: 850 new skins in 70 yr lifetime PMTI BA/BP Fall Role of skin in temperature regulation Methods of heat loss: Vasodilation-vessels in dermis expand Increased sweat activity, perspiration to cool the body Methods of heat retention: Vasoconstriction- narrowing of superficial blood vessels Decreased activity of sweat glands Involuntary muscle contraction to generate heat PMTI BA/BP Fall

3 Structure of Skin Structure of Skin Epidermis: Avascular- obtains nutrients by diffusion form the underlying tissues Quick cell turnover Rapid regeneration- 27 days Keratinization of the upper layer Melanin inclusions in upper cells skin color and light absorption PMTI BA/BP Fall Structure of Skin Dermis Has abundance of blood vessels for nutrients and temperature control Numerous fibroblasts provide smooth healing mechanism. Toughness and elasticity provided by collagen and elastin fibers Houses sensory receptors for pain, temperature etc. PMTI BA/BP Fall

4 Structure of Skin Subcutaneous layer Consists mostly of loose connective tissue Has fat cells Functions as insulating layer No sharp boundaries with dermis Houses blood vessels and lymphatics PMTI BA/BP Fall Skin Accessory System Skin Accessory System Sebaceous glands: secrete protective lubricating fluid, sebum. Sweat glands: function as excretory and temperature-regulating organs Hair and hair follicles: protective and insulating function Nails: protective for distal digits, help reinforce grasping action PMTI BA/BP Fall

5 Skin as Sensory Organ Houses receptors for pain, touch, temperature Importance of touch: touch defines sense of reality; direct correlation between touch and disposition Internal state of mind and of physical health directly affect the skin: paling, flushing, cold shivers, sweating Dark circles under eyes with chronic anxiety and exhaustion Acute emotional distress can lead to rashes, pimples Neurotic disposition can render skin either numb or extremely sensitive. Digestive System Digestive System Organs of alimentary canal: mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine Accessory digestive organs: teeth, tongue, large digestive glands (pancreas, liver) PMTI BA/BP Fall

6 Organs of Alimentary Canal Mouth: food enters, is mixed with saliva and digestive enzymes, masticated Pharynx: food is propelled into esophagus Esophagus: food moving to the stomach; has epithelial and muscular layer Stomach Small intestine Large intestine Autonomic nerve plexuses- submucosal and mesentericregulate motility and secretory activity PMTI BA/BP Fall Organs of Alimentary Canal Stomach C-shaped muscular organ Has curvatures- greater and lesser Sphincters esphageal and pyloric Rugae- folds of mucosa, increase surface area Glands secrete HCL and local hormones PMTI BA/BP Fall Stomach 6

7 Small Intestine Chief organ of absorption 8-20 feet long Suspended from the mesentery Parts: duodenum, jejunum, ileum Duodenum receives pancreatic enzymes and bile (F 14.6, P.476) Microvilli to increase absorption area Ileocecal valve between small and large intestine PMTI BA/BP Fall Small Intestine Large Intestine Consists of cecum, appendix, colon, rectum and anal canal Approximately 5 feet long Functions: water absorption, vitamin K production, magnesium absorption; elimination of waste Suspended from the mesentary Parts: ascending, transverse, descending, sigmoid, anal canal, anal sphincters Goblet cells to produce mucus and HCO3 PMTI BA/BP Fall

8 Large Intestine Accessory Digestive Organs Teeth: mastication Salivary glands: produce enzyme-rich saliva, contains amylase Pancreas: produces digestive enzymes: amylase, lipase, protease Liver: largest gland in the body, site of many metabolic processes, makes bile for fat emulsification Gallbladder: site of bile storage PMTI BA/BP Fall GI Processes Ingestion Propulsion depends on peristalsis Food breakdown mechanical digestion Food breakdown chemical digestion Absorption Assimilation Defecation Class discussion using F p. 484 PMTI BA/BP Fall

9 Effects of massage on Digestive System Class discussion and homework: Effects of Massage Therapy on Digestive System and process of Digestion PMTI BA/BP Fall

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