Introduction to Animal Systems

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1 Human Body Systems

2 Introduction to Animal Systems Recurring Themes in Biology 1. Correlation between structure and function( seen at many levels) 2. Life is organized at many levels from Smallest ---- Largest.

3 Human Body Organization Cells make up Tissues that make up Organs that make up Organ systems which compose Human Organisms

4 Four types of Tissues 1. Epithelial Tissue : covers the body and its organs. 2. Connective Tissue: makes up the basic support structures of the body. 3. Muscle Tissue: made of cells that contract in response to signals from the spinal cord and brain 3 Types of Muscle: A. Cardiac muscle B. Smooth Muscle C. Skeletal Muscle

5 Four Types of Tissues 4. Nervous Tissue : responsible for sending signals from one part of body to another. 2 Major Types of Nerves: A. Sensory ( afferent) carry signals in the form of electrical impulses. B. Motor ( efferent) supports, protects and coordinates the neurons.

6

7 Evolutionary/Developmental Milestones in Animals 1. Cell specialization and levels of organization 2. Development of body symmetry and segmentation 3. Development of an internal body cavity and tissue layers.

8 4. Symmetry is the balanced distribution of duplicate body parts or shapes. Radial Symmetry: A body plan in which all body parts of an organism are arranged around a central point Bilateral Symmetry: a single plane divides the body into two mirror images Asymmetry: cannot be divided into mirror images 5. The body plans of most multicellular organisms exhibit some form of symmetry, either Bilateral or Radial symmetry.

9 6. Segmentation allows for the development of specialized limbs( wings, legs, claws.) 7. Cephalization is a head region with sensory organs and a brain. 8. The significance of having a body cavity, or a coelum, is that it holds internal organs and increases the efficiency of food intake and waste removal. Tissue Layer Endoderm Mesoderm Ectoderm Develops Into digestion and respiration structures muscles, bones, blood, skin, reproductive organs skin, brain, nervous system

10 4 Major Functions of Systems 1. Regulation : Excretory, Endocrine& Nervous. 2. Nutrient Absorption: Respiration, Digestion, & Circulatory. 3. Defense: Immune, Integumentary, Lymphatic, Skeletal & Muscular 4. Reproduction: Reproductive & Endocrine

11 Circulatory System Functions transports nutrients, wastes, hormones, and gases (O 2 & CO 2 ) Major Structures Heart- muscle that pumps blood Arteries- carry blood away from the heart Veins- carry blood to the heart Capillaries- allows for exchange of waste and nutrients Blood- specialized liquid that is used for transport lymph nodes- contains white blood cells (WBC s)

12 Circulatory System Words To Know Vasodilation- an increase in the size the of the blood vessels Interactions with other systems Nervous system --The brain regulates heart rate and blood pressure. Excretory--Cleans the blood Respiratory system--gas exchange in the lungs Carbon dioxide & Oxygen

13 Cells of the Circulatory System Red Blood Cells carry oxygen and carbon dioxide. White Blood Cells part of the immune system that attack and destroy germs in the body. Platelets are bits of a blood cell that help stop bleeding. Plasma is the liquid part of the blood. It includes salts, waste, nutrients, and water

14 Endocrine System Functions regulates body temperature, metabolism, development, and reproduction; maintains homeostasis; regulates other organ systems Major Structures hypothalamus, pituitary, pineal, pancreas, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, testes, and ovaries Interactions with other systems Nervous system and circulatory system

15 Pituitary gland Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) increases water retention Pineal Melatonin- controls sleep cycle Adrenal Gland Aldosterone- increases water retention Epinephrine- flight or flight response Pancreas Insulin- causes cells to take in glucose Glucagon- causes cells to release glucose Testis Testosterone- development of male characteristics Ovary Estrogen- regulates menstrual cycle Progesterone- pregnancy hormone Thyroid/Parathyroid Thyroxin- increases metabolism Calcitonin- controls blood calcium levels Endocrine System

16 Functions Excretory System removes wastes from blood; regulates concentration of body fluids Major Structures kidneys, urinary bladder, ureters, urethra, skin, lungs; Nephron- filtration unit of kidney Interactions Circulatory system Endocrine system

17 Functions regulates behavior; maintains homeostasis; regulates other organ systems; controls sensory and motor functions Major Structures brain, spinal cord, nerves, sense organs CNS: brain and spinal cord PNS: nerves extending from the spinal cord Nervous System

18 Nerve Cells Sensory (or afferent) neurons: send information from sensory receptors (e.g., in skin, eyes, nose, tongue, ears) TOWARD central nervous system. Motor (or efferent) neurons: send information AWAY from central nervous system to muscles or glands. Interneurons: send information between sensory neurons and motor neurons. Most interneurons are located in the central nervous system.

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