Chetek-Weyerhaeuser High School

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1 Chetek-Weyerhaeuser High School Anatomy and Physiology Units and Anatomy and Physiology A Unit 1 Introduction to Human Anatomy and Physiology (6 days) Essential Question: How do the systems of the human body react to the internal and external environment to stimulate changes in behavior or response? 1. The students will define anatomy, physiology, and the anatomical position. 2. The students will list the levels of organization of the body beginning at the atomic level. 3. The students will differentiate between a negative and positive feedback loop. 4. The students will label the body cavities, sections, and membranes, and regions found in the appendicular and axial portion of the body and the subdivisions of each. 5. The students will identify the relative positions of the body (superior/inferior, anterior/posterior, medial/lateral, proximal/distal, superficial deep). 6. The students will discover the relationship between exercise and body temperature and describe the relationship to homeostasis of the body (negative feed-back loop). Unit 2 Chemical Constituents of Cells and Metabolism (10 days) Essential Question: Why can t humans survive without oxygen? Specifically, why can t we depend on fermentation instead of cellular respiration? 1. The students will identify the four major inorganic substances that are critical to the human body and explain why is each important. 2. The students will summarize the structure and function of carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids and describe why they are important to the body. 3. The students will define metabolism and differentiate between anabolism and catabolism. 4. The students will predict how metabolism is controlled through enzymes? 5. The students will sequence the events of cellular respiration glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, and the electron transport chain. 6. The students will outline the general metabolic pathways of carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids. Unit 3 Tissues (10 days) Essential Question: How do multicellular body cells specialize to perform specific functions that help maintain homeostasis and benefit the body as a whole? 1. The students will list the four major tissue types and tell where each is located in the body. 2. The students will summarize the general characteristics of epithelial tissue. Mrs. Michaelsen 11/10/2011 Page 1

2 3. The students will explain the different types of glands and list where each is found in the body. 4. The students will compare and contrast the general cellular components, structures, fibers, and extracellular matrix (where applicable) in each type of connective tissue. 5. The students will distinguish among the three types of muscle tissues. 6. The students will describe the general characteristics and functions of nervous tissue. 7. The students will draw, label, and recognize a variety of tissues in the laboratory. Unit 4 Integumentary System (10 days) Essential Question: How do the skin and its components make up a complex set of organs that protects and interacts with other body systems? 1. The students will understand the general functions of the skin. 2. The students will compare and contrast the structure and function of the epidermis and dermis. 3. The students will assess how skin color is determined. 4. The students will describe the anatomy and physiology of each accessory structure of the skin (nails, hair follicles, sebaceous glands, sweat glands, receptors). 5. The students will explain the homeostatic mechanism of body temperature regulation. 6. The students will characterize the different types of burns and estimate the extent of a burn injury. 7. The students will sequence the tissue response to inflammation and the activities that are necessary to heal a wound in the epidermis compared to one in the dermis. 8. The students will investigate the relationship between skin sensitivity on different areas of the body (palm, forearm, back of neck, finger tips). Unit 5 Skeletal System (12 days) Essential question: What is the structure and function of bone tissue and how do the bones, joints, and ligaments function to permit movement and mobility in the skeleton? 1. The students will diagram the microscopic structure of a long bone, and list the functions of these parts (both compact and spongy bone). 2. The students will distinguish between intramembranous and endochondral bones, and explain how such bones develop and grow. 3. The students will conclude how osteoclasts and osteoblasts remodel bone and the factors that affect bone development, growth, and repair. 4. The students will describe the major functions of bones. 5. The students will compare and contrast the axial and appendicular skeletons, and name the major parts each. Mrs. Michaelsen 11/10/2011 Page 2

3 6. The students will classify joints according to the type of tissue binding the bones together, describe their characteristics, and name an example of each (including all six types of synovial joints). 7. The students will identify and recall the major bones of the axial and appendicular skeletons. Unit 6 Muscular System (12 days) Essential Question: What are the distinguishing functional characteristics of muscles and how does the muscle permit movement? 1. The students will label the major parts of a skeletal muscle fiber and describe the function of each. 2. The students will explain how stimulation of skeletal muscle occurs at the neuromuscular junction. 3. The students will identify and describe the major events of skeletal muscle fiber contraction (sliding filament model). 4. The students will describe the energy sources for muscle fiber contraction. 5. The students will interpret how lactic acid, oxygen debt, and muscle fatigue are related. 6. The students will compare the contraction mechanisms of skeletal, smooth, and cardiac muscle fibers. 7. The students will reconstruct how the attachments, locations, and interactions of skeletal muscles make possible certain movements. Anatomy and Physiology B Unit 1 Nervous System (Structure and Function) (8 days) Essential Question: How does the nervous system act as the master system in controlling and communicating within the body? 1. The students will deduce the general function of the nervous system and categorize the major organs into systems. 2. The students will distinguish among the types of neuroglial cells in the central and peripheral nervous system. 3. The students will discuss how differences in structure and function are used to classify neurons. 4. The students will explain how information passes from one neuron to another. 5. The students will describe the events that lead to the conduction of a nerve impulse. 6. The students will illustrate a reflex arc and explore the body s reflexes. Unit 2 Nervous System (Brain and Spinal Cord) (8 days) Essential Question: How does the nervous system act as the master system in controlling and communicating within the body? Mrs. Michaelsen 11/10/2011 Page 3

4 1. The students will illustrate the coverings of the brain and spinal cord (including cerebrospinal fluid). 2. The students will recognize the structure of the spinal cord and its major functions. 3. The students will create a model of the brain and categorize the functions of the brain. 4. The students will distinguish between motor, sensory, and association areas of the cerebral cortex. 5. The students will label the cranial nerves and list their major functions. 6. The students will compare and contrast the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system. Unit 2 Blood and Cardiovascular System (8 days) Essential Question: How does the heart work within the cardiovascular system and the body as a whole? 1. The students will describe the general characteristics of blood (including the formed elements), and discuss its major functions. 2. The students will outline the steps involved in blood coagulation. 3. The students will determine how ABO and Rh blood typing occurs. 4. The students will discuss the location, size, coverings, and position in the thoracic cavity. 5. The students will investigate and describe the heart chambers, valves, and sounds including disorders found in each. 6. The students will sequence the flow of blood through the heart (chambers, valves, and vessels). 7. The students will list the components of the heart conduction system and discuss the features of a normal electrocardiogram, including the P wave, QRS complex, and T wave. 8. The students will predict the effects of discomfort and exercise on blood pressure by taking students blood pressures. Unit 3 Digestive System and Nutrition (10 days) Essential Question: How does the digestive system take in food, break food down into nutrient molecules, absorb the molecules into the bloodstream, and rid the body of indigestible remains? 1. The students will articulate the major organs and describe the general functions of the digestive system. 2. The students will discuss the functions of the structures of the mouth (cheeks/lips, teeth, palate, tongue). 3. The students will determine the function of each enzyme secreted by the digestive organs. 4. The students will describe how digestive secretions are regulated. 5. The students will instruct how the products of digestion are absorbed. 6. The students will investigate major sources of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins. Mrs. Michaelsen 11/10/2011 Page 4

5 7. The students will characterize how cells utilize carbohydrates, lipids, and amino acids. Unit 4 Respiratory System (8 days) Essential Question: How is gas exchange facilitated by way of the respiratory system? 1. The students will identify the general functions of the respiratory system. 2. The students will compare and contrast the structure and functions of each organ of the respiratory system. 3. The students will explain the mechanisms of inspiration and expiration. 4. The students will locate the respiratory areas in the brainstem and discuss how various factors affect the respiratory areas. 5. The students will examine how air and blood exchange gases. 6. The students will recall the ways blood transports oxygen and carbon dioxide. Unit 5 Reproductive System (10 days) Essential Question: How do the male and female reproductive organs produce offspring? 1. The students will state the general functions of the male and female reproductive systems. 2. The students will outline the process of spermatogenesis and describe semen production and exit from the body. 3. The students will summarize how hormones control the activities of male reproductive organs and the development of male secondary sex characteristics. 4. The students will describe the general functions of each part of the male and female reproductive system. 5. The students will sequence the process of oogenesis. 6. The students will explain how hormones control the activities of female reproductive organs and the development of female secondary sex characteristics. 7. The students will reconstruct the events that occur during a reproductive cycle. Unit 6 Fetal Pig Laboratory (8 days) Essential Question: How does the body structure (anatomy) of a fetal pig relate to a human body and how are the organs integrated in terms of function (physiology)? 1. The students will utilize knowledge of the major anatomical directions and sections and use them to describe external and internal structures of the fetal pig. 2. The students will investigate the major organ systems of the fetal pig and compare them with those of humans. 3. The students will demonstrate an understanding the fundamental changes involved in the transformation from fetal to adult circulation/respiration. 4. The students will relate the structure (anatomy) of the fetal pig to its function (physiology). Mrs. Michaelsen 11/10/2011 Page 5

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