Anatomy PHL 212. By Dr Tajdar Husain Khan

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1 Anatomy PHL 212 By Dr Tajdar Husain Khan

2 Overview of Anatomy Anatomy(from the Greek word anatome,"dissection") is a branch of natural science dealing with the structural organization of living things The proper understanding of structure, however, implies a knowledge of function in the living organism. Anatomy is therefore almost inseparable from physiology, which is sometimes called functional anatomy. As one of the basic life sciences, anatomy is closely related to medicine and to other branches of biology.

3 Structural organization from simplest to most complex Chemical Cellular Tissue group of cells similar in structure and function Organ 2 or more tissue types performing specific function Organ system group of organs acting together to perform specific function Human organism

4 Structure - Function Relationships Anatomy - study of structure Physiology - study of function Structure determines Function Function determines Structure Charles Darwin - "Origin of the Species" (1858) - Changes in structure affect function: basis of evolution of all organisms

5 Organ systems Integumentary Skeletal Muscular Nervous Endocrine Cardiovascular Lymphatic/immune Respiratory Digestive Urinary Reproductive

6 Branches of anatomy Gross anatomy Microscopic anatomy Cytology Histology Developmental anatomy Embryology Comparative anatomy

7 Histology Microscopic examination of the fine structure of organs, tissues and cells Tissues are prepared by fixation (preserved) and then cut into thin sections Artifacts (distortions; not real)

8 Anatomical Position Body erect Head, eyes, toes directed forward Limbs at sides of body Palms directed forward

9 Anatomical Planes Median = vertical, front to back in midline Frontal (coronal) = vertical, perpendicular to median Horizontal (transverse) = parallel to floor, perpendicular to median, coronal Sagittal = vertical, parallel to median

10 Median plane Of body Sagittal plane Of hand Of foot

11 Body Planes and Sections Sagittal Frontal Transverse (cross)

12 Transverse plane Coronal plane Coronal plane

13 Terms of Direction Medial = closer to median plane Lateral = further from median plane Anterior (ventral) = towards front of body Posterior (dorsal) = towards back of body Superior (cephalic) = towards head Inferior (caudal) = towards bottom of feet Superficial = towards surface of body, part Deep = towards center of body, part Proximal = nearer origin or attachment Distal = further from origin or attachment

14 Levels of Organization in the Body Cells Tissues Epithelial, connective, muscular, nervous Organs Examples include stomach, liver, heart Organ Systems Examples include digestive and circulatory systems

15 Tissues in the Human Body Epithelial Covering or lining tissue Connective Joins, stores and supports Muscle Internal and external movement Nerve Conducts electrical signals Blood Muscle Nerve

16 Human Organ Systems Skeletal Circulatory Respiratory Excretory Nervous Integumentary Muscular Immune Digestive Reproductive Endocrine

17 Cells Basic building blocks of life Understanding of cell morphology is critical to the study of biotechnology Smallest living unit of an organism Grow, reproduce, use energy, adapt, respond to their environment A cell may be an entire organism or it may be one of billions of cells that make up the organism

18 Typical Animal Cell

19 Nucleus Directs cell activities Separated from cytoplasm by nuclear membrane Contains genetic material DNAInside nucleus Contains RNA to build proteins Nuclear Membrane Surrounds nucleus Made of two layers Openings allow material to enter and leave nucleus Chromosomes In nucleus Made of DNA Contain instructions for traits & characteristics

20 Cytoplasm Gel-like mixture Surrounded by cell membrane Contains hereditary material

21 Endoplasmic Reticulum Moves materials around in cell Smooth type: lacks ribosomes Rough type (pictured): ribosomes embedded in surface

22 Ribosomes Each cell contains thousands Make proteins Found on Rough ER & floating throughout the cell

23 Mitochondria Produces energy through chemical reactions breaking down fats & carbohydrates Controls level of water and other materials in cell Recycles and decomposes proteins, fats, and carbohydrates

24 Golgi Bodies Protein 'packaging plant' Move materials within the cell Move materials out of the cell

25 Lysosome Digestive 'plant' for proteins, fats, and carbohydrates Transports undigested material to cell membrane for removal Cell breaks down if lysosome explodes

26 Vacuoles Membrane-bound sacs for storage, digestion, and waste removal Contains water solution Help plants maintain shape

27 Plasma Membrane Structure

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