CSE511 Brain & Memory Modeling. Lect04: Brain & Spine Neuroanatomy

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1 CSE511 Brain & Memory Modeling CSE511 Brain & Memory Modeling Lect02: BOSS Discrete Event Simulator Lect04: Brain & Spine Neuroanatomy Appendix of Purves et al., 4e Larry Wittie Computer Science, StonyBrook University and ~lw 1

2 Figure A1 (A) Anatomical terminology of the brain and brainstem; (B) Major planes of section Figure A1 A flexure in the long axis of the nervous system arose as humans evolved upright posture, leading to an approximately 120 angle between the long axis of the brainstem and that of the forebrain. The consequences of this flexure for anatomical terminology are indicated in (A). The terms anterior, posterior, superior, and inferior refer to the long axis of the body, which is straight. Therefore, these terms indicate the same direction for both the forebrain and the brainstem. In contrast, the terms dorsal, ventral, rostral, and caudal refer to the long axis of the central nervous system. The dorsal direction is toward the back for the brainstem and spinal cord, but toward the top of the head for the forebrain. The opposite direction is ventral. The rostral direction is toward the top of the head for the brainstem and spinal cord, but toward the face for the forebrain. The opposite direction is caudal. (B) The major planes of section used in cutting or imaging the brain. 2

3 Figure A1 (A) Anatomical terminology of the brain and brainstem (Part 1) 3

4 Figure A1 (B) Major planes of section of the brain (Part 2) Lateral Medial Lateral 4

5 Figure A2 The subdivisions and components of the central nervous system Figure A2 The subdivisions and components of the central nervous system. (A) A lateral (side) view indicating the seven major components of the central nervous system. (Note that the position of the brackets on the left side of the figure refers to the location of the spinal nerves as they exit the intervertebral foramina, not the position of the corresponding spinal cord segments.) (B) The central nervous system in ventral view, indicating the emergence of the segmental nerves, the cervical and lumbar enlargements and the cauda equina ( horse s tail ). 5

6 Figure A3 Surface anatomy of the cerebral hemisphere Figure A3 Surface anatomy of the cerebral hemisphere, showing the four lobes of the brain and the major fissures and sulci that define their boundaries. (A) Lateral view. (B) Midsagittal view. 6

7 Figure A4 Relationship of the spinal cord and spinal nerves to the vertebral column Figure A4 Diagram of several spinal cord segments, showing the relationship of the spinal cord and spinal nerves to the vertebral column. The sympathetic ( with feeling ) nervous system is the involuntary flight or fight system for quick body responses. The dorsal extensions of the back bone strengthen the spine and armor the spinal cord while allowing flexible twisting and bending. Tough meninges layers surround the brain and spinal cord. 7

8 Figure A5 Internal structure of the spinal cord Figure A5 Internal structure of the spinal cord. (A) Transverse histological sections of the cord at three different levels, showing the characteristic arrangement of gray and white matter in the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar cord. The sections were acquired and processed to simulate myelin staining; thus, white matter appears darker and gray matter lighter. (B) Diagram of the internal structure of the spinal cord. 8

9 Figure A5 Internal structure of the spinal cord (Part 1) Figure A5-1 Internal structure of the spinal cord. (A) Transverse histological sections of the cord at three different levels, showing the characteristic arrangement of gray and white matter in the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar cord. The sections were acquired and processed to simulate myelin staining; thus, white matter appears darker and gray matter lighter. Note that the dorsal horns of the spinal cord gray matter are much sharper than the ventral horns. Cervical means [of the] neck ; thoracic chest ; lumbar loins - lower back and hips, and sacral sacred area. 9

10 Figure A5 Internal structure of the spinal cord (Part 2) Figure A5-2 (B) Diagram of the internal structure of the spinal cord. Note that dorsal horn is sensory input and ventral horn is motor output. 10

11 Figure A10 Lateral view of the human brain Figure A10 Lateral view of the human brain. (A) Illustration of some of the major gyri and sulci from this perspective. (B) The banks of the lateral (Sylvian) fissure have been pulled apart to expose the insula ( island ). 11

12 Figure A11 Views of the human brain Figure A11 Dorsal view (A) and ventral view (B) of the human brain, indicating some of the major features visible from these perspectives. (C) The cerebral cortex has been removed in this dorsal view (upper image) to reveal the underlying corpus callosum. Lower boxed images highlight the four lobes of the cerebral cortex. (C After Rohen et ai., 1993.) 12

13 Figure A11 Views of the human brain (Part 1) Figure A11-1 Dorsal view (A) and ventral view (B) of the human brain, indicating some of the major features visible from these perspectives. 13

14 Figure A11 Views of the human brain (Part 2) Figure A11-2 Dorsal view (A) and ventral view (B) of the human brain, indicating some of the major features visible from these perspectives. 14

15 Figure A11 Views of the human brain (Part 3) Figure A11-3 (C) The cerebral cortex has been removed in this dorsal view (right image) to reveal the underlying corpus callosum. The boxed images on the left highlight the four lobes of the cerebral cortex. (C After Rohen et ai., 1993.) 15

16 Figure A12 Midsagittal view of the human brain Figure A12 Midsagittal view of the human brain. (A) Major features apparent after bisecting the brain in this plane. (B) Lobes of the brain seen from its medial (middle) surface. (C) An enlarged view of the diencephalon and brainstem. 16

17 Figure A12 Midsagittal view of the human brain (Part 1) Figure A12-1 Midsagittal view of the human brain. (A) Major features apparent after bisecting the brain in this plane. 17

18 Figure A12 Midsagittal view of the human brain (Part 2) Figure A12-2 Midsagittal view of the human brain. (A) Major features apparent after bisecting the brain in this plane. (B) Lobes of the brain seen from its medial surface. 18

19 Figure A12 Midsagittal view of the human brain (Part 3) Figure A12-3 Midsagittal view of the human brain. (C) An enlarged view of the diencephalon and brainstem. 19

20 Figure A13 Major internal structures of the brain Figure A13 Major internal structures of the brain, shown after the upper half of the left hemisphere has been cut away. 20

21 Figure A21 The ventricular system of the human brain (Part 1) 21

22 Figure A21 The ventricular system of the human brain (Part 2) 22

23 Figure A14 Internal structures of the brain seen in coronal section Figure A14 Internal structures of the brain seen in coronal section. (A) This section passes through the basal ganglia. (B) A more posterior section that also includes the thalamus. (C) A transparent view of the cerebral hemisphere showing the approximate locations of the sections in (A) and (B) relative to deep gray matter (the basal ganglia, thalamus and amygdala are represented). Notice that because the caudate nucleus has a "tail" that arcs into the temporal lobe, it appears twice in section (B); the same is true of other brain structures, including the lateral ventricle. 23

24 Figure A14 Internal structures of the brain seen in coronal section (Part 1) Figure A14-1 Internal structures of the brain seen in coronal section. (A) This section passes through the basal ganglia. (B) A more posterior section that also includes the thalamus. (C) A transparent view of the cerebral hemisphere showing the approximate locations of the sections in (A) and (B) relative to deep gray matter (the basal ganglia, thalamus, and amygdala are represented). 24

25 Figure A14 Internal structures of the brain seen in coronal section (Part 2) Figure A14-2 Internal structures of the brain seen in coronal section. (A) This section passes through the basal ganglia. (B) A more posterior section that also includes the thalamus. (C) A transparent view of the cerebral hemisphere showing the approximate locations of the sections in (A) and (B) relative to deep gray matter (the basal ganglia, thalamus, and amygdala are represented). Notice that because the caudate nucleus has a "tail that arcs into the temporal lobe, it appears twice in section (B); the same is true of other brain structures, including the lateral ventricle. 25

26 Figure A14 Internal structures of the brain seen in coronal section (Part 3) Figure A14-3 Internal structures of the brain seen in coronal section. (A) This section passes through the basal ganglia. (B) A more posterior section that also includes the thalamus. (C) A transparent view of the cerebral hemisphere showing the approximate locations of the sections in (A) and (B) relative to deep gray matter (the basal ganglia, thalamus and amygdala are represented). Notice that because the caudate nucleus has a "tail" that arcs into the temporal lobe, it appears twice in section (B); the same is true of other brain structures, including the lateral ventricle. 26

27 Figure A18 The cellular basis of the blood-brain barrier 27

28 Figure A19 The meninges 28

29 Figure A19 The meninges (Part 1) 29

30 Figure A19 The meninges (Part 2) 30

31 Figure A19 The meninges (Part 3) 31

32 Figure A20 Circulation of cerebrospinal fluid 32

33 Figure A21 The ventricular system of the human brain 33

34 Figure A21 The ventricular system of the human brain (Part 1) 34

35 Figure A21 The ventricular system of the human brain (Part 2) 35

36 Figure A21 The ventricular system of the human brain (Part 3) 36

37 More than you may want to learn this year Slides removed from main sequence for

38 Figure A6 The internal histology of the human spinal cord in a lumbar segment Figure A6 Demonstration of the internal histology of the human spinal cord in a lumbar segment. (A) Photomicrograph of a section stained for the demonstration of Nissl substance (showing cell bodies in a blue stain). (B) Photomicrograph of a section that was acquired and processed to simulate myelin staining. On the left side of both images, dotted lines indicate the boundaries between cytoarchitectonic divisions of spinal cord gray matter, known as Rexed's laminae (see Table A1 and Figure 10.3). Among the more conspicuous divisions are lamina II, which corresponds to the substantia gelatinosa (see Chapter 10), and lamina IX, which contains the columns of lower motor neurons that innervate skeletal muscle (see Chapter 16). 38

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41 Figure A6 The internal histology of the human spinal cord in a lumbar segment (Part 1) Figure A6 Demonstration of the internal histology of the human spinal cord in a lumbar segment. (A) Photomicrograph of a section stained for the demonstration of Nissl substance (showing cell bodies in a blue stain). 41

42 Figure A6 The internal histology of the human spinal cord in a lumbar segment (Part 2) Figure A6-2 (B) Photomicrograph of a section that was acquired and processed to simulate myelin staining. On the left side of both images, dotted lines indicate the boundaries between cytoarchitectonic divisions of spinal cord gray matter, known as Rexed's laminae (see Table A1 and Figure 10.3). Among the more conspicuous divisions are lamina II, which corresponds to the substantia gelatinosa (see Chapter 10), and lamina IX, which contains the columns of lower motor neurons that innervate skeletal muscle (see Chapter 16). Note the tiny central channel carrying spinal fluid. 42

43 Figure A7 The locations of the cranial nerves as they enter or exit the midbrain, pons, and medulla Figure A7 At left is a ventral view of the brainstem showing the locations of the cranial nerves as they enter or exit the midbrain, pons, and medulla. Nerves that are exclusively sensory are indicated in yellow, motor nerves are in blue, and mixed sensory/motor nerves are in green. At right, the territories included in each of the brainstem subdivisions (midbrain, pons, and medulla) are indicated. 43

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46 Figure A8 Brainstem cranial nerve nuclei locations that are the target or source of cranial nerves Figure A8 At left a "phantom" view of the dorsal surface of the brainstem shows the locations of the brainstem cranial nerve nuclei that are either the target or the source of the cranial nerves. (See Table A2 for the relationship between each cranial nerve and cranial nerve nuclei and Table A3 for a functional scheme that localizes cranial nerve nuclei with respect to brainstem sub-division and sensory or motor function.) With the exception of the cranial nerve nuclei associated with the trigeminal nerve, there is fairly close correspondence between the location of the cranial nerve nuclei in the midbrain, pons, and medulla and the location of the associated cranial nerves. At right the territories of the major brainstem subdivisions are indicated (viewed from the dorsal surface). 46

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48 Figure A9 Internal organization along the rostral caudal axis Figure A9 Transverse sections through the brainstem and spinal cord showing internal organization along the rostralcaudal axis. The locations of the cranial nerve nuclei, ascending, and descending tracts are indicated in each representative section. The identities of the nuclei (somatic sensory or motor; visceral sensory or motor; branchial sensory or motor) are indicated using the same color key as in Figure A8 and Table A3. 48

49 Figure A9 Internal organization along the rostral caudal axis (Part 1) Figure A9-1 Sections 1 and 2. Transverse sections through the brainstem and spinal cord showing internal organization along the rostral-caudal axis. The locations of the cranial nerve nuclei, ascending, and descending tracts are indicated in each representative section. The identities of the nuclei (somatic sensory or motor; visceral sensory or motor; branchial sensory or motor) are indicated using the same color key as in Figure A8 and Table A3. 49

50 Figure A9 Internal organization along the rostral caudal axis (Part 2) Figure A9-2 Sections 3 and 4. Transverse sections through the brainstem and spinal cord showing internal organization along the rostral-caudal axis. The locations of the cranial nerve nuclei, ascending, and descending tracts are indicated in each representative section. The identities of the nuclei (somatic sensory or motor; visceral sensory or motor; branchial sensory or motor) are indicated using the same color key as in Figure A8 and Table A3. 50

51 Figure A9 Internal organization along the rostral caudal axis (Part 3) Figure A9-2 Sections 5 and 6. Transverse sections through the brainstem and spinal cord showing internal organization along the rostral-caudal axis. The locations of the cranial nerve nuclei, ascending, and descending tracts are indicated in each representative section. The identities of the nuclei (somatic sensory or motor; visceral sensory or motor; branchial sensory or motor) are indicated using the same color key as in Figure A8 and Table A3. 51

52 Figure A15 Blood supply of the spinal cord Figure A15 Blood supply of the spinal cord. (A) View of the ventral (anterior) surface of the spinal cord. At the level of the medulla, the vertebral arteries give off branches that merge to form the anterior spinal artery. Approximately 10 to 12 segmental arteries (which arise from various branches of the aorta) join the anterior spinal artery along its course. These segmental arteries are known as medullary arteries. (B) The vertebral arteries (or the posterior inferior cerebellar artery) give rise to paired posterior spinal arteries that run along the dorsal (posterior) surface of the spinal cord. (C) Cross section through the spinal cord, illustrating the distribution of the anterior and posterior spinal arteries. The anterior spinal arteries give rise to numerous sulcal branches that Supply the anterior two-thirds of the spinal cord. The posterior spinal arteries supply much of the dorsal horn and the dorsal columns. A network of vessels known as the vasocorona connects these two sources of supply and sends branches into the white matter around the margin of the spinal cord. 52

53 Figure A15 Blood supply of the spinal cord (Part 1) Figure A15-1 Blood supply of the spinal cord (A) View of the ventral (anterior) surface of the spinal cord. At the level of the medulla, the vertebral arteries give off branches that merge to form the anterior spinal artery. Approximately 10 to 12 segmental arteries (which arise from various branches of the aorta) join the anterior spinal artery along its course. These segmental arteries are known as medullary arteries. (B) The vertebral arteries (or the posterior inferior cerebellar artery) give rise to paired posterior spinal arteries that run along the dorsal (posterior) surface of the spinal cord. 53

54 Figure A15 Blood supply of the spinal cord (Part 2) Figure A15-2 Blood supply of the spinal cord. (C) Cross section through the spinal cord, illustrating the distribution of the anterior and posterior spinal arteries. The anterior spinal arteries give rise to numerous sulcal branches that supply the anterior two-thirds of the spinal cord. The posterior spinal arteries supply much of the dorsal horn and the dorsal columns. A network of vessels known as the vasocorona connects these two sources of supply and sends branches into the white matter around the margin of the spinal cord. 54

55 Figure A16 The major arteries of the brain 55

56 Figure A16 The major arteries of the brain (Part 1) 56

57 Figure A16 The major arteries of the brain (Part 2) 57

58 Figure A16 The major arteries of the brain (Part 3) 58

59 Figure A16 The major arteries of the brain (Part 4) 59

60 Figure A17 Blood supply of the three subdivisions of the brainstem 60

61 Figure A17 Blood supply of the three subdivisions of the brainstem (Part 1) 61

62 Figure A17 Blood supply of the three subdivisions of the brainstem (Part 2) 62

63 Figure A17 Blood supply of the three subdivisions of the brainstem (Part 3) 63

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