By Casey Schmidt and Wendy Ford

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1 By Casey Schmidt and Wendy Ford

2 Body systems Digestive System Circulatory System Respiratory System Excretory System Immune System Reproductive System Nervous System Muscular System Skeletal System Endocrine System

3 Immune System The body s defense against disease-causing organisms. It recognizes and destroys invaders without harming the body s tissues. Back to Systems

4 Endocrine System Made of glands that produce chemical messengers called hormones. Hormones help to regulate certain body activities Back to Systems

5 Reproductive System Produces, stores, and releases specialized cells known as sex cells Back to Systems

6 Nervous System Receives and sends out information about activities within the body. It also monitors and responds to changes in the environment. Back to Systems

7 Muscular System Provides movement for the body. There are three types of muscle tissue: skeletal, smooth, and cardiac Back to Systems

8 Skeletal System Provides shape and support, allows movement, protects tissues and organs, stores certain materials and produces blood cells. Back to Systems

9 How does oxygen enter the body and get to the lungs? Back to Systems

10 How does the oxygen get to the lungs? There are two ways for the oxygen to get from outside the body to the lungs: One way is by breathing in oxygen through your nose, which is the Nasal Cavity. The other way is through the mouth. Then, the oxygen enters the Pharynx, which then connects to two tubes. The back tube is where the food and water move to go to the stomach (esophagus), but the front tube is the Trachea, where air travels towards the lungs. The epiglottis is a flap that stops the food from traveling down the trachea to the lungs. Where does the oxygen go after the lungs?

11 Where do the lungs send the oxygen? The lungs contain alveoli. The oxygen is sent to the alveoli. Then, they send it to the blood and the blood sends it to the cells. The cells send carbon dioxide back to the blood and back to the lungs. Next, the carbon dioxide is finally exhaled. To Cell What happens to the air not used by the body?

12 What happens to the Carbon Dioxide produce by the cell? The cell gives of Carbon dioxide as waste. The Carbon Dioxide enriched the blood enters the alveoli. Then, it is exhaled out of the body. When we exhale air, our rib muscles relax, moving our ribs down and in. The diaphragm helps pull oxygen into the lungs when it moves downward. It pushes oxygen out of the lungs when it pushes upward. Back to systems

13 How is the food broken down? Why is the food broken down? Back to Systems

14 How is food broken into small pieces by the mouth? First, the teeth cuts, grinds, and tears the food into small pieces. Next, the food is coated with saliva, which is made in the salivary glands beneath the tongue and in the throat. This makes the food slippery and easier to digest. The job the saliva is to breakdown the carbohydrates. The tongue pushes the food back into the throat. At the same time a small flap called the epiglottis prevents food from going down the windpipe to the lungs. It is then send down the esophagus to the stomach

15 How does the stomach break the food into smaller pieces? The Stomach is a J shaped organ holding up to two liters of food. The food is then covered in mucus and gastric juice which breaks down the food. The muscular walls of the stomach contract to break down the food and mix the gastric juices The liver and pancreas produce enzymes that break the food down. These enzymes are sent to the small intestine. Where do the small particles of food go next?

16 What happens to food that was broken into very small pieces? The food that was broken into very small pieces in the stomach enters the small intestine. The intestinal and pancreatic juices and bile from liver break down food even more in the small intestine. After the food is broken down it is absorbed into the blood by small structures called villi, which line the sides of the small intestine, soak up the food to take them into the blood. The blood then takes it to the cells. To cell What happens to the larger particles of food?

17 What happens to the particles of food that were not broken down into small pieces? Large Intestine Undigested food not absorbed by the blood moves into the large intestine. It s a tube about about 1.5 meters long and 6 centimeters wide. The food not used contains water, fiber, bile, and other substances. Most of the water is absorbed by the blood. The fiber helps the remaining waste go into the rectum, the final part of the large intestine. The feces is in the rectum until it leaves the body through the anus. The rectum serves basically as a warehouse for feces. Rectum Anus Back to body systems

18 Why is blood in the body? Blood is the fluid used by the circulatory system to carry materials to every part of your body. It carries oxygen and nutrients to the cells and it removes waste from the cells. The path blood takes around your body is like a circle that goes around and around. When you are sitting it takes one minute for your blood to make a complete circle. Back to Systems

19 What does blood carry around the body? Blood carries oxygen from your lungs to your body s cells and then takes the waste (carbon dioxide) back to the lungs Blood carries food from the small intestine to the cells. The waste is carries from the cell to the kidney where it is send to the bladder and removed from body. There are 60,000 blood vessels in the adult s body. Arteries are blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart. Veins are blood vessels that carry blood back to the heart. Capillaries are the smallest blood vessels. Oxygen and food is delivered to cells through the walls of the capillaries. Waste is send through the walls of the capillaries and then sent to the veins to be removed from the body. How does the heart help move particles around the body?

20 How does the heart work? The heart pumps the blood. It is about the size of a fist. The right and left side of the heart are two pumps working together. Each side of the heart is divided into two chambers, called atriums on the top and ventricles on the bottom The blood with oxygen return to the left side of the heart. The left side pumps the blood to the body. The right side receives blood carrying waste from your body and sends it to the lungs. In the lungs, it picks up oxygen and drops off wastes. Check out the video! How does oxygen and food get into the blood?

21 How does oxygen get into the blood? Oxygen travels into the smallest air sacs of the lungs, called alveoli. Capillaries around these air sacs allow blood to exchange oxygen for unwanted carbon dioxide. The oxygen-rich blood then returns to the heart to be pumped to the rest of the body. The carbon dioxide in the lungs is passed out of the body through the mouth and nose when we exhale. How does food get into the blood?

22 How does food get into the blood? Once almost fully digested the food moves through the intestines, while the waste moves on to be excreted, the nutrients and such which are a great use to the blood cells are absorbed through the walls of the intestines. Thus into our bloodstream. Back to body systems

23 How are the lungs and the small intestine involved with the circulatory system? The lungs and small intestine are both involved and very important to the circulatory system. The lungs are important because blood that goes through the lungs take oxygen body. The oxygen is than sent to all the cells. The small intestine is similar but instead of oxygen, the blood picks up nutrients from digested food and carries it to all the cells in the body. Lungs Small intestine To Cell Back to body systems

24 How is waste removed from the body? Back to Systems

25 What waste is removed from the body? What part of the body produces the waste? In skin sweat glands allow water and other waste to pass in from the blood vessels. The liquid will leave your skin through holes. You release a liter of water per day through sweat. That amount increases when you are in hot weather or exercising. How else does the waste get removed from the body?

26 What waste is removed from the body? What part of the body produces the waste? The large intestine releases feces or solid waste. Food that is not broken down is sent out large intestines. How else does the waste get removed from the body?

27 What waste is removed from the body? What part of the body produces the waste? The lungs are part of both the respiratory system and the excretory system. You breath in oxygen to the lungs and it is sent to the cell. The cell uses oxygen to make energy. The cells uses oxygen and create a waste product which is carbon dioxide and water. This is sent to the lungs and then exhale. How else does the waste get removed from the body?

28 What waste is removed from the body? What part of the body produces the waste? The kidneys remove harmful substances and water from the blood. This wasted called urine is carried to the bladder then bladder will you pee it out through the urethra. Video of Excretory system Waste from cells Back to body systems

29 The Cell View different body cells How waste is removed from cell How food and oxygen works within the cell

30 Food enters the cell membrane by active or passive transport. Cell Membrane NEXT

31 Endoplasmic Reticulum Materials such as food, water, and waste move around the cell in these tunnels. The food is sent to the vacuoles. NEXT

32 Lysosomes contain enzymes that break down large food molecules into smaller ones. The smaller food molecules are then passed on to the mitochondira. NEXT

33 Mitochondria supply most the energy used by all cells in the body to carry out life processes. Large amounts of energy are released during the breakdown of sugars This is stored in these energy-rich molecules. Back to Body

34 Food and other materials needed by the cell are stored inside vacuoles. Vacuole The cell can take food from the vacuoles as energy is needed. Next

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