Introduction to A&P (Chapter 1) Lecture Materials for Amy Warenda Czura, Ph.D. Suffolk County Community College Eastern Campus

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1 Introduction to A&P (Chapter 1) Lecture Materials for Amy Warenda Czura, Ph.D. Suffolk County Community College Eastern Campus Primary Sources for figures and content: Marieb, E. N. Human Anatomy & Physiology 6th ed. San Francisco: Pearson Benjamin Cummings, Martini, F. H. Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology 6th ed. San Francisco: Pearson Benjamin Cummings, Amy Warenda Czura, Ph.D. 1 SCCC BIO130 Chapter 1 Lecture Slides

2 Anatomy & Physiology = study of characteristics Common Characteristics Of Living Things: 1. Organization: pattern that differs from environment, involves regulation of internal conditions within limits 2. Responsiveness: (irritability), responding to changes in environment. Adaptation = long term response 3. Growth and Differentiation Growth = increase in size/cell number Differentiation = specialization of cells to perform particular functions 4. Reproduction 5. Movement Internal transport substances in body External move around environment 6. Metabolism and Excretion Metabolism = all chemical processes in the body (building and breaking molecules) Amy Warenda Czura, Ph.D. 2 SCCC BIO130 Chapter 1 Lecture Slides

3 Form Follows Function the shape of a structure is related to its use Anatomy = study of internal and external structures of body and their relationships to each other: Form Gross Anatomy = macroscopic, see by eye Microscopic Anatomy = cell and molecule level, need microscope Cytology = study of cells Histology = study of tissues (groups of specialized cells that work together to perform functions) Physiology = study of how organism perform functions: ( Function ) Human Anatomy and Physiology = the study of the form and function of the human body Amy Warenda Czura, Ph.D. 3 SCCC BIO130 Chapter 1 Lecture Slides

4 Levels of Organization (on handout) The pattern of organization at the lower levels determines both the characteristics and functions at the higher levels Amy Warenda Czura, Ph.D. 4 SCCC BIO130 Chapter 1 Lecture Slides

5 Homeostasis = unchanging sameness, the maintenance of a relatively constant internal environment, essential to life Homeostatic Regulation (keeping within set limits) 1. Autoregulation (Intrinsic Regulation) activities of a cell/tissue/organ/system adjust automatically in response to environmental change. 2. Extrinsic Regulation results from activities of nervous or endocrine systems -Nervous system: directs rapid, short term, specific responses -Endocrine system: works through hormones, slow to act but long lasting effects Amy Warenda Czura, Ph.D. 5 SCCC BIO130 Chapter 1 Lecture Slides

6 Homeostatic Regulation Mechanism: 1. Receptor - sensor that detects stimulus (change) 2. Control/Integration Center - receives and processes info from receptor 3. Effector - cell/organ that responds to direction from control center to oppose or enhance the stimulus Amy Warenda Czura, Ph.D. 6 SCCC BIO130 Chapter 1 Lecture Slides

7 Negative Feedback -oscillations around a set point -effector activated by control center opposes stimulus -most common homeostatic regulation too much X = X too little X = X e.g. body temperature: too hot, sweat to cool too cold, shiver to heat Normal runs a range, no absolute Amy Warenda Czura, Ph.D. 7 SCCC BIO130 Chapter 1 Lecture Slides

8 Positive Feedback -effectors respond by exaggerating or enhancing the stimulus -typically used to deal with threat or stress e.g. blood clotting: clotting causes more clotting until wound is plugged birth: contractions promote more contractions until delivery Homeostasis use requires coordinated efforts of multiple organ systems: human body integrated to support life Amy Warenda Czura, Ph.D. 8 SCCC BIO130 Chapter 1 Lecture Slides

9 Anatomical Terms Anatomical position supine = face up prone = face down Body Regions: (on handout) -Cephalic region = head -Cervical region = neck -Thoracic region = chest -Brachial region = arm -Antebrachial region = forearm -Carpal region = wrist -Manual region = hand -Abdominal region = belly -Lumbar region = lower back -Gluteal region = butt -Pelvic region = hips -Pubic region = anterior pelvis -Inguinal region = groin Amy Warenda Czura, Ph.D. 9 SCCC BIO130 Chapter 1 Lecture Slides

10 -Femoral region= thigh -Crural region= front of leg -Sural region=calf -Tarsal region= ankle -Pedal region= top of foot -Plantar region= sole of foot Amy Warenda Czura, Ph.D. 10 SCCC BIO130 Chapter 1 Lecture Slides

11 Abdominopelvic region = trunk of body, contains most of the organs Clinicians divide it into 4 regions: Amy Warenda Czura, Ph.D. 11 SCCC BIO130 Chapter 1 Lecture Slides

12 Anatomist recognize 9 abdominopelvic regions: Right hypochondriac region Right lumbar region Right inguinal region Epigastric Umbilical Hypogastric Amy Warenda Czura, Ph.D. 12 SCCC BIO130 Chapter 1 Lecture Slides

13 Directional Terms: (handout) -Anterior = front -Posterior = back (behind) -Ventral = belly -Dorsal = back (spine) -Cranial/Cephalic = head -Caudal = tail -Superior = above (hyper) -Inferior = below (hypo) -Medial = toward the center -Lateral = away from center, peripheral -Proximal = near the point of attachment -Distal = away from the point of attachment -Superficial = at the surface -Deep = farther from the surface Amy Warenda Czura, Ph.D. 13 SCCC BIO130 Chapter 1 Lecture Slides

14 Planes of Section (handout) 1. Transverse plane = -cross section -right angle to long axis -superior and inferior sections Transverse result 2. Frontal/Coronal plane -parallel to long axis -anterior and posterior sections result 3. Sagittal plane -parallel to long axis -right and left sections result Amy Warenda Czura, Ph.D. 14 SCCC BIO130 Chapter 1 Lecture Slides

15 Body Cavities Vital organs suspended in chambers called body cavities Functions: 1. Protect organs 2. Permit changes in size & shape of organs Two Major cavities: (handout) 1. Dorsal body cavity 2.Ventral body cavity Dorsal body cavity divided into: 1. Cranial cavity--brain 2. Spinal cavity--spinal cord Amy Warenda Czura, Ph.D. 15 SCCC BIO130 Chapter 1 Lecture Slides

16 Ventral Body Cavity: divided by diaphragm into: 1. Thoracic cavity- -heart and lungs 2. Abdominopelvic cavity- - guts (viscera) -Organs in ventral cavity are called viscera -Surrounded by serous membrane called serosa: -Visceral serosa surrounds organ -Parietal serosa lines cavity Amy Warenda Czura, Ph.D. 16 SCCC BIO130 Chapter 1 Lecture Slides

17 Thoracic cavity 1. Right and Left Pleural cavities -contain lungs -serosa = pleura: visceral pleura covers lung parietal pleura lines cavity 2. Pericardial cavity -contains heart -serosa = pericardium: visceral pericardium covers heart parietal pericardium lines cavity 3. Mediastinum -division between pleural cavities -contains: pericardial cavity (heart) esophagus, trachea, thymus Amy Warenda Czura, Ph.D. 17 SCCC BIO130 Chapter 1 Lecture Slides

18 Abdominopelvic cavity most also peritoneal cavity = anything contained in peritoneum (serosa of peritoneal cavity) if outside peritoneum = retroperitoneal 1. Abdominal cavity Peritoneal: -liver, -stomach, -spleen, -small intestine, -most of large intestine Retroperitoneal: -kidneys -pancreas Amy Warenda Czura, Ph.D. 18 SCCC BIO130 Chapter 1 Lecture Slides

19 2. Pelvic cavity Retroperitoneal: -inferior large intestine, -inferior urinary bladder, -some reproductive organs Peritoneal: -superior urinary bladder, -ovaries, -uterus Amy Warenda Czura, Ph.D. 19 SCCC BIO130 Chapter 1 Lecture Slides

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