Electronic Troubleshooting. Chapter 10 Digital Circuits

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1 Electronic Troubleshooting Chapter 10 Digital Circuits

2 Digital Circuits Key Aspects Logic Gates Inverters NAND Gates Specialized Test Equipment MOS Circuits Flip-Flops and Counters

3 Logic Gates Characteristics A combinational Logic circuit with two or more inputs and one output OR Gates And Gates Exclusive OR Gates etc. Inputs are limited too two values High Logic 1 Often assumed to be +5V Low Logic 0 Often assumed to be 0V

4 Logic Gates Characteristics Inputs are limited too two values Possible combinations 2-inputs with 2-possible values => 4 permutations Permutations 2 n, n= number of inputs OR Gate

5 AND Gate Logic Gates

6 Logic Gates Exclusive OR Gate The XOR gate (sometimes EOR gate) is a digital logic gate that implements exclusive disjunction - it behaves according to the truth table A HIGH output (1) results if one, and only one, of the inputs to the gate is HIGH (1). If both inputs are LOW (0) or both are HIGH (1), a LOW output (0) results. Boolean algebra

7 Logic Gates Sample Gate Application AND Gate What would the Output be with: OR Gate, XOR Gate

8 Inverters Characteristics Changes one logic level to the other Often needed in digital circuits Chapter 9 page 248» The R input to the flip-flop has an invert on it

9 Sample Application Inverters Notice the line over BURST. It is called BURST NOT

10 NAND Gates Key Aspects Can be built with the gates already covered An AND Gate followed by an Inverter So commonly used construction are available monolithic implementations Characteristics

11 Actual Gate Considerations Key Aspects Will use NAND Gates as a sub fro all gates Simplified /Improved Component Count Two emitters almost as easy in manufacturing as one Accomplished when artwork for the IC is made Three components less

12 Actual Gate Considerations Rise Time Problems Caused by the input capacitance of gates driven high TTL gates typically have a Fan out of 10 Thus the parallel connection the gate s input capacitance is significant Rise time we decrease if R2 was made smaller However significant current would flow when Q2 was turned on

13 Actual Gate Considerations Rise Time Problems Solution Use Totem Pole Output Totem Pole Operation When at least on input is low Q2 is off, No current in R3 and Q4 is off Q3 is on and R4 can be small and minimize the time constant for the output to go high» Whit a Low out Q3 is off When both inputs are High Reverse currents supply base of Q4

14 Actual Gate Considerations Rise Time Problems Totem Pole Operation When both inputs are High Reverse currents supply base of Q2, Q2 conducts Base of Q4 goes high and Q4 conducts Output is Low Much faster Rise times Since Q3 only conducts when the output is high, R3 can be sized to minimize the time constant and not cause a heat and efficiency problem

15 Actual Gate Considerations Typical TTL parameters

16 Actual Gate Considerations Typical TTL part

17 Actual Gate Considerations Standard 74 series TTL has evolved into other series: Standard TTL, 74 series Schottky TTL, 74S series Low power Schottky TTL, 74LS series (LS-TTL) Advanced Schottky TTL, 74AS series (AS-TTL) Advanced low power Schottky TTL, 74ALS series 74F fast TTL

18 Specialized Test Equipment Logic Probe Example: Instek GLP-1A Logic Probe

19 Specialized Test Equipment Digital Pulser Digital Pulser (SJ-1) Accurate Timebase Generator Output: Open Collector (Interfaceable with any Logic Circuits) Supply: 4.5V-18VDC 9 Selectable Output Frequencies: 16MHz (crystal osc. output), 8MHz, 1MHz, 100KHz, 10KHz, 1KHz, 100Hz, 10Hz & 1Hz.

20 Specialized Test Equipment Logic Analyzere

21 Specialized Test Equipment Testing a gate in a Live Circuit

22 MOS Circuits Characteristics Most common type is CMOS Complementary MOS Circuits use both P-Channel and N-Channel devices in the same circuit CMOS Circuits consume very little power Most of the TTL logic gates have been implemented in CMOS Typical Gates covered Inverters and NOR gates Inverter Same logic symbol as for the TTL version Same truth table

23 MOS Circuits Inverter Circuit Operation With the input at ground Logic 0 0V Gate-source on the N-Channel device (Q2) and it is off -Vdd Gate to-source on Q1 and it is on and acts like a 1000 Ω resistor Vdd on the output With the input at ground Logic 1 Q1 conducts and appears as a 1000 Ω resistor Q2 is off and appears as an open

24 MOS Circuits NOR Gate Characteristics Refer to Figure on page 281 of the textbook Logic table Logic 1 out only with all logic 0s on the input Construction Two P channel MOSFETs connected to the inputs and connected in series with the VDD and the output Two N channel MOSFETs connected to the inputs and in parallel between the output and ground Circuit Operation With both inputs at ground A & B at Logic 0 Q1 and Q2 turn on and conduct Q3 and Q4 are open and not conducting - VDD appears at the Output

25 MOS Circuits NOR Gate Circuit Operation With both inputs, A & B at Logic 0 Q1 and Q2 turn on and conduct Q3 and Q4 are open and not conducting - VDD appears at the Output With either or both A & B at Logic 1 Either Q1 or Q2, or both are turned off and not conducting much Either Q3, Q4, or both are turned on and conducting Logic 0 appears at the Output CMOS Characteristics See chart on the next slide Handling Precautions see top of page 283

26 MOS Circuits CMOS Characteristics

27 Flip-Flops and Counters Characteristics Used to make sequential logic circuits Outputs depend upon: A previous event Combinational logic inputs The circuits remember what has happened Covered topics RS Flip-Flops D Flip-Flops J-K Flip-Flops Binary and Decade Counters 7-Segment displays

28 Flip-Flops and Counters RS Flip-Flops Can be implemented using NAND, NOR, AND, OR, and Inverters NOR gate Implementation Lower right drawing Used ½ of a 7402 IC Inputs are Active Highs A high input will change the state of the Gate NAND gate Implementation Used ½ of a 7400 IC

29 Flip-Flops and Counters RS Flip-Flops NAND gate Implementation Notice on the circuit and the logic symbol Active Low inputs A Low input will change the state of the Gate A High input will not effect the output Other implementations use AND & OR gates with inverters See NAND Gates below

30 Flip-Flops and Counters RS Flip-Flops NAND Gate version Alternate Logic symbol drawing Also Pull-Up Resistor

31 Flip-Flops and Counters D Flip-Flops Operation Logic symbol arrows indicate I/O PR and CLR act like the Set (S) and Reset (R) inputs on a NAND Gate R-S Filip-Flop Q and Q are always in opposite states The input CK (clock) on a positive transition causes Q to go either high or low depending on the D input Q s state will match the state of D at that time

32 Flip-Flops and Counters J-K Flip-Flops Operation Has same PR and CLR as type D Has two inputs J and K instead of the D input See the truth Table Has an additional MODE of operation Toggle» Outputs will toggle when a new clock pulse arrives at the CK pin Bubble on the CK indicates that negative transition is active

33 Flip-Flops and Counters Binary Counter using J-K Flip-Flops Q output acts as the clock input to the next Flip-Flop Walk through the circuit and timing diagram

34 Flip-Flops and Counters Sample Monolithic Counter 7493 Can be a 3-bit or 4-bit counter Wire QA output to input B for 4-bit» MOD 16 counter Otherwise use input B» MOD 8 counter 14 pin DIP

35 Flip-Flops and Counters Sample Monolithic Counter 7490 Decade counter Counts 0 9 and can be reset to zero Has 4 outputs Reference

36 Flip-Flops and Counters BCD Displays A common Anode version is shown Common Cathode versions are also available

37 Flip-Flops and Counters Interface Circuit The BCD counters output binary that resets after 9 The 7 segment display with decimal point has eight inputs that cause numbers 0-9 to display The 7447 is a seven segment display driver that translates binary counts into a seven segment inputs See pages 291 and 292

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