Introduction. I. Objectives. II. Introduction. A. To become familiar with the terms of direction and location.

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1 E X E R C I S E Introduction I. Objectives A. To become familiar with the terms of direction and location. B. To become familiar with different types of planes and sections. C. To learn the names and locations of the body cavities and their associated membranes. D. To become familiar with terms for various features and markings of bones. II. Introduction Before beginning your work on the skeletal system, it is important that you become familiar with basic anatomical terminology. It is best that you not just memorize definitions but that you learn to relate the terms to the human body as you use them throughout the remainder of the course. A. Terms of Direction and Location In anatomy, it is essential to precisely describe the location of body parts. This is done by using a stan dardized body position, called anatomical position, coupled with a standardized set of descriptive directional terms. In anatomical position the body is erect, the head is facing forward, the feet are flat on the floor and slightly apart, and the arms are hanging at the sides with the palms facing forward. The directional terms describe the location of body parts relative to the midline (an imaginary line that divides the body into right and left halves), or relative to other body parts. Referring to Figures,, and to the appropriate section in the first chapter of your textbook, define the following directional terms. Make them a part of your vocabulary as soon as possible. Notice that the terms are paired and that terms within pairs have essentially opposite meanings.. Anterior (ventral). Posterior (dorsal) 3. Superior -

2 A Laboratory Manual of Human Anatomy and Physiology. Inferior 5. Lateral 6. Medial 7. Proximal 8. Distal 9. Superficial 0. Deep Superior Anterior (ventral) Posterior (dorsal) - Inferior Figure -. TERMS OF DIRECTION OF THE HUMAN

3 Introduction B. Planes and Sections A plane is a surface passing through the body which divides it into two parts. Since the human body is three-dimensional there are three standard planes of reference. Referring to Figures,, to your textbook, and any available laboratory materials such as models, cadavers, etc., define the following planes of reference.. Sagittal a. Midsagittal b. Parasagittal. Transverse (horizontal) 3. Coronal (frontal) Planes of the Human Midsagittal Plane Parasagittal Plane 3 Transverse (horizontal) Plane Coronal (frontal) Plane 3 Figure -. PLANES OF THE HUMAN -3

4 A Laboratory Manual of Human Anatomy and Physiology It is a common practice to section an organ such as the kidney or intestine so that its gross features may be studied in more detail or so that it may be studied histologically. Knowledge of how a certain type of section is made will make your study of various structures much more meaningful. Using your textbook and any other available references, define, identify on the models, and make a simple diagram (using the kidney as an example) of each of the following types of sections.. Cross (horizontal). Longitudinal 3. Oblique - C. Body Cavities and Membranes At this point, it will be instructive to learn the various body cavities and the membranes that line these cavities. Referring to Figure 3, your lecture text, and any available laboratory materials such as posters, models, cadavers, etc., locate the following cavities and membranes.. Cavity (A Space) a. Dorsal Body Cavity i. Cranial Cavity ii. Spinal Cavity b. Ventral Body Cavity. Coverings a. Meninges i. Thoracic Cavity A. Pleural Cavities B. Pericardial Cavity (within mediastinum) ii. Abdominopelvic Cavity b. Parietal Pleura c. Visceral Pleura A. Abdominal Cavity B. Pelvic Cavity

5 Introduction 6 Cavities of the Human 8 Ventral Cavity 7 3 Thoracic Cavity Abdominopelvic Cavity Abdominal Cavity 5 6 Pelvic Cavity Cranial Cavity 3 7 Spinal Cavity Dorsal Cavity Left Pleural Cavity Right Pleural Cavity Pericardial Cavity 3 5 Figure -3. BODY CAVITIES d. Parietal Peritoneum e. Visceral Peritoneum f. Parietal Pericardium g. Visceral Pericardium D. Skeletal Terms To fully understand the lab exercises on the skeletal system, you will need to learn some terms which are used to indicate various features on bones. Using your textbook as a reference (there is a table in the chapter on bones and bone tissue), write a short description of each following term. Also using your textbook as a reference (look at figures of the specific bones within the chapter on the skeleton), locate each listed specific example.. Condyle (e.g. lateral condyle of femur) -5

6 A Laboratory Manual of Human Anatomy and Physiology. Epicondyle (e.g. medial epicondyle of humerus) 3. Facet (e.g. facet on thoracic vertebra for articulation of rib tubercle). Foramen (e.g. foramen magnum of skull) 5. Fossa (e.g. olecranon fossa of humerus) 6. Meatus (e.g. external auditory meatus of skull) 7. Suture (e.g. sagittal suture of skull) 8. Trochanter (e.g. greater trochanter of femur) 9. Trochlea (e.g. trochlea of humerus) 0. Tubercle (e.g. greater tubercle of humerus). Tuberosity (e.g. tibial tuberosity) -6

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