Animal Tissues. I. Epithelial Tissue

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Animal Tissues. I. Epithelial Tissue"

Transcription

1 Animal Tissues There are four types of tissues found in animals: epithelial tissue, connective tissue, muscle tissue, and nervous tissue. In this lab you will learn the major characteristics of each tissue and examine various types of each tissue under the microscope. I. Epithelial Tissue Epithelial tissues line body surfaces and cavities, as well as form glands. The cells of the tissue are closely connected to each other via cellular junctions and because epithelium is found on the edges of organs, it has two distinct surfaces. The apical surface is exposed to the body cavity or exterior, while the basal surface is adjacent to the underlying tissue (see the figure below). Epithelia contain no blood vessels (they are non- vascular) and are dependent upon the underlying connective tissue for nutrients. Epithelial cells can be one of three shapes: squamous (flattened), cuboidal, or columnar. If the epithelium consists of one cell layer it is called simple epithelium. Stratified epithelium has more than one layer. The combination of cell shape and the number of cell layers is used to classify epithelial tissue. (i.e. simple columnar epithelium would consist of a single layer of column shaped cells). Cell shape in stratified epithelium can vary, but the shape of the cells at the apical surface determines the name. The function of epithelial tissue varies depending on its location. As you explore the types of epithelial tissues below, think about how the structure of each tissue fits its function. **Hint: Many of the slides you will examine contain other types of tissue in additional to epithelium. Keep in mind that epithelial tissues line either the outer or inner surfaces of organs and will thus be found on the edge of the tissue.

2 Simple squamous epithelium Blood vessels (artery, vein, and nerve slide): Simple squamous epithelium comprises the inner lining of blood vessels, where it provides a smooth surface that reduces friction as blood travels through the vessels. The blood vessel slide shows a cross section of an artery and a vein. The wavy lining of the vessel lumen (interior) is simple squamous epithelium. Lung slide: The walls of lung air sacs (alveoli) are also composed of simple squamous epithelium. Air sacs are the location of gas exchange between the air and blood. How does the structure of this epithelial type allow for efficient gas exchange? (hint: the gases have to travel through the epithelial cells to move between the air and the blood) Simple cuboidal epithelium Simple cuboidal epithelium (Kidney) slide: The tubules of the kidney are composed of a single layer of cuboidal cells. The kidney slide shows cross sections of many tubules, all of which are lined with simple cuboidal epithelium. These cells are active in absorption and secretion of various substances from or into the kidney filtrate (which ultimately becomes urine). Note the shape of the epithelial cells and the centrally located nuclei.

3 Simple columnar epithelium Duodenum/Small intestine slide: The intestinal lining is a simple columnar epithelium. The primary function of these cells is absorption of nutrients. As you examine the slide, note the large, oval shaped nuclei that are positioned near the basal edge of the cells. Also note the large, clear goblet cells that are interspersed in the epithelial layer. These are glandular cells that secrete mucus that helps protect the underlying tissues. Stratified squamous epithelium Esophagus/stomach slide: Stratified squamous epithelium consists of multiple layers, with squamous cells at the apical surface. The primary function of this type of epithelium is protection. Areas subject to abrasion, like the mouth, esophagus, and skin, have stratified epithelium. Cells at the apical surface can be scraped away (for instance, by food particles traveling down the esophagus), but the layered nature of the epithelium ensures that the underlying tissues are protected. Note the thick layer of epithelium on the esophagus slide. (*This slide also contains stomach tissue, which has a simple columnar epithelium)

4 Keratinized stratified squamous epithelium Palmar Skin (Human skin corpuscle) slide: The epidermis (most superficial layer) of the skin is composed of stratified squamous epithelial cells that contain large quantities of the protein keratin. Keratin is a tough fibrous protein that offers protection from abrasion and water loss. New cells are produced at the basal surface of the epithelium and are gradually pushed towards the apical surface. As they move upwards, they become filled with keratin and eventually die, forming a layer of dead, keratin filled cells on the apical surface of the epidermis. Examine the palmer skin slide, noting the entire epidermis and the layer of dead cells at the apical surface. The dermis, which lies deep to the epidermis, is composed of connective tissue. Compare the skin and esophagus slide. How are they similar? How are they different? II. Connective Tissue Connective tissues vary widely in their form and function, but they are all characterized by the presence of extracellular matrix. The extracellular matrix is nonliving material composed of protein fibers and ground substance. The protein fibers are composed of collagen (which gives strength) or elastin (which

5 gives flexibility). The number and type of fibers differs between the various types of connective tissue. The ground substance fills the spaces between the cells and the fibers. It contains interstitial fluid (tissue fluid) and large polysaccharide molecules. The consistency of the ground substance can vary from liquid to gel- like to a solid. **Hint: Because connective tissue consists largely of extracellular matrix, the cells that are present will be scattered among the matrix components. For most of these slides (adipose tissue is an exception), you will not see cells directly adjacent to other cells as they are in epithelial tissue. Dense connective tissue Palmar Skin (Human skin corpuscle) slide: The layer of skin that lies deep to the epidermis is called the dermis and is composed of dense connective tissue. This tissue contains densely packed bundles of irregularly arranged collagen fibers. It is found in areas of the body that are subject to tension from many different directions. Note the thick layer of dense connective tissue that lies deep to the epithelium on the skin slide. Nuclei of the connective tissue cells are scattered throughout the collagen fibers. Adipose tissue slide: Adipose tissue consists of adipocytes, or fat storage cells. It functions in energy storage, insulation, and cushioning. Small pockets of adipose tissue can be found all over the body, but accumulates under the skin (subcutaneous fat) and around certain organs, such as the kidneys. Unlike other connective tissues, it has very little matrix and the cells are closely packed together. Each cell contains a large fat droplet, which pushes the nucleus to the side. Note the clear cytoplasm and the peripherally located nuclei of the fat cells in the slide.

6 Hyaline cartilage slide: Hyaline cartilage is the most abundant type of cartilage in the body and is found in the rib cage, the nose, the trachea, and the ends of long bones. It provides structural support (but is more flexible than bone) and has cushioning properties. Hyaline cartilage has a firm matrix with abundant collagen fibers, but the individual fibers cannot be seen under the microscope. When viewed under the microscope the matrix an amorphous quality (no discernable structures). The cells, which are known as chondrocytes, reside in small cavities within the matrix called lacunae. Bone tissue slide: Bone tissue forms the skeletal system. It functions in structural support, protection, and mineral (calcium) storage. The extracellular matrix of bone tissue contains abundant collagen fibers as well as a hard, calcified ground substance. Mature bone cells, called osteocytes, reside in cavities within the matrix called lacunae. As bone tissue is formed, channels remain in the hardened matrix that provide passageways for blood vessels and nerves. The larger channels are called central canals (Haversian canals). Bone tissue forms in rings (lamellae) around these canals, creating a structure called an osteon. Examine the bone tissue slide, noting the osteons with their lamellae and bulls- eye like central canals. The lacunae, which contain the bone cells, are visible as small dark patches in the lamellae.

7 III. Muscle Tissue Muscle tissue is specialized for contraction. The cells are elongated, and are also known as muscle fibers. They contain the contractile proteins actin and myosin, which interact to shorten and elongate the cells. There are three different types of muscle tissue: skeletal, cardiac, and smooth. Examine each type of tissue using the muscle composite slide. (*The skeletal and smooth muscle are shown as part of organs, so they are not the only tissue present) Skeletal muscle (muscle composite slide) Skeletal muscles are attached to bones, and contraction of these muscles generates body movements (limb movement, jaw movement, breathing, etc.). The skeletal muscle fibers are long and cylindrical, with multiple peripherally located nuclei. The cells have striations, alternating light and dark bands that result from the ordered arrangement of actin and myosin within the cell. Cardiac muscle (muscle composite slide) Cardiac muscle is present in the heart. Cells are striated, but the striations are much less obvious than in skeletal muscle tissue. The cells are shorter than skeletal muscle fibers, have a single nucleus and are often branched. Individual cells are connected via gap junctions and desmosomes. These cellular connections are visible under the microscope as dark bands called intercalated disks. These cellular communication junctions are necessary for the coordinated beating of the heart.

8 Smooth muscle (muscle composite slide & artery/vein/nerve slide) Smooth muscle tissue is found in the walls of hollow organs, such as the gastrointestinal tract, blood vessels, and the urinary bladder. Contractions of these muscles propel fluid or materials through the organs (i.e. food through the GI tract, blood through blood vessels, urine pushed out of bladder). Smooth muscle cells are not striated (hence the name smooth muscle); they have a single nucleus, and have tapered ends. Examine the smooth muscle on the muscle composite slide as well as the blood vessel slide. In blood vessels there is a layer of smooth muscle deep to the epithelial layer. It is thicker on the artery than on the vein, but can be seen in both. IV. Nervous Tissue Nervous tissue is specialized for communication and composes the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves. The tissue consists of two major cell types: neurons and glial cells. Neurons communicate with each other via electrical and chemical signals. They have nucleated cell bodies and two types of elongated cellular processes: dendrites which receive signals, and axons which send signals. Glial cells are the support cells of nervous tissue. There are several different types with various functions, including maintaining proper ion concentrations in the fluid surrounding neurons, generating myelin (an insulating material that surrounds some axons), and cleaning up debris. Examine the slide of nervous tissue (giant multipolar neuron slide). Note the large neurons with their elongated cellular processes and the smaller, more numerous glial cells.

Press F5 to Start. Practice Lab Quiz. Tissues & Histology. Press the down arrow key to get the answer and to go to next slide.

Press F5 to Start. Practice Lab Quiz. Tissues & Histology. Press the down arrow key to get the answer and to go to next slide. Press F5 to Start Tissues & Histology Practice Lab Quiz Press the down arrow key to get the answer and to go to next slide. Portland Community College BI 231 Identify the tissue type and its function.

More information

Section B: Epithelial Tissue 1. Where are epithelial tissues found within the body? 2. What are the functions of the epithelial tissues?

Section B: Epithelial Tissue 1. Where are epithelial tissues found within the body? 2. What are the functions of the epithelial tissues? Tissue worksheet Name Section A: Intro to Histology Cells are the smallest units of life. In complex organisms, cells group together with one another based on similar structure and function to form tissues.

More information

LESSON ASSIGNMENT. After completing this lesson, you should be able to: 2-1. Define tissue.

LESSON ASSIGNMENT. After completing this lesson, you should be able to: 2-1. Define tissue. LESSON ASSIGNMENT LESSON 2 Tissues of the Body. TEXT ASSIGNMENT Paragraphs 2-1 through 2-17. LESSON OBJECTIVES After completing this lesson, you should be able to: 2-1. Define tissue. 2-2. Name four major

More information

Slide 1. Slide 2. Slide 3. Slide 4. Slide 5. Ch. 3 Cells and Tissues. Body Tissues. Epithelial Tissues. Epithelium Characteristics

Slide 1. Slide 2. Slide 3. Slide 4. Slide 5. Ch. 3 Cells and Tissues. Body Tissues. Epithelial Tissues. Epithelium Characteristics Slide 1 Ch. 3 Cells and Tissues Tissues. Slide 2 Body Tissues Tissues Groups of cells with similar structure and function Four primary types Epithelial tissue (epithelium) Connective tissue Muscle tissue

More information

Tissue Slides for Studying

Tissue Slides for Studying Tissue Slides for Studying Simple squamous single layer of flat cells substances pass easily through line air sacs line blood vessels line lymphatic vessels Surface of simple squamous Simple cuboidal single

More information

Chapter 5 Tissues. Epithelial Tissues. Epithelial Tissues. Four major tissue types. 1. Epithelial 2. Connective 3. Muscle 4.

Chapter 5 Tissues. Epithelial Tissues. Epithelial Tissues. Four major tissue types. 1. Epithelial 2. Connective 3. Muscle 4. Chapter 5 Tissues Four major tissue types 1. Epithelial 2. Connective 3. Muscle 4. Nervous 1 General characteristics - cover organs and the body line body cavities line hollow organs have a free surface

More information

Welcome to Lesson 2 of the Basic Human Anatomy Course. Today, we ll be studying the Basic Tissues of the Body.

Welcome to Lesson 2 of the Basic Human Anatomy Course. Today, we ll be studying the Basic Tissues of the Body. Basic Human Anatomy Lesson 2: Tissues of the Body Welcome to Lesson 2 of the Basic Human Anatomy Course. Today, we ll be studying the Basic Tissues of the Body. I have 5 goals for you in this lesson: 1.

More information

Tissues (Histology) Ch. 3 Human Anatomy lecture

Tissues (Histology) Ch. 3 Human Anatomy lecture I. Histology the study of tissues A. 4 basic tissue types epithelial connective muscle nervous Tissues (Histology) Ch. 3 Human Anatomy lecture B. Usually found in combinations to form organs. C. As you

More information

Lab Exercise 4. Epithelial Tissues. Connective Tissue Proper. What you need to be able to do on the exam after completing this lab exercise:

Lab Exercise 4. Epithelial Tissues. Connective Tissue Proper. What you need to be able to do on the exam after completing this lab exercise: Lab Exercise 4 Epithelial Tissues Connective Tissue Proper Textbook Reference: See Chapter 4 What you need to be able to do on the exam after completing this lab exercise: Be able to identify each type

More information

Student Guide The Morphology and Function of Tissue Types Name: Date:

Student Guide The Morphology and Function of Tissue Types Name: Date: Student Guide The Morphology and Function of Tissue Types Name: Date: Introduction: Histology is often a very difficult topic for students. You are expected to understand the morphology and function of

More information

4. Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelial tissue is found in (on) the A) skin. B) trachea. C) blood vessels. D) digestive tract.

4. Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelial tissue is found in (on) the A) skin. B) trachea. C) blood vessels. D) digestive tract. Chapter 4: Body Tissues and Membranes 1. Which tissue covers surfaces and lines cavities? A) connective B) epithelial C) muscle D) connective and muscle 2. Epithelial tissue A) prevents drying. B) secretes

More information

NPTEL Biotechnology Tissue Engineering. Tissue Organization

NPTEL Biotechnology Tissue Engineering. Tissue Organization Tissue Organization S. Swaminathan Director Centre for Nanotechnology & Advanced Biomaterials School of Chemical & Biotechnology SASTRA University Thanjavur 613 401 Tamil Nadu Joint Initiative of IITs

More information

Vertebrate Body Organization

Vertebrate Body Organization Vertebrate Body Organization Digestive tube suspended in coelom from mouth to anus Body supported by internal skeleton of jointed bones Vertebrae and Cranium protects nervous system Diaphragm divides coelom

More information

Hole s Human Anatomy and Physiology Eleventh Edition. Mrs. Hummer. Chapter 5 Tissues

Hole s Human Anatomy and Physiology Eleventh Edition. Mrs. Hummer. Chapter 5 Tissues Hole s Human Anatomy and Physiology Eleventh Edition Mrs. Hummer Chapter 5 Tissues 1 Chapter 5 Tissues Four major tissue types 1. Epithelial 2. Connective 3. Muscle 4. Nervous 2 Epithelial Tissues General

More information

Welcome to the site that will help you prepare for the Name the Tissue and its Function game.

Welcome to the site that will help you prepare for the Name the Tissue and its Function game. Welcome to the site that will help you prepare for the Name the Tissue and its Function game. Questions to remember while you are practicing: a. What is the tissue type? b. What is its function? c. How

More information

Biology 152 Tissues Objectives

Biology 152 Tissues Objectives Biology 152 Tissues Objectives Your job in this assignment is to learn 19 tissues that were selected by the Nursing and Allied Health professionals as the most important ones for members of those fields

More information

connective tissue cells cells produce or maintain matrix - cyte = cell ; adult ; maintain matrix - blast build matrix

connective tissue cells cells produce or maintain matrix - cyte = cell ; adult ; maintain matrix - blast build matrix Connective Tissues connect and support other tissues cells + matrix matrix stuff between cells fibers = proteins collagen strength elastin stretch and recoil reticular network, thin fibers ground substance

More information

The Tissue Level of Organization

The Tissue Level of Organization The Tissue Level of Organization Tissues A groups of similar cells, usually having similar embryonic origin and specialized function Histology: the study of tissues Four general types Epithelial Muscle

More information

The Tissue Level of Organization

The Tissue Level of Organization Essentials of Anatomy & Physiology, 4th Edition Martini / Bartholomew The Tissue Level of Organization PowerPoint Lecture Outlines prepared by Alan Magid, Duke University Slides 1 to 64 Overview of Tissue

More information

Laboratory 3 Histology

Laboratory 3 Histology Laboratory 3 Histology Goals: For epithelial tissues: o discuss the major features; o classify based on simple/stratified and squamous/cubodial/columnar; o identify each type by microscopy; o identify

More information

Classification of Tissues

Classification of Tissues E x e r c i s e 6 Classification of Tissues Time Allotment: 2 hours. Multimedia Resources: See Appendix B for Guide to Multimedia Resource Distributors. Eroschenko s Interactive Histology (DE: CD-ROM)

More information

Tissues. One layer of cells is called simple More than one layer is called stratified. 2.. Type of cells: squamous, cuboidal.

Tissues. One layer of cells is called simple More than one layer is called stratified. 2.. Type of cells: squamous, cuboidal. Tissues Tissue: Group of cells with the same function. Types of tissue: Epithelial, connective, muscle and nervous Cells vary in size, arrangement, shape and function but those of a tissue are similar.

More information

First Quiz. Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

First Quiz. Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings First Quiz First Hour Exam is next Monday!!! Introduction to Tissues Histology is the study of tissues Individual body cells are specialized w/ each cell type performing specific functions that maintain

More information

TISSUES OF THE BODY Organ Primary (Basic) tissues of the body. Epithelial (Covering) Tissue (See Diagram EP 1): Connective Tissue

TISSUES OF THE BODY Organ Primary (Basic) tissues of the body. Epithelial (Covering) Tissue (See Diagram EP 1): Connective Tissue 1 TISSUES OF THE BODY Tissues are formed from the assemblage of cells and intercellular materials in various proportions in which one component predominates. In nervous tissue as an example, nerve cells

More information

Histology. Epithelial Tissue

Histology. Epithelial Tissue Histology Epithelial Tissue Epithelial Tissue Lines internal and external body surfaces Forms glands Epithelial Tissue Little extracellular matrix Attached on one side Avascular Basement membrane Apical

More information

Tissue Types. 1. Epithelial Tissue (or epithelium) is the lining, covering, and glandular tissue of the body

Tissue Types. 1. Epithelial Tissue (or epithelium) is the lining, covering, and glandular tissue of the body Tissue Types A. Tissues 1. Tissues: groups of cells similar in structure and function 2. Four Types of Tissues: a. Epithelium: for covering b. Connective Tissue: for support c. Muscle: for movement d.

More information

Classification of Tissues

Classification of Tissues Classification of Tissues Introduction: As mentioned earlier, cells are the smallest units of life. In complex organisms, cells group together with one another based on similar structure and function to

More information

Human Anatomy & Physiology I with Dr. Hubley. Practice Exam 1

Human Anatomy & Physiology I with Dr. Hubley. Practice Exam 1 Human Anatomy & Physiology I with Dr. Hubley Practice Exam 1 1. Which definition is the best definition of the term gross anatomy? a. The study of cells. b. The study of tissues. c. The study of structures

More information

Epithelial Tissue: Basic Structure

Epithelial Tissue: Basic Structure Tissues Whole body contains only 200 different cells types that are organized into tissues The extracellular fluid surrounding the cells organized into tissues is called interstitial fluid Four primary

More information

tissues recall: the cell tissues groups of interconnected cells working together to fuzz derivation of cells anatomy trains

tissues recall: the cell tissues groups of interconnected cells working together to fuzz derivation of cells anatomy trains recall: the cell cell smallest, metabolically functional unit of body 200+ different types of tissues cells exist in the human body each specialized for a specific function tissues groups of interconnected

More information

Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology: Tissues and Integumentary System. Biology 105 Lecture 7 Chapter 4

Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology: Tissues and Integumentary System. Biology 105 Lecture 7 Chapter 4 Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology: Tissues and Integumentary System Biology 105 Lecture 7 Chapter 4 Outline I. Tissues A. Epithelial B. Connective C. Muscle D. Nervous tissues II. Cell-to-cell contact

More information

Connective Tissues. Components of Connective Tissue. Connective Tissue. Matrix

Connective Tissues. Components of Connective Tissue. Connective Tissue. Matrix Connective Tissues Anatomy and Physiology Text and Laboratory Workbook, Stephen G. Davenport, Copyright 2006, All Rights Reserved, no part of this publication can be used for any commercial purpose. Permission

More information

Biology 105 Human Biology PRACTICE MIDTERM EXAM 1. Essentials of Anatomy and Physiology, 5e (Martini/Nath) Chapter 4 The Tissue Level of Organization

Biology 105 Human Biology PRACTICE MIDTERM EXAM 1. Essentials of Anatomy and Physiology, 5e (Martini/Nath) Chapter 4 The Tissue Level of Organization Essentials of Anatomy and Physiology, 5e (Martini/Nath) Chapter 4 The Tissue Level of Organization Multiple-Choice Questions 1) The four main types of tissues include A) epithelium. B) muscle. C) nerve.

More information

Epithelium. Epithelial membrane

Epithelium. Epithelial membrane Epithelium Epithelial membrane The principal functions of epithelium are : 1 Production of under lining tissues from injury. 2 Transcellular transport of molecules across epithelial layers. 3 Secretion

More information

Epithelial tissue (Epithelium)

Epithelial tissue (Epithelium) Histology lecture I Epithelial tissue (Epithelium) Prepared by College of medicine Taibah University 1 1.Epithelial tissue (epithelium) Epithelial tissue is one of the 4 basic tissues of the body. Epithelial

More information

EPITHELIUM: TYPES, LOCATION, FUNCTIONS (I).

EPITHELIUM: TYPES, LOCATION, FUNCTIONS (I). EPITHELIUM: TYPES, LOCATION, FUNCTIONS (I). CELL AND FOUNDATION MODULE. (LECTURE OUTLINE) LEARNING OBJECTIVES. At the end of the lecture, students should be able to: Define epithelium. Discuss general

More information

Biology 13A Lab #3: Cells and Tissues

Biology 13A Lab #3: Cells and Tissues Biology 13A Lab #3: Cells and Tissues Lab #3 Table of Contents: Expected Learning Outcomes.... 28 Introduction...... 28 Activity 1: Eukaryotic Cell Structure... 29 Activity 2: Perspectives on Tissue Preparations.

More information

ZOO Histology

ZOO Histology ZOO 117 1.0 Histology Simple Tissues 1 2 Basal Lamina Non supportive sheet between the epithelium & the connective tissue Consists of proteins secreted by the epithelial cells. Basal lamina & reticular

More information

PSI Biology Anatomy & Physiology

PSI Biology Anatomy & Physiology Anatomy & Physiology Tissues Classwork 1. Arrange the following in order from least complex to most complex: organ, tissue, cell, organism, organ system. 2. List the four major groups of tissues in animals.

More information

Objectives. Describe the three types of muscle tissue Describe how muscles contract Describe how muscles and bones interact to provide movement

Objectives. Describe the three types of muscle tissue Describe how muscles contract Describe how muscles and bones interact to provide movement Muscular System Objectives Describe the three types of muscle tissue Describe how muscles contract Describe how muscles and bones interact to provide movement Types of Muscle Tissue More than 40% of the

More information

FETAL PIG HISTOLOGY Adipose

FETAL PIG HISTOLOGY Adipose FETAL PIG HISTOLOGY Adipose A form of loose connective tissue comprised of fat storing adipocyte cells. The cells contain a large fat droplet, which forces the nucleus to be squeezed into a thin rim at

More information

CHAPTER 5: TISSUES. 2. Name the four primary adult tissue types, and give a brief description of each.

CHAPTER 5: TISSUES. 2. Name the four primary adult tissue types, and give a brief description of each. OBJECTIVES: 1. Define the term tissue. 2. Name the four primary adult tissue types, and give a brief description of each. 3. Describe the functions and types of extracellular fluid (ECF). 4. Compare and

More information

The adult body is made up of: 100 trillion cells 206 bones 600 muscles 22 internal organs 11 organ systems

The adult body is made up of: 100 trillion cells 206 bones 600 muscles 22 internal organs 11 organ systems The adult body is made up of: 100 trillion cells 206 bones 600 muscles 22 internal organs 11 organ systems 1. Circulatory System 2.Respiratory System ( 3.Immune System (many types of protein, cells, organs,

More information

Chapter Outline CHAPTER 33 ANIMAL ORGANIZATION AND HOMEOSTASIS

Chapter Outline CHAPTER 33 ANIMAL ORGANIZATION AND HOMEOSTASIS CHAPTER 33 ANIMAL ORGANIZATION AND HOMEOSTASIS Chapter Outline 33.1 Types of Tissues A. Levels of Organization 1. The levels of organization are: cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems. 2. The structure

More information

Ground substance is the component of connective tissue between the cells and the fibers

Ground substance is the component of connective tissue between the cells and the fibers Connective Tissues Directions: Insert and install your Interactions: Foundations CD. a. Click the "Contents" button. b. Open the Tissue Level of Organization file. c. Click on Anatomy Overviews. d. Work

More information

HISTOLOGY A Microscopic Study of Human Body Tissues and Mitotic Cells

HISTOLOGY A Microscopic Study of Human Body Tissues and Mitotic Cells HISTOLOGY A Microscopic Study of Human Body Tissues and Mitotic Cells Introduction: Histology is the microscopic study of plant and animal tissues. Although all organisms are composed of at least one cell,

More information

THE BODY TISSUES. 1- Epithelial tissue. 2- Connective tissue. 3- Muscular tissue. 4- Nervous tissue.

THE BODY TISSUES. 1- Epithelial tissue. 2- Connective tissue. 3- Muscular tissue. 4- Nervous tissue. THE BODY TISSUES 1- Epithelial tissue. 2- Connective tissue. 3- Muscular tissue. 4- Nervous tissue. General characters: Epithelium is subjected to continuous degeneration and regeneration. It is formed

More information

SAMPLE LECTURE EXAM 1 -- HUMAN ANATOMY

SAMPLE LECTURE EXAM 1 -- HUMAN ANATOMY SAMPLE LECTURE EXAM 1 -- HUMAN ANATOMY 1. The subcutaneous layer consists mostly of. a. smooth muscle c. areolar and adipose connective tissues d. melanin e. keratin 2. Which of the following statements

More information

Tissues of vertabrates. Premedical 22

Tissues of vertabrates. Premedical 22 Tissues of vertabrates Premedical 22 Tissues = cells of specific structure and the same function four basic (primar) types of tissue: 1. Epithelia ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm 2. Connective tissue - mesoderm

More information

Epithelial Tissue. Characteristics Functions Recognizing Epithelia Cell-to-cell junctions

Epithelial Tissue. Characteristics Functions Recognizing Epithelia Cell-to-cell junctions Epithelial Tissue Characteristics Functions Recognizing Epithelia Cell-to-cell junctions 4 Types of Tissue Epithelial Connective Muscle Neural Think of 2-3 basic functions for each. Characteristics of

More information

Location: air sacs of lungs; nephrons of kidney; lining of circulatory system, lymphatic vessels, & ventral body cavity

Location: air sacs of lungs; nephrons of kidney; lining of circulatory system, lymphatic vessels, & ventral body cavity Bio. 2304 - Human Anatomy HISTOLOGY (STUDY OF TISSUES) - Lab & Lecture Objectives Important: For each slide know 1.) specific tissue type 2.) any specialized structures or cells in the tissue (& know their

More information

Chapter 4: The Tissue Level of Organization

Chapter 4: The Tissue Level of Organization Chapter 4: The Tissue Level of Organization With this chapter we conclude our introductory march through the body s levels of organization (recall the top of 10 th Martini Figure 1-1). We discussed the

More information

Chapter 3: Protein Synthesis &Tissues

Chapter 3: Protein Synthesis &Tissues Chapter 3: Protein Synthesis &Tissues Protein Synthesis GENES: The Blueprint for Protein Structure Gene a DNA segment that carries the information for building one protein or polypeptide chain. Fibrous

More information

Derived copy of Epithelial Tissue

Derived copy of Epithelial Tissue OpenStax-CNX module: m47709 1 Derived copy of Epithelial Tissue Donna Browne Based on Epithelial Tissue by OpenStax College This work is produced by OpenStax-CNX and licensed under the Creative Commons

More information

These are just some of the every day questions that are explained by skin anatomy.

These are just some of the every day questions that are explained by skin anatomy. 1 These are just some of the every day questions that are explained by skin anatomy. 2 The integument (skin, cutaneous membrane) includes two general layers of tissue. The more superficial layer, exposed

More information

This lab will study bone, cartilage and muscle tissue. Cartilage. Slide 51

This lab will study bone, cartilage and muscle tissue. Cartilage. Slide 51 Prelab #2 BONE, CARTILAGE AND MUSCLE TISSUE This lab will study bone, cartilage and muscle tissue. Cartilage Slide 51 This slide of a fetal pig head shows developing cartilage and bone. The area around

More information

NCERT Solutions for TISSUES. Tissue is a group of cells that are similar in structure and are organised together to perform a specific task.

NCERT Solutions for TISSUES. Tissue is a group of cells that are similar in structure and are organised together to perform a specific task. NCERT Solutions for TISSUES Question 1: What is a tissue? Tissue is a group of cells that are similar in structure and are organised together to perform a specific task. Question 2: What is the utility

More information

2. Epithelium is mostly cells with little extracellular material.

2. Epithelium is mostly cells with little extracellular material. Histology [Gr. histo, tissue; logos, study] is the science that deals with the study of tissues. There are four tissue types. 1. Epithelial tissue. 2. Connective tissue. 3. Muscular tissue. 4. Nervous

More information

SECTION 45-1 REVIEW. VOCABULARY REVIEW Describe the functions of the tissues listed below.

SECTION 45-1 REVIEW. VOCABULARY REVIEW Describe the functions of the tissues listed below. SECTION 45-1 REVIEW THE HUMAN BODY PLAN VOCABULARY REVIEW Describe the functions of the tissues listed below. 1. nervous tissue 2. muscular tissue 3. skeletal muscle 4. epithelial tissue 5. connective

More information

Tissues General. each group of cells becomes specialized to do one or a few tasks very well ( much more efficiently):

Tissues General. each group of cells becomes specialized to do one or a few tasks very well ( much more efficiently): Tissues General in multicellular organisms such as humans the huge size and complexity dictates that individual cells specialize there are over 200 different kinds of cells in human body each group of

More information

In this activity, you will view skeletal (a.k.a. striated or voluntary) muscle under the microscope.

In this activity, you will view skeletal (a.k.a. striated or voluntary) muscle under the microscope. Week 08 Lab Muscle Tissue LEARNING OUTCOMES: Describe the major functions of muscle tissue. Compare and contrast the structural and functional characteristics of skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscle. Provide

More information

Nervous System Section 35 1 Human Body Systems (pages )

Nervous System Section 35 1 Human Body Systems (pages ) Name Period Chap 35.1, 35.2, 35.3, 36.1, 36.2, 36.3, and 38.3 A look at cells, tissues, organs, organ systems of humans as well as the role of passive and active transport in nerve and muscle conduction

More information

Resources Chapter Presentation Visual Concepts Transparencies Standardized Test Prep Chapter menu Resources

Resources Chapter Presentation Visual Concepts Transparencies Standardized Test Prep Chapter menu Resources Chapter Presentation Visual Concepts Transparencies Standardized Test Prep Introduction to Body Structure Table of Contents Section 1 Body Organization Section 2 Skeletal System Section 3 Muscular System

More information

Epithelial tissue The epithelium is a sheet of aggregated cells of similar type that covers body surfaces, lines hollow organs

Epithelial tissue The epithelium is a sheet of aggregated cells of similar type that covers body surfaces, lines hollow organs Epithelial tissue The epithelium is a sheet of aggregated cells of similar type that covers body surfaces, lines hollow organs or modified to form glands or neuroepithelium. General features of epithelium

More information

Osseous Tissue & Structure. The skeletal system includes: Storage of minerals: calcium salts

Osseous Tissue & Structure. The skeletal system includes: Storage of minerals: calcium salts Chapter 15 Lecture The Skeletal System: Osseous Tissue & Skeletal Structure The Skeletal System The skeletal system includes: Bones, cartilages, ligaments Bone tissue = osseous tissue Includes living cells

More information

Skeletal, Muscular, and Integumentary Systems

Skeletal, Muscular, and Integumentary Systems Chapter 36 Skeletal, Muscular, and Integumentary Systems Section 36 1 The Skeletal System (pages 921 925) This section describes the skeletal system and its functions. Introduction (page 921) 1. What forms

More information

Thibodeau: Anatomy and Physiology, 5/e. Chapter 5: Tissues

Thibodeau: Anatomy and Physiology, 5/e. Chapter 5: Tissues Thibodeau: Anatomy and Physiology, 5/e Chapter 5: Tissues The logical step after the study of the cell, is to concentrate on the next level of anatomic structure: that is, the grouping of similar cells

More information

Grade 5 Science Unit B: Life Science Chapter 3: Basic Structures of Organisms Lesson 1: Basic Structures of Organisms

Grade 5 Science Unit B: Life Science Chapter 3: Basic Structures of Organisms Lesson 1: Basic Structures of Organisms Grade 5 Science Unit B: Life Science Chapter 3: Basic Structures of Organisms Lesson 1: Basic Structures of Organisms Organism A form of life that is considered as an entity; an animal, plant, fungus,

More information

Types of Tissues. Bởi: OpenStaxCollege

Types of Tissues. Bởi: OpenStaxCollege Types of Tissues Bởi: OpenStaxCollege The term tissue is used to describe a group of cells found together in the body. The cells within a tissue share a common embryonic origin. Microscopic observation

More information

The Fundamental Units of Life Classwork 7 th Grade PSI

The Fundamental Units of Life Classwork 7 th Grade PSI The Fundamental Units of Life Classwork 1. Using the four characteristics of living things, explain whether plants are living things or not. 2. Cells are microscopic. What does this mean? 3. Are you an

More information

HUMAN ANATOMY for CNA's & HHA's

HUMAN ANATOMY for CNA's & HHA's HUMAN ANATOMY for CNA's & HHA's INTRODUCTION Anatomy is the study of the structure of the organs and tissues of the human body. Our bodies are made up of tiny, microscopic building blocks called cells.

More information

Biopsy Removal of living tissue for microscopic examination surgery needle biopsy

Biopsy Removal of living tissue for microscopic examination surgery needle biopsy The Tissue Level of Organization Group of similar cells common embryonic origin common function Histology study of tissues Pathologist looks for tissue changes that indicate disease 4 Basic Tissues Epithelial

More information

Animal Systems: The Musculoskeletal System

Animal Systems: The Musculoskeletal System Animal Systems: The Musculoskeletal System Tissues, Organs, and Systems of Living Things Cells, Cell Division, and Animal Systems and Plant Systems Cell Specialization Human Systems The Digestive The Circulatory

More information

Bones: Tissue and Organ

Bones: Tissue and Organ Bones: Tissue and Organ Bones can be referred to as either a tissue (osseous) or an organ Bone referred to as a connective tissue consists of: cells extracellular matrix (ground substance + fibers) this

More information

THE LANGUAGE OF ANATOMY

THE LANGUAGE OF ANATOMY THE LANGUAGE OF ANATOMY Know all the terms identified in these sections of this exercise: Correct anatomical position: When the body is erect, with feet only slightly apart, head and toes pointing forward,

More information

CHAPTER 2: BODY TISSUES AND MEMBRANES

CHAPTER 2: BODY TISSUES AND MEMBRANES CHAPTER 2: BODY TISSUES AND MEMBRANES At the end of this chapter, student will be able to: a) Describe the general characteristics of each of the four major categories of tissues. b) Describe the functions

More information

Lecture 3: Connective Tissue and Integument

Lecture 3: Connective Tissue and Integument Lecture 3: Connective Tissue and Integument Reading: M&O Ch 4, 5 15. Compare and contrast the roles of individual cell types and fiber types within connective tissue. 16. Classify the different types of

More information

Biology 2401 - Anatomy and Physiology I Exam 1 notes - Introduction, Cell and Tissue Structure

Biology 2401 - Anatomy and Physiology I Exam 1 notes - Introduction, Cell and Tissue Structure Biology 2401 - Anatomy and Physiology I Exam 1 notes - Introduction, Cell and Tissue Structure Two major principles in study of animal bodies: (humans, like other living organisms are product of evolutionary

More information

Lab 2: Cells and Tissues

Lab 2: Cells and Tissues Name Lab 2: Cells and Tissues In this lab you will Examine the results of the Bacterial Gardens Experiment Look at how cells are organized into tissues Levels of Organization Most organisms are made up

More information

Structure of Muscle Tissue and Associated Tissues

Structure of Muscle Tissue and Associated Tissues Structure of Muscle Tissue and Associated Tissues Tissue Tissue combinations from muscle, fat and bone which are the gross components of carcasses, and their properties and proportions are responsible

More information

Lecture 3: Connective Tissue and Integument

Lecture 3: Connective Tissue and Integument Lecture 3: Connective Tissue and Integument Reading: M&O Ch 4, 5 15. Compare and contrast the roles of individual cell types and fiber types within connective tissue. 16. Classify the different types of

More information

Smooth Muscle. Learning Objectives.

Smooth Muscle. Learning Objectives. Smooth Muscle. Learning Objectives. At the end of this course, you should be able to : 1. describe the structure of smooth muscle 2. describe where smooth muscle occurs within the body 3. discuss the structural

More information

Chapter 10: Muscle Tissue 1. What are the functions of skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, smooth muscle. Where in the body would you expect to find

Chapter 10: Muscle Tissue 1. What are the functions of skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, smooth muscle. Where in the body would you expect to find Chapter 10: Muscle Tissue 1. What are the functions of skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, smooth muscle. Where in the body would you expect to find these muscles? 2. Compare and contrast the three muscle

More information

Anatomy and Physiology BOE approved April 21, 2011

Anatomy and Physiology BOE approved April 21, 2011 Anatomy and Physiology BOE approved April 21, 2011 There is a hierarchical organization of the human body which demonstrates the relationship between form and function. A. The language of anatomy is essential

More information

HISTOLOGY OF BONE TISSUE

HISTOLOGY OF BONE TISSUE BIOLOGY II SKELETAL SYSTEM ACTIVITY #2 NAME DATE HOUR HISTOLOGY OF BONE TISSUE OBJECTIVE: 3. Describe the histology of bone tissue. (pp. 123 125) 4. Describe the remodeling and repair of the skeleton and

More information

The Cutaneous Membrane. Lab Skin Model

The Cutaneous Membrane. Lab Skin Model The Cutaneous Membrane Lab Skin Model An overview of human skin anatomy including the types of skin cells in each layer. Complete with an anatomy quiz so you can test your understanding. Skin is actually

More information

TEMPORARY MOUNT OF ANIMAL CELL

TEMPORARY MOUNT OF ANIMAL CELL TEMPORARY MOUNT OF ANIMAL CELL 1 TEMPORARY MOUNT OF ANIMAL CELL LIFE SCIENCES (LAB MANUAL) 2 LIFE SCIENCES (LAB MANUAL) TEMPORARY MOUNT OF ANIMAL CELL AIM To study the structure of animal cells- squamous

More information

Muscles How muscles contract - The Sliding Filament Theory

Muscles How muscles contract - The Sliding Filament Theory Muscles How muscles contract - The Sliding Filament Theory A muscle contains many muscle fibers A muscle fiber is a series of fused cells Each fiber contains a bundle of 4-20 myofibrils Myofibrils are

More information

HISTOLOGY: THE FORM AND FUNCTION OF TISSUES

HISTOLOGY: THE FORM AND FUNCTION OF TISSUES Biology E-65C Lab #1 HISTOLOGY: THE FORM AND FUNCTION OF TISSUES Objectives: 1. To gain an appreciation of tissue types in terms of their functional significance 2. To gain experience with the use of a

More information

Unit 4: Muscle Tissue. Skeletal, Cardiac, & Smooth

Unit 4: Muscle Tissue. Skeletal, Cardiac, & Smooth Unit 4: Muscle Tissue 67 Skeletal, Cardiac, & Smooth 68 Introduction and Objectives Muscle tissue consists of cells specialized for contraction. All muscle cells have filamentous proteins composed of either

More information

Extracellular and Multicellular Connections

Extracellular and Multicellular Connections OpenStax-CNX module: m51781 1 Extracellular and Multicellular Connections Steven Telleen Based on Connections between Cells and Cellular Activities by OpenStax College This work is produced by OpenStax-CNX

More information

Name Class Date Laboratory Investigation 24A Chapter 24A: Human Skin

Name Class Date Laboratory Investigation 24A Chapter 24A: Human Skin Name Class Date Laboratory Investigation 24A Chapter 24A: Human Skin Human Anatomy & Physiology: Integumentary System You may refer to pages 386-394 in your textbook for a general discussion of the integumentary

More information

Human Body Systems. Body Organization and Homeostasis

Human Body Systems. Body Organization and Homeostasis Human Body Systems Body Organization and Homeostasis Objectives Describe how the human body is organized Explain homeostasis Organization of the Body Every cell in the human body is both an independent

More information

7. Skeletal System: Bone Structure and Function

7. Skeletal System: Bone Structure and Function 7. Skeletal System: Bone Structure and Function For the next two chapters (7 and 9) we will study the skeletal system. Although the major feature of this system is the bones, the skeletal system also consists

More information

ORGAN SYSTEMS OF THE BODY

ORGAN SYSTEMS OF THE BODY ORGAN SYSTEMS OF THE BODY DEFINITIONS AND CONCEPTS A. Organ a structure made up of two or more kinds of tissues organized in such a way that they can together perform a more complex function that can any

More information

The Respiratory System

The Respiratory System The Respiratory System Dr. Ali Ebneshahidi Functions of The Respiratory System To allow gases from the environment to enter the bronchial tree through inspiration by expanding the thoracic volume. To allow

More information

NCEA Level 1 Human Biology (90178) 2008 page 1 of 7. Evidence Contributing to Achievement with Excellence

NCEA Level 1 Human Biology (90178) 2008 page 1 of 7. Evidence Contributing to Achievement with Excellence NCEA Level 1 Human Biology (90178) 2008 page 1 of 7 Assessment Schedule 2008 Human Biology: Describe functioning of human circulatory, respiratory and excretory systems (90178) Evidence Statement Qu Evidence

More information

Page 1. Introduction Skeletal muscle cells have unique characteristics which allow for body movement.

Page 1. Introduction Skeletal muscle cells have unique characteristics which allow for body movement. Anatomy Review: Skeletal Muscle Tissue Graphics are used with permission of: Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings (http://www.aw-bc.com) Page 1. Introduction Skeletal muscle cells have

More information

11 Fundamentals of the Nervous System and Nervous Tissue: Part A

11 Fundamentals of the Nervous System and Nervous Tissue: Part A 11 Fundamentals of the Nervous System and Nervous Tissue: Part A Functions of the Nervous System 1.Sensory input Information gathered by sensory receptors about internal and external changes 2.Integration

More information

FORM, FUNCTION & MOVEMENT READINGS: CHAPTER 40 (820-827) CHAPTER 49 (1063-1074)

FORM, FUNCTION & MOVEMENT READINGS: CHAPTER 40 (820-827) CHAPTER 49 (1063-1074) Winter 08 1 of 8 FORM, FUNCTION & MOVEMENT READINGS: CHAPTER 40 (820-827) CHAPTER 49 (1063-1074) STRUCTURE VERSUS FUNCTION The structure of an object greatly influences its A square wheel is not The correlations

More information