1 Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology: Tissues and Integumentary System Biology 105 Lecture 7 Chapter 4
2 Outline I. Tissues A. Epithelial B. Connective C. Muscle D. Nervous tissues II. Cell-to-cell contact III. Body cavities IV. Membranes V. Homeostasis VI. Integumentary System Includes: skin, hair, nails
4 Organization of the Human Body Multicellular organisms require specialized cells to perform specific tasks. These cells then organize into tissues, organs, and organ systems.
5 Tissues A tissue is a group of cells that work together to accomplish a common function. There are four primary tissue types: 1. Epithelial tissue 2. Connective tissue 3. Muscle tissue 4. Nervous tissue
6 Tissues Epithelial tissue covers the body surfaces, lines cavities and organs, and forms glands. Connective tissue binds and supports the body, provides protection for our organs, serves as a storage site for fat, and participates in immunity. Muscle tissue is responsible for movement. Nervous tissue receives stimuli and conducts nerve impulses.
7 Epithelial Tissue Epithelial tissues (epithelium) cover surfaces such as the outside of the body (our skin), as well as line internal cavities and tubes and the inside surface of the stomach and the lungs. Serves for protection, secretion and absorption, and may contain glands. Cells are tightly packed together.
8 Epithelial Tissue All epithelial tissues share two characteristics: 1. A free surface that may be specialized for protection, secretion, or absorption 2. A basement membrane, which binds the epithelial cells to underlying connective tissue
9 Epithelial Tissue - Shapes The three basic shapes of epithelial cells: 1. Squamous epithelium 2. Cuboidal epithelium 3. Columnar epithelium
10 Types of Epithelial Tissue Simple epithelial a single layer of cells classified according to cell type. Stratified epithelial two or more layers of cells, with one on top of the other. Pseudostratified epithelial looks like it has more than one layer, but really does not. Glandular epithelial secretes products like mucus, digestive enzymes, and hormones.
11 Simple Squamous Epithelium Simple squamous epithelium one layer of flattened cells Forms the lining of blood vessels and air sacs in lungs (= alveoli). Functions: exchange of nutrients, waste and gases, and protection
12 Simple Squamous Epithelium Simple Squamous One layer of flattened cells Located in air sacs of lungs, and forms the lining of the heart and blood vessels Allows exchange of nutrients, gases, and wastes Figure 4.1 (1 of 6)
13 Stratified Squamous Epithelium Several layers of flattened cells Located on surface of skin, and lining of mouth, esophagus, and vagina Functions: provides protection against abrasion, infection, and drying out
14 Stratified Squamous Epithelium Stratified Squamous Several layers of flattened cells Located on surface of skin, and lining of mouth, esophagus, and vagina Provides protection against abrasion, infection, and drying out Figure 4.1 (4 of 6)
15 Simple Cuboidal Epithelium Simple cuboidal epithelium one layer of cube-shaped cells Lines the kidney tubules, ovaries, and glands Functions: secretion and absorption
16 Simple Cuboidal Epithelium Simple Cuboidal One layer of cube-shaped cells Located in linings of kidney tubules and glands Functions in absorption and secretion Figure 4.1 (2 of 6)
17 Stratified Cuboidal Epithelium Stratified cuboidal epithelium more than one layer of cube-shaped cells Located in ducts of mammary glands, sweat glands, and salivary glands Functions: protection
18 Stratified Cuboidal Epithelium STRATIFIED EPITHELIUM Stratified Cuboidal Usually two layers of cube-shaped cells Located in ducts of mammary glands, sweat glands, and salivary glands Functions in protection Figure 4.1 (5 of 6)
19 Simple Columnar Epithelium Simple columnar epithelium one layer of rectangular cells Lines the digestive tract, respiratory tract, and the uterus Functions: absorption and secretion
20 Simple Columnar Epithelium SIMPLE EPITHELIUM Simple Columnar One layer of tall, slender cells Located in lining of gut and respiratory tract Functions in absorption and secretion Figure 4.1 (3 of 6)
21 Pseudostratified Ciliated Columnar Epithelium Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium looks like it has more than one layer, but it does not Lines respiratory tract. Function: removes debris from the lungs
22 Stratified Columnar Epithelium Stratifed columnar epithelium more than one layer of rectangular cells Location (rare!): urethra, and junction of esophagus and stomach Functions: protection and secretion
23 Stratified Columnar Epithelium STRATIFIED EPITHELIUM Stratified Columnar Several layers of tall, slender cells Rare: located in urethra (tube through which urine leaves the body) Functions in protection and secretion Figure 4.1 (6 of 6)
24 Tissue Specialization Location Simple squamous Simple cuboidal Simple columnar Pseudostratified Diffusion Absorption and secretion Absorption and secretion Removing debris Alveoli and blood vessels Kidney tubules, ovaries, and glands Digestive tract, respiratory tract, and uterus Respiratory tract
25 Tissue Specialization Location Stratified squamous Stratified cuboidal Stratified columnar Protection Protection Protection and secretion Skin, mouth, esophagus, vagina Ducts of mammary, sweat, and salivary glands Urethra, junction of esophagus and stomach
26 Table 4.1 Epithelial Tissues Table 4.1
27 Glands Glands are composed of epithelial tissue. Exocrine glands secrete their products into ducts. Endocrine glands secrete their products directly into blood.
28 Which of the following is a location where you would find simple cuboidal epithelium? 1. Blood vessels 2. Uterus 3. Kidneys 4. Digestive tract 25% 25% 25% 25% Blood vessels Uterus Kidneys Digestive tract
29 Connective Tissue Connective tissues stabilize, bind, and support other tissues. Cells in connective tissue are usually separated from each other by extracellular material (examples: fibers, carbohydrates). The connective tissue cells secrete this extracellular material.
30 Connective Tissue Many different types of connective tissue: 1. Areolar 2. Adipose 3. Dense (tendons and ligaments) 4. Cartilage 5. Bone 6. Blood
31 1. Loose Areolar Connective Tissue Cells: fibroblasts Fibroblasts secrete protein fibers Functions bind and support Locations under skin, around organs, between muscles
32 Cells = fibroblasts
33 2. Loose Adipose Connective Tissue Cells: adipose cells Stores triglycerides Functions energy storage, insulation, cushioning for organs Locations under skin, and around kidneys and heart
34 Loose Adipose Tissue Adipose (Fat) Tissue Found under skin, around kidneys and heart Functions in energy storage and insulation; provides cushioning for organs Figure 4.2 (2 of 6)
35 3. Dense Connective Tissue Cells: fibroblasts Functions: attaches bone to bone (ligaments), and attaches muscle to bone (tendons) Locations tendons and ligaments
36 Dense Connective Tissue Dense Connective Tissue Found in tendons and ligaments Forms strong bands that attach bone to muscle or bone to bone Figure 4.2 (3 of 6)
37 4. Cartilage (Specialized Connective Tissue) Cells: chondrocytes Cells are located in chambers = lacunae Lacunae are surrounded by a matrix: This type of tissue is strong but flexible. Functions: support and protection (cushioning) Locations: nose, ends of long bones, ribs, in joints, outer ear, and between the vertebrae in the backbone There is not a direct blood supply, so this type of tissue heals slowly.
39 5. Bone (Specialized Connective Tissue) Bone cells: osteocytes Cells are found in lacunae. Rigid connective tissue. Made of hard matrix (provides strength), and protein fibers including collagen (provide strength and flexibility) Functions: 1. Protects and supports internal structures 2. Facilitates movement along with the muscles 3. Stores lipids, calcium, and phosphorus 4. Produces blood cells
41 Bone SPECIALIZED CONNECTIVE TISSUE Bone Found in the skeleton Functions in support, protection (by enclosing organs), and movement Figure 4.2 (5 of 6)
42 6. Blood (Specialized Connective Tissue) Blood consists of liquid (plasma) and formed elements including: Red Blood Cells (RBC) transport oxygen to body cells White Blood Cells (WBC) fight infection Platelets cell fragments necessary for blood clotting.
43 Blood Blood Found within blood vessels Transports nutrients, gases, hormones, wastes; fights infections Figure 4.2 (6 of 6)
44 Connective Tissue Table 4.2
45 Which cells are found in dense connective tissue? 1. Chondrocytes 2. Osteocytes 3. Fibroblasts 4. Osteoblasts 25% 25% 25% 25% Chondrocytes Osteocytes Fibroblasts Osteoblasts
46 Muscle Tissue Muscle tissue can contract and shorten There are three types of muscle tissue that vary in structure, location, and control mechanisms: 1. Skeletal 2. Cardiac 3. Smooth
47 Skeletal Muscle Tissue Location: attached to bones Type of Control: under voluntary control
48 Skeletal Muscle Tissue Nucleus Striation Width of one muscle cell Skeletal Muscle Long cylindrical striated cells with many nuclei Voluntary contraction Most are found attached to the skeleton Responsible for voluntary movement Figure 4.3 (1 of 3)
49 Cardiac Muscle Tissue Location: walls of the heart Type of Control: under involuntary control
50 Cardiac Muscle Tissue Striation Specialized Nucleus junction Cardiac Muscle Branching striated cells with one nucleus Involuntary contraction Found in wall of heart Pumps blood through the body Figure 4.3 (2 of 3)
51 Smooth Muscle Tissue Locations: surrounds other organs and structures (examples: blood vessels, digestive system, lungs) Type of Control: under involuntary control
52 Smooth Muscle Tissue Nucleus Smooth muscle cell Smooth Muscle Cells tapered at each end with one nucleus Involuntary contraction Found in walls of hollow internal organs such as the intestines, and tubes such as blood vessels Contractions in digestive system move food along When arranged in circle, controls diameter of tube Figure 4.3 (6 of 6)
53 Muscle Tissue Table 4.3
54 This type of muscle is under voluntary control: 1. Skeletal 2. Smooth 3. Cardiac 33% 33% 33% Skeletal Smooth Cardiac
55 Nervous Tissue Nervous tissue: Consists of neurons and neuroglia Neurons nerve cells that conduct the message Neuroglia cells that support neurons Makes up the brain, spinal cord, and nerves Functions conducts messages throughout the body
57 Cell Junctions The cells that make up tissues are held together by three types of junctions: 1. Tight junctions 2. Adhesion junctions 3. Gap junctions
58 Tight Junctions Function prevent substances from leaking across tissues Locations urinary and digestive tracts
59 Tight Junctions Creates an impermeable junction that prevents the exchange of materials between cells Found between epithelial cells of the digestive tract, where they prevent digestive enzymes and microorganisms from entering the blood Plasma membrane Intercellular space Tight junction protein Basement membrane Connective tissue Figure 4.5a
60 Adhesion Junctions Function holds adjacent cells together and allows tissues to be flexible Locations skin, and opening of the uterus
61 Adhesion Junctions Holds cells together despite stretching Found in tissues that are often stretched, such as the skin and the opening of the uterus Intercellular space Figure 4.5b
62 Gap Junctions Function open channels between cells allowing rapid communication due to quick transfer of ions and small molecules between neighboring cells Locations heart and smooth muscle
63 Gap Junctions Allows cells to communicate by allowing small molecules and ions to pass from cell to cell Found in epithelia where the movement of ions coordinates functions, such as the beating of cilia Found in excitable tissue, such as heart and smooth muscle Protein channels Intercellular space Figure 4.5c
64 Which junction allows rapid communication between neighboring cells? 1. Tight 2. Adhering 3. Gap 33% 33% 33% Tight Adhering Gap
65 Which junction prevent substances from leaking across tissues? 1. Tight 2. Adhering 3. Gap 33% 33% 33% Tight Adhering Gap
66 Body Cavities We have two main body cavities: Dorsal cavity (posterior) Ventral cavity (anterior)
68 Ventral Body Cavity The ventral cavity is divided into two cavities: Thoracic cavity The thoracic cavity is further subdivided into: Pleural cavities contains lungs Pericardial cavity contains heart Abdominal cavity The abdominal cavity contains the digestive system, the urinary system, and the reproductive system. The diaphragm is a broad sheet of muscle that divides the two cavities.
69 Body Cavities Thoracic cavity Pleural cavity contains a lung Pericardial cavity contains heart Ventral cavity Thoracic cavity Diaphragm Abdominal cavity Figure 4.6 (1 of 6)
70 Dorsal Cavity The dorsal cavity is divided into two cavities: Cranial contains brain Spinal contains spinal cord
71 Body Cavities Dorsal cavity Cranial cavity contains brain Spinal cavity contains spinal cord Vertebra Figure 4.6 (2 of 2)
72 The arrow is pointing to the: 1. Cranial 2. Thoracic 3. Abdominopelvic 33% 33% 33% Cranial Thoracic Abdominopelvic
73 The arrow is pointing to the: 1. Cranial 2. Thoracic 3. Abdominopelvic 33% 33% 33% Cranial Thoracic Abdominopelvic
74 The arrow is pointing to the: 1. Pleural 2. Pericardial 50% 50% Pleural Pericardial
75 Membranes Body cavities and surfaces of organs are covered with membranes. Membranes are sheets of epithelium supported by connective tissues. Membranes protect tissues and organs.
76 Membranes There are four types of membranes: 1. Mucous 2. Serous 3. Synovial 4. Cutaneous
77 Mucous Membranes Mucous line passages to the exterior world, including those of the respiratory, digestive, reproductive, and urinary systems in the body Secrete mucus
78 Serous Membranes Serous line thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities and the organs contained in them Secrete lubricating fluid
79 Synovial Membranes Synovial line cavities of freely movable joints Secrete a lubricating fluid
80 Cutaneous Membranes Cutaneous skin, lines the outside of the body (thick and dry)
81 Organs and Organ System An organ is a group of tissues that work together to perform a specific function. In turn, organs work together to form an organ system.
82 Example Organ: Stomach 1. Epithelium lines the stomach and secretes acid to digest the food. 2. Nervous tissue stimulates cells to release the acid. 3. Muscles contract to push food through the stomach. 4. Connective tissue supports these other tissues.
84 Remember Homeostasis?!? Homeostasis the ability to maintain a relatively stable environment in the body How does the body accomplish this daunting task?!?
85 Feedback The body uses the nervous system and the endocrine systems to maintain homeostasis. Controlled by negative or positive feedback
86 Feedback Figure 4.12
87 Feedback Mechanism A sensor/receptor detects a change (= stimulus) in the internal or external environment. A control center, such as a part of the brain, integrates the information coming from all receptors and sends out an appropriate response. The effector carries out the response, returning the system to homeostasis again.
88 Hormones Hormone a substance released into the blood that carries a message to other parts of the body. When hormones are released from one part of the body, they cause another part of the body to react.
89 Feedback In general, Negative Feedback is used to keep the body in balance, and it maintains the status quo. Positive Feedback is used to change the situation.
90 Negative Feedback Example: Calcium Example: calcium regulation Calcium is stored in the bones and circulates in the blood stream. Cells in the bones, osteoclasts, release calcium from bone.
91 Negative Feedback Example: Calcium Stimulus: calcium levels drop too low in the blood stream Sensor/receptor: parathyroid glands Control center: the parathyroid gland releases parathyroid hormone Effectors: osteoclast cells in bone release calcium and the kidneys reabsorb more calcium
92 Negative Feedback Example: Calcium Stimulus: calcium levels increase too high in the blood stream Sensor/receptor: parathyroid glands Control center: the parathyroid gland stops releasing parathyroid hormone Effectors: osteoclast cells in bone stop releasing calcium and the kidneys reabsorb less calcium
93 Negative Feedback Example: Temperature Read pages 79-81: temperature regulation in the body Hyperthermia: abnormally elevated body temperature Hypothermia: abnormally low body temperature The thermostat for the body is located in the hypothalamus.
94 Positive Feedback Example: Childbirth Stimulus: when the baby leaves the uterus, the muscles in the cervix stretch. Nerves in the cervix send a message to the hypothalamus gland. Sensor/receptor: stretch receptors in the cervix Control Center: hypothalamus gland causes the pituitary gland to release oxytocin Effector : muscles of uterus contract
95 Positive Feedback Example: Childbirth More pressure stimulates the stretch receptors, which signal the hypothalamus to tell the pituitary gland to release more oxytocin.
96 Integumentary System Components of the integumentary system: Skin Nails Hair Exocrine glands (sweat and oil glands)
97 Integumentary System Functions 1. Provides protection from bacteria, UV radiation, chemicals, physical injury 2. Reduces water loss 3. Temperature regulation 4. Vitamin D production 5. Contains sensors that detect pain, temperature, and pressure
98 Skin Layers The skin has two layers: 1. Epidermis thin outer layer of stratified squamous epithelial tissue 2. Dermis thick underlying layer of mainly connective tissue
101 Epidermis Epidermis consists of several layers of squamous epithelial cells (stratified). Deepest layer contains rapidly dividing cells. Outer surface is made up of dead skin cells. Protective properties come from keratin. Melanocytes produce melanin.
102 Dermis The dermis consists primarily of connective tissue. Also contains vascular tissue, hair follicles, sweat glands, nerves, and sensory receptors Collagen and elastic fibers are found in the lower layer, which allows the skin to stretch and return to its original shape.
103 Hypodermis The hypodermis is a layer of loose connective tissue beneath the dermis and epidermis, connecting them to other tissues. The hypodermis is not a part of the skin it lays underneath the skin.
104 Accessory Organs of the Skin Nails - sheets of hard keratinized cells forming a protective covering for the fingers and toes. Hair follicles - found in the dermis and where sebum is released to lubricate the hair. Sweat glands - play a role in modifying body temperature and have ducts that lead to a pore at the surface of the skin. Sebaceous glands - secrete sebum, an oily substance that lubricates the skin and hair.
105 Skin Cancer Melanin protects against UV radiation. Three types of skin cancer: 1. Basal cell carcinoma from rapidly dividing cells deep in the epidermis 2. Squamous cell carcinoma from newly formed cells as they flatten 3. Melanoma from melanocytes; far more dangerous than other skin cancers and more likely to spread to other body parts
106 Figure 4.A Three skin cancers
107 Melanoma in the United States 2005 Estimates Ref: the American Cancer Society New Cases 59,600 Deaths Per Year 7,800 5-Year Overall Survival Rate 91% 5-Year Localized Survival Rate 98% 5-Year regional Survival Rate 60% 5-Year distant Survival Rate 14%
108 These cells found in skin produce pigments: 1. Chondrocytes 2. Melanocytes 3. Fibroblasts 4. Osteocytes 25% 25% 25% 25% Chondrocytes Melanocytes Fibroblasts Osteocytes
109 Important Concepts Read chapter 4 What are the four tissue types, their functions, and examples of each type? What are examples, functions, and locations of each of the types of connective tissue? Why does it take longer for cartilage to heal? What cell types are found in each type of connective tissue?
110 Important Concepts What are the functions of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets? What are the three types of muscle? What are their functions, and where they are found? Are they under voluntary or involuntary control? What are the two types of nervous tissue cells and their functions? What are the types of epithelial tissue, where are they found, and what are their functions?
111 Important Concepts What are the two types of glands? How do negative and positive feedback mechanisms work? Be able to describe the examples of negative and positive feedback given in class and in the textbook (e.g. identify the sensor, control center, and effector for each example). What are the three cell-to-cell junctions and their functions?
112 Important Concepts Identify the body cavities: what are their locations and what is contained in each of the cavities? What are the four types of membranes, their functions and locations? What are the functions of the integumentary system? Components of the integumentary system and their functions
113 Important Concepts What are the two layers of the skin? Which type of tissues comprise each layer, and where are the layers located? What layer is found underneath the skin, and which tissue type comprises this layer? What are the three types of skin cancer, where do they originate, and which is more likely to spread to other parts of the body? What are melanocytes, and what is their function?
Slide 1 Ch. 3 Cells and Tissues Tissues. Slide 2 Body Tissues Tissues Groups of cells with similar structure and function Four primary types Epithelial tissue (epithelium) Connective tissue Muscle tissue
Chapter 5 Tissues Four major tissue types 1. Epithelial 2. Connective 3. Muscle 4. Nervous 1 General characteristics - cover organs and the body line body cavities line hollow organs have a free surface
Tissue Slides for Studying Simple squamous single layer of flat cells substances pass easily through line air sacs line blood vessels line lymphatic vessels Surface of simple squamous Simple cuboidal single
Animal Tissues There are four types of tissues found in animals: epithelial tissue, connective tissue, muscle tissue, and nervous tissue. In this lab you will learn the major characteristics of each tissue
Tissue worksheet Name Section A: Intro to Histology Cells are the smallest units of life. In complex organisms, cells group together with one another based on similar structure and function to form tissues.
I. Histology the study of tissues A. 4 basic tissue types epithelial connective muscle nervous Tissues (Histology) Ch. 3 Human Anatomy lecture B. Usually found in combinations to form organs. C. As you
Essentials of Anatomy & Physiology, 4th Edition Martini / Bartholomew The Tissue Level of Organization PowerPoint Lecture Outlines prepared by Alan Magid, Duke University Slides 1 to 64 Overview of Tissue
Chapter 4: Body Tissues and Membranes 1. Which tissue covers surfaces and lines cavities? A) connective B) epithelial C) muscle D) connective and muscle 2. Epithelial tissue A) prevents drying. B) secretes
The Tissue Level of Organization Tissues A groups of similar cells, usually having similar embryonic origin and specialized function Histology: the study of tissues Four general types Epithelial Muscle
Tissues Whole body contains only 200 different cells types that are organized into tissues The extracellular fluid surrounding the cells organized into tissues is called interstitial fluid Four primary
Welcome to the site that will help you prepare for the Name the Tissue and its Function game. Questions to remember while you are practicing: a. What is the tissue type? b. What is its function? c. How
First Quiz First Hour Exam is next Monday!!! Introduction to Tissues Histology is the study of tissues Individual body cells are specialized w/ each cell type performing specific functions that maintain
The Integumentary System Dr. Ali Ebneshahidi The Skin The integument system consists of the skin (cutaneous membrane) and its accessory organs. The skin is composed of three layers of tissue: the outer
Anatomy & Physiology Tissues Classwork 1. Arrange the following in order from least complex to most complex: organ, tissue, cell, organism, organ system. 2. List the four major groups of tissues in animals.
Vertebrate Body Organization Digestive tube suspended in coelom from mouth to anus Body supported by internal skeleton of jointed bones Vertebrae and Cranium protects nervous system Diaphragm divides coelom
BIO 137: CHAPTER 1 OBJECTIVES 1. Define the terms anatomy and physiology, and explain their relationship using an example of a human structure with its corresponding function. A. ANATOMY = the study of
1 TISSUES OF THE BODY Tissues are formed from the assemblage of cells and intercellular materials in various proportions in which one component predominates. In nervous tissue as an example, nerve cells
LESSON ASSIGNMENT LESSON 2 Tissues of the Body. TEXT ASSIGNMENT Paragraphs 2-1 through 2-17. LESSON OBJECTIVES After completing this lesson, you should be able to: 2-1. Define tissue. 2-2. Name four major
Basic Human Anatomy Lesson 2: Tissues of the Body Welcome to Lesson 2 of the Basic Human Anatomy Course. Today, we ll be studying the Basic Tissues of the Body. I have 5 goals for you in this lesson: 1.
Biology 152 Tissues Objectives Your job in this assignment is to learn 19 tissues that were selected by the Nursing and Allied Health professionals as the most important ones for members of those fields
CHAPTER 33 ANIMAL ORGANIZATION AND HOMEOSTASIS Chapter Outline 33.1 Types of Tissues A. Levels of Organization 1. The levels of organization are: cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems. 2. The structure
Human Anatomy & Physiology I with Dr. Hubley Practice Exam 1 1. Which definition is the best definition of the term gross anatomy? a. The study of cells. b. The study of tissues. c. The study of structures
Student Guide The Morphology and Function of Tissue Types Name: Date: Introduction: Histology is often a very difficult topic for students. You are expected to understand the morphology and function of
Resource For A&P The following source of information will help you master the the basics of anatomy and physiology 1. Body Smart http://www.getbodysmart.com www.getbodysmart.com/ which has animations to
Chetek-Weyerhaeuser High School Anatomy and Physiology Units and Anatomy and Physiology A Unit 1 Introduction to Human Anatomy and Physiology (6 days) Essential Question: How do the systems of the human
recall: the cell cell smallest, metabolically functional unit of body 200+ different types of tissues cells exist in the human body each specialized for a specific function tissues groups of interconnected
Essentials of Anatomy and Physiology, 5e (Martini/Nath) Chapter 4 The Tissue Level of Organization Multiple-Choice Questions 1) The four main types of tissues include A) epithelium. B) muscle. C) nerve.
The adult body is made up of: 100 trillion cells 206 bones 600 muscles 22 internal organs 11 organ systems 1. Circulatory System 2.Respiratory System ( 3.Immune System (many types of protein, cells, organs,
Name Period Date THE HUMAN BODY SYSTEMS System Function Diagram Major Organs Digestive 1. take in food (ingestion) 2. digest food into smaller molecules and absorb nutrients 3. remove undigestable food
Histology Epithelial Tissue Epithelial Tissue Lines internal and external body surfaces Forms glands Epithelial Tissue Little extracellular matrix Attached on one side Avascular Basement membrane Apical
Ch. 1: An Introduction to Human Anatomy and Physiology I. The Human Body - An Orientation A. Anatomy 1. Study of the structure and shape of the body and its parts B. Physiology 1. Study of how the body
Chapter Presentation Visual Concepts Transparencies Standardized Test Prep Introduction to Body Structure Table of Contents Section 1 Body Organization Section 2 Skeletal System Section 3 Muscular System
Human Body Systems Body Organization and Homeostasis Objectives Describe how the human body is organized Explain homeostasis Organization of the Body Every cell in the human body is both an independent
Tissues Tissue: Group of cells with the same function. Types of tissue: Epithelial, connective, muscle and nervous Cells vary in size, arrangement, shape and function but those of a tissue are similar.
Chapter 36 Skeletal, Muscular, and Integumentary Systems Section 36 1 The Skeletal System (pages 921 925) This section describes the skeletal system and its functions. Introduction (page 921) 1. What forms
Biology 2401 - Anatomy and Physiology I Exam 1 notes - Introduction, Cell and Tissue Structure Two major principles in study of animal bodies: (humans, like other living organisms are product of evolutionary
HUMAN ANATOMY for CNA's & HHA's INTRODUCTION Anatomy is the study of the structure of the organs and tissues of the human body. Our bodies are made up of tiny, microscopic building blocks called cells.
Classification of Tissues Introduction: As mentioned earlier, cells are the smallest units of life. In complex organisms, cells group together with one another based on similar structure and function to
Thibodeau: Anatomy and Physiology, 5/e Chapter 5: Tissues The logical step after the study of the cell, is to concentrate on the next level of anatomic structure: that is, the grouping of similar cells
OBJECTIVES: 1. Define the term tissue. 2. Name the four primary adult tissue types, and give a brief description of each. 3. Describe the functions and types of extracellular fluid (ECF). 4. Compare and
Name Period Chap 35.1, 35.2, 35.3, 36.1, 36.2, 36.3, and 38.3 A look at cells, tissues, organs, organ systems of humans as well as the role of passive and active transport in nerve and muscle conduction
Lecture 3: Connective Tissue and Integument Reading: M&O Ch 4, 5 15. Compare and contrast the roles of individual cell types and fiber types within connective tissue. 16. Classify the different types of
ORGAN SYSTEMS OF THE BODY DEFINITIONS AND CONCEPTS A. Organ a structure made up of two or more kinds of tissues organized in such a way that they can together perform a more complex function that can any
Lab Exercise 4 Epithelial Tissues Connective Tissue Proper Textbook Reference: See Chapter 4 What you need to be able to do on the exam after completing this lab exercise: Be able to identify each type
Lecture 3: Connective Tissue and Integument Reading: M&O Ch 4, 5 15. Compare and contrast the roles of individual cell types and fiber types within connective tissue. 16. Classify the different types of
Hole s Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology David Shier Jackie Butler Ricki Lewis Created by Dr. Melissa Eisenhauer Head Athletic Trainer/Assistant Professor Trevecca Nazarene University Amended by
Name Class Date Laboratory Investigation 24A Chapter 24A: Human Skin Human Anatomy & Physiology: Integumentary System You may refer to pages 386-394 in your textbook for a general discussion of the integumentary
Unit 1: Terminology, Tissues, and Skin SAP1. Students will analyze anatomical structures in relationship to their physiological functions. b. Investigate the interdependence of the various body systems
THE GI TRACT IS A CONTINUOUS MULTILAYERED TUBE EXTENDING FROM THE MOUTH TO THE ANUS THAT IS SUPPORTED AND PARTIALLY COVERED BY THE PERITONEUM. OVERVIEW OF THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM Two groups of organs compose
FETAL PIG HISTOLOGY Adipose A form of loose connective tissue comprised of fat storing adipocyte cells. The cells contain a large fat droplet, which forces the nucleus to be squeezed into a thin rim at
Anatomy & Physiology Bio 2401 Lecture Instructor: Daryl Beatty Day 1 Intro to Lecture 1 Introduction: Daryl Beatty M.S. Microbiology 28 Years Dow, Research & TS&D. Family BC since 2007 More importantly:
LEARNING OBJECTIVES NOTE: Please review the objectives for both the lecture and lab in preparation for lecture exams. Although lab questions will not be on the lecture exams, many of the objectives overlap,
Human Anatomy & Physiology I with Dr. Hubley Practice Exam #2 For questions 1 through 3, select your answers from the following responses: a. stratified squamous epithelium b. reticular connective tissue
SAMPLE LECTURE EXAM 1 -- HUMAN ANATOMY 1. The subcutaneous layer consists mostly of. a. smooth muscle c. areolar and adipose connective tissues d. melanin e. keratin 2. Which of the following statements
Objectives INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM CHAPTER 4 1. List the general function of each membrane type (cutaneous, mucous, serous, synovial) and give its location. 2. Compare the tissue makeup of the major membrane
Anatomy and Physiology 121: The Integumentary System Functions of the Integumentary System 1. Protection 2. Body Temperature Regulation 3. Metabolic Functions 4. Blood Reservoir 5. Excretion 6. Cutaneous
Epithelium Epithelial membrane The principal functions of epithelium are : 1 Production of under lining tissues from injury. 2 Transcellular transport of molecules across epithelial layers. 3 Secretion
1 These are just some of the every day questions that are explained by skin anatomy. 2 The integument (skin, cutaneous membrane) includes two general layers of tissue. The more superficial layer, exposed
The Cutaneous Membrane Lab Skin Model An overview of human skin anatomy including the types of skin cells in each layer. Complete with an anatomy quiz so you can test your understanding. Skin is actually
Chapter 4: The Tissue Level of Organization With this chapter we conclude our introductory march through the body s levels of organization (recall the top of 10 th Martini Figure 1-1). We discussed the
Connective Tissues Directions: Insert and install your Interactions: Foundations CD. a. Click the "Contents" button. b. Open the Tissue Level of Organization file. c. Click on Anatomy Overviews. d. Work
Anatomy and Physiology BOE approved April 21, 2011 There is a hierarchical organization of the human body which demonstrates the relationship between form and function. A. The language of anatomy is essential
The Tissue Level of Organization Group of similar cells common embryonic origin common function Histology study of tissues Pathologist looks for tissue changes that indicate disease 4 Basic Tissues Epithelial
Human ody Test Name: ate: 1. difference between the human nervous system and the endocrine system is that 4. Which sequence shows the pathway that food takes in the digestive system?. nerve responses are
Chapter 3: Protein Synthesis &Tissues Protein Synthesis GENES: The Blueprint for Protein Structure Gene a DNA segment that carries the information for building one protein or polypeptide chain. Fibrous
reflect Think about all of the things you do in a single day. You eat, travel to school, study for tests, communicate with your family members and classmates, and more. All of these activities are possible
Name: Questions on The Nervous System and Gas Exchange Directions: The following questions are taken from previous IB Final Papers on Topics 6.4 (Gas Exchange) and 6.5 (Nerves, hormones and homeostasis).
Grade: 10,11, and 12 Subject: Anatomy and Physiology First Marking Period Define anatomy and physiology, and describe various subspecialties of each discipline. Describe the five basic functions of living
Engage: Brainstorming Body s Record the structures and function of each body system in the table below. Body Nervous Circulatory Excretory Immune Digestive Respiratory Skeletal Muscular Endocrine Integumentary
Connective Tissues Anatomy and Physiology Text and Laboratory Workbook, Stephen G. Davenport, Copyright 2006, All Rights Reserved, no part of this publication can be used for any commercial purpose. Permission
Human Body Tissues Levels of Organization 1. Cells 2. = groups of similar cells that perform a 3. Organ = 4. = group of organs Four Major Tissues 1. 2. 3. 4. Epithelial Tissue Nerve Tissue Muscle Tissue
OpenStax-CNX module: m47709 1 Derived copy of Epithelial Tissue Donna Browne Based on Epithelial Tissue by OpenStax College This work is produced by OpenStax-CNX and licensed under the Creative Commons
By Casey Schmidt and Wendy Ford Body systems Digestive System Circulatory System Respiratory System Excretory System Immune System Reproductive System Nervous System Muscular System Skeletal System Endocrine
Types of Tissues Bởi: OpenStaxCollege The term tissue is used to describe a group of cells found together in the body. The cells within a tissue share a common embryonic origin. Microscopic observation
Epithelial tissue The epithelium is a sheet of aggregated cells of similar type that covers body surfaces, lines hollow organs or modified to form glands or neuroepithelium. General features of epithelium
Skin and appendages Lecture objectives briefly list the functions of the integumentary system. describe the two principal layer of the skin. list the layers of the epidermis. describe what are lines of
Tissues of vertabrates Premedical 22 Tissues = cells of specific structure and the same function four basic (primar) types of tissue: 1. Epithelia ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm 2. Connective tissue - mesoderm
Essentials of Anatomy & Physiology, 4th Edition Martini / Bartholomew An Introduction to Anatomy & Physiology PowerPoint Lecture Outlines prepared by Alan Magid, Duke University Slides 1 to 73 Introduction
Histology lecture I Epithelial tissue (Epithelium) Prepared by College of medicine Taibah University 1 1.Epithelial tissue (epithelium) Epithelial tissue is one of the 4 basic tissues of the body. Epithelial
Anatomical Position Standing erect Hands at side with palms facing forward Feet together Deep/Superficial Planes Hierarchy of Structures Within the Human Body Subatomic Particles Protons Neutrons Electrons
Human Anatomy and Physiology The Respiratory System Basic functions of the respiratory system: as a Gas exchange supply oxygen to aerobic tissues in the body and remove carbon dioxide waste product. in-
Human Biology Book Ch. 3.3 Skin performs important functions. Just as an apple's skin protects the fruit inside, your skin protects the rest of your body. Made up of flat sheets of cells, your skin protects
Your consent to our cookies if you continue to use this website.