Education Sciences. TUNING Report 2 ( ) 1. Introduction to the subject area

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1 TUNING Reprt 2 ( ) Educatin Sciences In: Gnzales, J. and Wagenaar, R. (eds.). Tuning Educatinal Structures in Eurpe. II. Universities Cntributin t the Blgna Prcess. Bilba/Grningen: University f Deust / University f Grningen, 2005, pp Intrductin t the subject area Educatin is a multidisciplinary subject infrmed by a range f fundatin disciplines such as Psychlgy, Scilgy, Philsphy, Applied Linguistics, Curriculum Studies, Scial and Plicy Studies, Scial Anthrplgy and Histry. In the case f Teacher Educatin, varius teaching subjects (e.g. mathematics, languages and literature, science, scial sciences, arts, etc.) are als used t explicate the nature f teaching, learning and assessment fr all subjects in a wide variety f sci-cultural-ecnmic cntexts. Because f the human fcus f the subject, it is ne where mral and ethical values are highly priritised. The subject is divided int tw brad but clsely linked fields, Teacher Educatin and Educatin Sciences 1. Teacher Educatin Tday in Eurpe all secndary schl teachers, almst all primary schl and many preschl teachers are educated t first degree level r equivalent. In many, if nt mst, cuntries the curricular cmpnents and standards f achievement fllw natinal guidelines set by Ministries f Educatin r prfessinal bdies such as Teaching Cuncils, lending a degree f hmgeneity t prgrammes. In thers university autnmy takes precedence and there may be great disparities between curses in different universities. Hwever, future teachers must acquire a range f cmpetences including the knwledge, values and skills necessary fr achieving the highest academic standards in their subject r areas f the curriculum, as well as being fully aware f the thery and practice f educatin relevant t the age-grup they are t teach; f natinal pririties in educatin; and f teachers rles as prfessinals in fast changing and unpredictable scial cntexts. Initial teacher educatin curses at first r secnd cycle level is als prvided fr university teachers, vcatinal cllege teachers, nurse tutrs, in 50% f the cuntries represented in the Educatin Sciences wrking grup. 1 ISCED 1997 classificatin; see Educatin 14 Teacher training and educatin science Teacher training fr pre-schl, kindergarten, elementary schl, vcatinal, practical, nn-vcatinal subject, adult educatin, teacher trainers and fr handicapped children. General and specialized teacher training prgrammes. We shall nt use the term teacher training but the mre cmmnly used term Teacher Educatin. Educatin science: curriculum develpment in nn-vcatinal and vcatinal subjects. Educatinal assessment, testing and measurement, educatinal research, ther educatin science.

2 2 Mst cuntries prvide prgrammes f cntinuing prfessinal develpment fr teachers, ther educatin prfessinals, health wrkers and thers (which may be cmpulsry), but which d nt always lead t a higher qualificatin. Hwever, degrees at secnd and third cycle level are widely available fr thse wh wish t take them up. The Educatin wrking grup has identified an anmalus situatin with regard t Teacher Educatin within the cntext f the implementatin f first and secnd cycles f degree awards. This anmaly is particularly evident in cnsecutive mdels f teacher educatin where students study ne r tw academic disciplines ( ECTS) prir t a pstgraduate teacher educatin cmpnent f their studies (60-90 ECTS). Althugh students may have accumulated a ttal f ECTS in rder t btain their initial teacher educatin qualificatin, in a number f cuntries 300+ ECTS accumulated in this way des nt result in a secnd cycle award. This is in spite f the fact that the pstgraduate cmpnent may, t a significant degree, meet the level descriptrs fr secnd cycle. In rder t ensure that Teacher Educatin shuld be cmpliant with Blgna first and secnd cycle degree structures, and that it has cmparability with ther disciplinary areas, the Educatin wrking grup recmmends that the structures f Teacher Educatin first and secnd cycle degrees shuld facilitate this. A number f pssible pathways t secnd cycle awards are suggested: A first cycle degree in the chsen subject(s) f ECTS, fllwed by a cnsecutive Teacher Educatin award f ECTS (a minimum f 90 ECTS where subject didactics r pedaggy is included in the first cycle degree), and including a research training cmpnent. A first cycle degree in the chsen subject(s) f ECTS, fllwed by a secnd cycle cnsecutive Teacher Educatin award f 60 ECTS, fllwed, within a specified time limit, by a secnd cycle award in Educatin Sciences r structured inductin (t include research training) f 60 ECTS. A first cycle integrated agree where the teaching subject(s) and educatin cmpnents are ffered cncurrently f 240 ECTS, fllwed by a secnd cycle award in Educatin Sciences/structured inductin (t include research training) f 60 ECTS. Educatin Sciences There is cnsiderable diversity in Educatin Sciences curses at first cycle level but all invlve the intellectually rigrus study f educatinal prcesses, systems and appraches, and the cultural, scietal, plitical and histrical cntexts within which they are embedded. Acrss Eurpe there is a brad similarity in cntent and fcus f the cre cmpnents f Educatin Sciences first degrees, taking int accunt that the particular cntent and fcus f any given prgramme will vary accrding t its stated aims and ratinale, but will be demnstrably apprpriate t the needs f the students. While there are secnd cycle prgrammes in Teacher Educatin, many take a brader remit and might mre prperly be called Educatin Sciences, as is the case with dctral studies. 2. Degree prfiles and ccupatins A range f practice is currently seen in Educatin prgrammes with regard t the Blgna mdel f three cycles. While sme cuntries adpted a three cycle mdel many years ag, (UK, Ireland) thers are at different stages f develpment, but in Educatin there are n cuntries represented within the subject grup where the Blgna prcess is nt being discussed with a view t implementatin. 2

3 3 Typical degrees ffered in Teacher Educatin First cycle Typical degrees ffered Prgrammes fr the preparatin f pre-schl, primary and secndary schl teachers, and teachers frm ther sectrs, include Educatin Sciences, subject-specific and/r dmain specific pedaggical studies apprpriate t the target learning dmains, and an element f supervised teaching practice in the target dmain, the length f which varies acrss the EU. Students als nrmally study ne r tw academic disciplines either cncurrently (mre ften in pre-schl/primary/ secndary) r prir (mre in ften secndary) t the Educatin cmpnent f the prgramme. All secndary schl teachers must be educated t first degree level in their chsen teaching subject, and this may be prir t the teacher educatin element, as in the cnsecutive teacher educatin mdel f a degree fllwed by a ne-year intensive educatin prgramme such as is fund in the U.K., Ireland and Spain. In sme cuntries teachers must be educated t secnd cycle level in rder t be awarded Qualified Teacher Status, e.g. Finland. In thers primary and pre-schl teachers may be educated t sub-first degree level initially. The trend, hwever, thrughut Eurpe is twards an all graduate teaching prfessin at all levels f the Educatin sectr. Secnd A wide range f specialist prgrammes f cntinuing prfessinal develpment are ffered in Teacher Educatin, ften leading t a Master s degree, but smetimes ffering mid-pints f cmpletin at Diplma level. Secnd cycle study nrmally allws prfessinals t specialize further in their chsen fields r t btain a qualificatin in a new area - e.g. a graduate in (pure) Mathematics (1st cycle) cntinues (2nd cycle) t becme teacher f Mathematics. Typical secnd cycle degrees in Teacher Educatin include amng thers, Special Needs Educatin, Nurse Educatin, didactics related t specialist subjects in the curriculum, Teaching and Learning in Higher Educatin, Adult Educatin, Guidance and Cunseling. Mst secnd cycle prgrammes have a strng taught cmpnent, supprted by an empirically and/r theretically based thesis r dissertatin which accunts fr the final third (r mre) f the prgramme. The taught cmpnent may include the develpment f prfessinal skills such as systematic bservatin, testing, diagnsing and cunseling, as well deepening r extending f knwledge and understanding. In many cuntries a whlly research based secnd cycle degree is available, ften, but nt always, linked t third cycle study. 3

4 4 Third Typical degrees ffered Dctrate by research, usually requiring examinatin and defence f a substantial and riginal piece f research at an internatinal level f excellence described in a cmprehensive thesis. There is an expectatin in many cuntries that part f the earlier years f study will cmprise a taught element assciated with the develpment f research knwledge and skills and the practical design f a research prject fr the empirical and r theretical element f the degree. In a few cuntries (Denmark, Prtugal, Ireland, UK) a new frm f dctral degree has been, r is being intrduced, with a strng prfessinal fcus. These prfessinal dctrates include an assessed cmpnent f advanced subject study and a thesis based n riginal research similar, but shrter than, the dctrate by research. Typical degrees ffered in Educatin Sciences First cycle Typical degrees ffered First degrees in Educatin Sciences tend t be multidisciplinary, with a strng ther subject element. In ther cuntries e.g. Spain first degrees in Educatin Studies are single subject and fcus n Educatin frm a brad pint f view and in all its cmplexity. Prgrammes draw n a wide range f intellectual resurces, theretical perspectives and academic disciplines t illuminate an understanding f educatin and the cntexts within which it takes place. Typical degrees wuld include Educatinal Principles, Histry f Educatin, Scilgy f Educatin, Adult Educatin; Educatinal Psychlgy; Yuth and/r Cmmunity Wrk; Curriculum Develpment; Educatinal Administratin; Healthcare related wrk; Human Resurce Management; Management f Infrmatin and Library Studies; Scial Educatin; Special Needs Educatin; Educatinal Plicy, Educatinal Innvatin, Schl Management. There is an increasing trend fr there t be a specific cmpnent f Educatinal Research at first degree level, including subjects such as Methdlgical Basis f Educatinal Research, Methds and Mdels f research in Educatin, and basic Statistics. 4

5 5 Secnd Third Typical degrees ffered As with teacher Educatin secnd cycle degrees, in Educatin Sciences secnd cycle study nrmally allws prfessinals t specialize further in their chsen fields. Specialisms include Educatinal Psychlgy, Management f Educatin, Primary Health Care, Educatinal Anthrplgy, Philsphy f Educatin, and Educatinal Scilgy. Mst secnd cycle degrees cntain a taught cmpnent, but at least 30%, cnsists f a research based dissertatin r an applied prject. In sme cuntries e.g. Spain, Finland, Ireland, UK (the latter fr secnd cycle degrees in Educatinal Psychlgy), sme secnd cycle degrees include practical wrk in prfessinal settings. As with Teacher Educatin, it is pssible t cmplete a secnd cycle degree whlly by research. Typical secnd cycle degrees in Educatin Sciences are: Special Educatin Needs, Third Age Educatin, Intercultural Educatin, Educatinal Evaluatin, Schl Management, Adult Educatin, Leisure Educatin, Scial Pedaggy. Similar t the descriptin f Teacher Educatin abve. Typical ccupatins f the graduates in Educatin Sciences (map f prfessins) First cycle Teacher Educatin Occupatin Teaching in schls, nurse educatin, universities/ther higher educatin institutins, vcatinal educatin. Teachers f certain schl subjects (e.g. mathematics, cmputer sciences, languages,) may find jbs utside educatin (cmmunicatin, business etc). Educatin Sciences Educatin prgrammes f all kinds develp ways f thinking and ding that are highly transferable, and graduates f Educatin prgrammes are fund in a wide range f prfessins. Educatin graduates are fund in museum wrk, yuth leadership, cmmunity wrk, publishing (designing and evaluating educatinal materials), lcal and natinal educatinal administratin, cunseling in educatin, educatinal management; educatinal services; teaching specific grups, such as adults, third age supprt, immigrant supprt wrk, and persnnel management, the latter particularly salient in Sweden.. 5

6 6 Secnd Teacher Educatin Occupatin Teachers in schls (e.g. in Finland); Leadership and management rles; mre specialist rles and supervisry rles in educatinal institutins; researchers; Guidance Cunsellrs; Special Educatin c-rdinatr, Educatinal Psychlgists (UK) Educatin Sciences Access t prmtin t mre senir psitins in their chsen fields, r t new psitins related t their chsen specializatin; researchers. Third Teacher Educatin & Educatin Sciences/Sciences University, Plytechnic and Cllege lecturers; researchers; Ministry and teacher educatin agency prfessinals; an increasing number find emplyment as researchers in independent research and develpmental institutes; R&D jbs in the administratin f educatin at the natinal r municipal level (Natinal Bard f Educatin, Reginal Develpmental Centres), Quality Assurance Agencies; senir psts in curriculum develpment. Rle f subject area in ther degree prgrammes Educatin Sciences and Teacher Educatin are cnnected with many ther degree prgrammes. Teachers must have a subject base in their studies and s all subjects related t the schl curricula have sme relatinship with Educatin. Educatin Sciences may frm part f a degree study prgramme in anther subject area e.g. in histry, business; r with a range f ther subjects e.g. with histry and business administratin in Museum studies. In many universities acrss Eurpe, students nw have a free chice f a small cmpnent in their degree curse, and many chse Educatin mdules t fulfil this element, e.g. students frm psychlgy, ther scial sciences (scilgy, anthrplgy, plitical science), r subject areas where students may be cnsidering the ptin f ging int teacher educatin after cmpleting their first degree. In sme areas f Educatin, e.g. Educatinal Psychlgy, an initial first-degree qualificatin in Psychlgy is fllwed by master s level wrk in educatinal psychlgy. Sme prfessinal clinical r teaching experience is als nrmally requirements t be able t practice as Educatinal Psychlgists. Educatin units may frm part f a wide range f prgrammes cncerning Scial and Human Sciences. 6

7 7 3. Learning utcmes & cmpetences - level cycle descriptrs The cmpetences identified in Educatin Sciences are cmpatible with the Eurpean Framewrk and the Dublin descriptrs. The Educatin wrking grup wish t emphasize, hwever, that the cmpetences identified are indicative nly. The list is nt intended t be either exhaustive r definitive, and shuld be used as such. First Many cmpetences (generic and specific) are cmmn t bth teacher educatin and Educatin Sciences; sme cmpetences are specific t teacher educatin. Nt all cmpetences will be fully develped at the end f first cycle studies and will cntinue t develp ver the cntinuum f prfessinal life, ften fcused n during perids f inservice educatin and training, but nt necessarily develped in a cntext f frmal educatin. Key subject specific cmpetences Cmmn t bth Teacher Educatin and Educatin Sciences/Studies Teachers and trainers shuld be able t wrk effectively in three verlapping areas, as shuld graduates f Educatin Sciences prgrammes. They shuld be able t: wrk with infrmatin and knwledge f subject t be taught, and f educatinal issues and their theretical bases wrk with their fellw human beings - pupils/trainees, clleagues and ther partners in educatin. This includes the ability t analyse cmplex situatins cncerning human learning and develpment in particular cntexts; wrk with sciety - at lcal, reginal, natinal, Eurpean and brader glbal levels including the develpment f apprpriate prfessinal values and the ability t reflect n practices and cntexts. Abilities fr reflectin include the ability t reflect n their wn and ther s value systems, develpment and practices. Key generic cmpetences Cmmn t bth Teacher Educatin and Educatin Sciences/Studies Capacity t learn; cmmunicatin skills; team wrking skills; infrmatin technlgy skills; prblem slving; autnmy; reflectin skills; interpersnal skills; planning and time management; prblem slving; decisin-making; appreciatin f diversity and multiculturality; ethical cmmitment; critical and self-critical abilities; capacity t imprve their wn learning and perfrmance, including the develpment f study and research skills; ability t analyze, synthesize, evaluate, t identify prblems and wrk ut slutins; firm knwledge f the prfessin in practice. 7

8 8 Teacher Educatin cmpetence in a number f teaching/learning and assessment strategies and understanding f their theretical bases; ability t create an equal and fair climate cnducive t learning fr all learners regardless f their scicultural-ecnmic cntext. Secnd Key subject specific cmpetences Cmmn t Bth Teacher Educatin and Educatin Sciences/Studies Key generic Cmpetences Cmmn t Bth Teacher Educatin and Educatin Sciences/Studies Cmpetence in cllabrative prblem slving f educatinal issues in a variety f cntexts; Ability t adapt practices t specific educatinal cntexts; Develpment f knwledge and understanding in their chsen area f prfessinal specializatin in a majr educatinal field educatinal management and administratin; curriculum studies; educatinal plicy; adult educatin; learning difficulties; children s literature; Research skills; leadership skills; cmmunicatin skills, including ability t cmmunicate in advanced prfessinal registers; ability t reflect upn and evaluate wn perfrmance; develpment f advanced cgnitive skills assciated with knwledge develpment and creatin. ability t use research apprpriate t discipline t infrm their practices; Ability t reflect n values apprpriate t educatinal activities. 8

9 9 Third Teacher Educatin & Educatin Sciences Key subject specific cmpetences Key generic Cmpetences Acquisitin and understanding f a substantial bdy f knwledge which is at the frefrnt f a field f learning in the field f Educatin; Exercise persnal respnsibility and largely autnmus initiative in cmplex and unpredictable situatins, in prfessinal r equivalent cntexts related t Educatin as a brad field; Learn t critique the brader implicatins f applying knwledge t particular educatinal and prfessinal cntexts; Scrutinise and reflect n scial nrms and relatinships within their particular field f Educatin and lead actin t change them; Capacity t cnduct (riginal) research; Demnstrate the ability t perfrm independent, riginal and ultimately publishable research in the different fields f Educatin and/r schl pedaggy. The creatin and interpretatin f new knwledge, thrugh riginal research, r ther advanced schlarship, f a quality t satisfy review by peers at natinal and internatinal levels; Ability t demnstrate a significant range f the principal skills, techniques, tls, practices and/r materials which are assciated with a field f learning; Develp new skills, techniques, tls, practices and/r materials; Respnd t abstract prblems that expand and redefine existing prcedural knwledge; Cmmunicate results f research and innvatin t peers; Engage in critical dialgue; lead and riginate cmplex scial prcesses within their prfessinal dmain; critical cmpetences, i.e. critical and self-critical abilities; Presentatin and defence in public f scientific studies; Creativity. Subject Specific Cmpetences in Educatin Sciences The fllwing list f subject specific cmpetences was develped by the Educatin Sciences wrking grup and evaluated in a survey f frmer students, academics and emplyers. Educatin Sciences 1. Ability t analyse educatinal cncepts, theries and issues f plicy in a systematic way. 2. Ability t identify ptential cnnectins between aspects f subject knwledge and their applicatin in educatinal plicies and cntexts. 3. Ability t reflect n ne s wn value system. 4. Ability t questin cncepts and theries encuntered in Educatin Sciences. 5. Ability t recgnise the diversity f learners and the cmplexities f the learning prcess. 6. Awareness f the different cntexts in which learning can take place. 7. Awareness f the different rles f participants in the learning prcess. 8. Understanding f the structures and purpses f educatinal systems. 9. Ability t d educatinal research in different cntexts. 10. Cunselling skills. 9

10 Ability t manage prjects fr schl imprvement/develpment. 12. Ability t manage educatinal prgrammes. 13. Ability t evaluate educatinal prgrammes/materials. 14. Ability t fresee new educatinal needs and demands. 15. Ability t lead r crdinate multidisciplinary educatinal teams. Teacher Educatin 16. Cmmitment t learners prgress and achievement. 17. Cmpetence in a number f teaching/learning strategies. 18. Cmpetence in cunselling learners and parents. 19. Knwledge f the subject t be taught. 20. Ability t cmmunicate effectively with grups and individuals. 21. Ability t create a climate cnducive t learning. 22. Ability t make use f e learning and t integrate it int the learning envirnments. 23. Ability t manage time effectively. 24. Ability t reflect upn and evaluate ne s wn perfrmance. 25. Awareness f the need fr cntinuus prfessinal develpment. 26. Ability t assess the utcmes f learning and learners achievements. 27. Cmpetence in cllabrative prblem slving. 28. Ability t respnd t the diverse needs f learners. 29. Ability t imprve the teaching/learning envirnment. 30. Ability t adjust the curriculum t a specific educatinal cntext. Cnsultatin prcess with stakehlders In the first phase f the Tuning prject the Educatin Sciences Wrking Party cnsulted frmer students, emplyers and ther Educatin academics t ascertain their views n the range f generic and subject specific cmpetences that relevant t the subject areas f Teacher Educatin and Educatin Sciences. As nted abve this cnsultatin resulted in an indicative list f cmpetences listed. The Wrking Grup als cnsulted ther academics frm time t time during the Tuning phases ne and tw t elicit feedback frm clleagues n issues as they arse, e.g. calculating student wrklad. The prfessins related t Educatin are represented by a wide range f prfessinal bdies, learned scieties and regulatry bdies, many f which belng t Eurpean netwrks. Teaching Cuncils have nw been established in several cuntries with remits similar t thse f ther regulatry prfessinal bdies, such as Medical Cuncils. Where such Cuncils r ther accrediting bdies exist, higher educatin institutins running teacher educatin and educatinal sciences prgrammes which require prfessinal accreditatin must cnsult with these bdies and facilitate accreditatin visits. Student stakehlders include natinal student bdies wh may have representatin n review and accreditatin bards at natinal level in many cuntries. The clse links between Teacher Educatin Prgrammes and field-based student placements have cntinuusly prvided pprtunities t cnsult stakehlders, i.e. teachers in schls r schl principals abut the relatinships between thery and practice, and regarding which parts f the Teacher Educatin prgrammes might be imprved t better fit t the 'realities f tday's schls'. 10

11 11 Other stakehlders include the users f educatinal services, e.g. parents, wh, as 'cnsumers' chse schls fr their children in an increasingly market-riented sciety, thereby putting pressure n schls and higher educatin institutins t respnd t their demands and educate teachers accrdingly. Universities ffering Educatin Science (pssibly cmbined with studies in psychlgy, scilgy, plitical science, jurnalism) are increasingly making use f questinnaires t frmer students, and cnsequently t their emplyers, t find ut which prfessins they jin, in rder t be mre targeted t the needs f the labur market. Other stakehlders rutinely cnsulted in teacher educatin and educatinal sciences are emplyers grups such as natinal rganisatins f schl principals r f educatinal psychlgists, guidance and cunselling rganisatins, teacher unins, ministry f educatin fficials, lcal educatin administratrs and s n. 4. Wrklad and ECTS It is difficult t utline this issue withut differentiating between pre- and pst- Blgna structures. The pre-blgna first cycle may cntain up t 300 ECTS equivalents, and new legislatin leading t the figures nted belw are nly partially implemented. Hwever, the fllwing infrmatin has been cllected frm members f the Educatin Sciences wrking grup. It shuld be brne in mind that Teacher Educatin presents an anmaly with regard t Blgna implementatin. ECTS Credits 1. First cycle Teacher Educatin 180 t 240 ECTS if whlly lcated at first cycle level; where divided between first and secnd cycles the ttal is cncmitantly greater. Fr teaching at secndary schl level, this may cmprise a first degree f 180 t 240 ECTS plus a ne-year Diplma curse fcused n preparatin t teach f equivalent ECTS. This Diplma curse may be a secnd cycle element, but in sme cuntries it is a first cycle Diplma even thugh it is taken after a first cycle degree. Fr primary schl qualified teacher status an integrated degree f 240 ECTs is mre usual, althugh in sme cuntries the cnsecutive mdel is als available fr future primary schl teachers, e.g. UK. Educatin Sciences ECTS 2 Secnd Teacher Educatin & Educatin Sciences ECTS Nt all cuntries have separate first and secnd cycle prgrammes yet, as nted abve. The ne-year Diplma nted abve can be a secnd cycle qualificatin, but is nt always weighted in terms f ECTS credits. In sme cuntries, e.g. Greece, the term teacher educatin nly exists at first cycle level, thereafter the term used fr all is Educatin Sciences. 11

12 12 ECTS Credits 3 Third Teacher Educatin & Educatin Sciences 120 pst secnd cycle where the secnd cycle award is linked t the dctral wrk, therwise, 180 ECTS, nrmally assciated with 3 years full-time study. In many cuntries the length f dctral studies has nt yet been specified in terms f credits, and nrmal cmpletin times may be as lng as 4-6 years full-time study r lnger. Trends and differences within the Eurpean higher educatin area in this subject area Educatin and training are pririties f plicies f the Cuncil f the Eurpean Unin. Strategic bjectives fr the develpment f educatin and training systems in the Eurpean Unin have been defined and decisins taken n a detailed prgramme at Eurpean level. The Eurpean Cmmissin, DG Educatin and Culture, sees teacher educatin and educatinal research as vital t the achievements f the Lisbn bjectives. This psitin was reiterated at the Madrid Cuncil meeting, and als in the jint Cuncil and Cmmissin reprt Educatin & Training Knwledge-based and dynamic learning scieties depend n highly qualified educatin staff in a rich variety f cntexts (e.g. lifelng learning, inclusive educatin, university educatin). As a cnsequence, the initial educatin and cntinuus prfessinal develpment f educatrs and thse in educatin-related prfessins have becme subject t rapid expansin, diversificatin and prfessinalizatin. Trends that have becme apparent are: The rle f Educatin academics in the preparatin f university teachers. In 50%f the cuntries represented in Tuning initial educatin fr teaching is nw essential fr university teachers. Teaching in higher educatin institutins is als emerging as a distinct field f research. While there are apparent natinal differences at a surface level in Educatin Sciences and Teacher Educatin acrss the member states, there are as many similarities and cmmnalities at a deeper level structure. This makes the pssibility f crss- Eurpean mdules r curses feasible, and this is a trend that is beginning t be seen. Althugh traditinally, and currently in many cuntries, teacher educatin has been based n theretical and practical knwledge, many gvernments are nw priritising classrm-based research, assuming that it will be directly relevant fr educatinal practice. This has led t a grwth in evidence-based practice as the infrming philsphy f teacher educatin. Cnsequently a research cmpnent is included in prgrammes f initial teacher educatin in an increasing number f cuntries, althugh this element has nt yet becme an integral cmpnent f all mdels f initial teacher educatin in Eurpe at first degree level. Hwever, a research cmpnent nrmally frms an integral aspect f all prgrammes at secnd cycle level. There is a grwing trend in Educatin fr part-time studies at all degree levels, especially fr secnd and third cycles. This is assciated with the parallel trend f self funding f pst-first cycle study, already well established in sme EU cuntries but spreading inexrably acrss Eurpe The range f candidates entering Teacher Educatin is widening. Influenced by teacher shrtage, ecnmic dwnturns r altruism, mature prfessinals frm ther fields are 12

13 13 turning t teaching. These candidates are nrmally educated t degree level in ther subjects, and ften btain accredited entry t the Teacher Educatin prgramme they chse. There is evidence that such mature candidates are psitively regarded by academics and emplyers. Prfessinal dctrates are beginning t appear within Eurpe (UK, Ireland, Prtugal). This may be the beginning f a trend related t the develpment f lifelng learning pprtunities fr prfessinals in the fields related t Educatin. Anther trend within dctral studies is a mvement t limit the length f study t a reasnable number f years/wrklad (largely mtivated by analysis f the real csts f supervisin in universities) There is a grwing trend t ffer n-line elements f prgrammes at secnd cycle level, and t make use f internet resurces as part f teaching and learning strategies. 5. Learning, teaching & assessment (TLA) Educatin Sciences are centrally cncerned with TLA, with many academics having a strng practitiner backgrund. It has als lng been the traditin fr academics in Educatin Sciences t cnsciusly demnstrate gd practices in their wn teaching. The Tuning apprach f develping curricula and appraches t TLA arund student cmpetences is already well established in areas f Educatin such as Teacher Educatin, and valuable pedaggical practices funded n principles f adult learning and cmpetence develpment have evlved. What are listed belw are three indicatrs f gd practices taken frm Educatin Sciences which may have wider relevance acrss ther disciplines. Best practice A. Observatin skills develpment (First r secnd cycle learning and teaching) Cmpetences develped Ability t analyse cmplex situatins f human learning and develpment in particular cntexts, including their wn learning; Describe bjectively what is bserved, categrize and analyse this, and make theretically well funded evaluatins based n the bserved incidents; Appreciate hw wn values and beliefs can influence hw incidents are bserved; Use evidence frm reading and research t supprt develpment f analysis and evaluatin. Methd f TLA This is a methd ften assciated with a task-based r prblem-based apprach t teaching and learning. Observatin is a key element f wrk placements and schl practice. Practice in develping the different cmpetences making up bservatin skills can begin with very cncrete, easily bserved and easily described (lw inference) phenmena (wh talks t whm, hw many times des x ccur, etc.) and gradually include events much less easy t see r describe (high inference), such as what kinds f rles peple are playing, what the aims f an activity is. Frm tutr led bservatin activities, students can then mve t real time bservatin in their placement area. Each early bservatin task is fllwed by an exercise in reflectin in which students are required t share descriptins, categrise phenmena (analysis) and evaluate what has been bserved and the rle f their wn values in influencing hw they 13

14 14 bserve. Literature search is an imprtant part f the fllw up, particularly at secnd cycle level. Placement bservatins als have fllw-up sessins with peers and placement tutrs. B. Prtfli assessment (First r secnd cycle learning and teaching) Cmpetences develped Reflectin; Autnmus decisin making as part f self directed learning: A range f cmpetences apprpriate t the unit r prgramme which is the basis f the prtfli. Methd f TLA Prtfli assessment nrmally frms part f a prgramme f study r sectin f a prgramme rather than a single mdule, and is based n a purpseful sample f student wrk, selected n the basis f defined criteria related t the cmpetences fcused upn. Prtflis are cnstructed t highlight and demnstrate students knwledge and skills in a range f cmpetences. The prtfli als prvides a means fr reflectin, ffering the pprtunity fr aut-critiquing the student s wn wrk and evaluating the effectiveness f interpersnal interactins in selected cntexts. A typical use might be n wrk placements, where the prtfli prvides a recrd f the student s engagement with a range f learning activities. The cmpleted prtfli may later be used t supprt preparatin fr jb interviews. Prtflis are usually selectins f the ttal cllectin f data cllected by the student (which may include assessed wrk, artefacts, learner prfiles, diaries etc.) and demnstrate the develpment f cmpetences ver time. Mre recently IT has been used t prduce web-based prtflis t demnstrate student develpment f IT skills as well as ther cmpetences. C. Research Methds Training (Secnd r third cycle teaching, learning and assessment) Cmpetences develped Understanding f research methds and the paradigms in which they fit; Familiarity with a range f cmmnly used methds in educatinal research, and Practice in hw t set these up, analyse data etc; Ability t develp feasible and researchable questins and select apprpriate methds f researching them. Methd f TLA In Educatin mst students undertake independent research prjects, and d nt wrk as part f a research team. Cming frm wrking backgrunds utside academia, many require initial supprt in develping an apprpriate research prpsal. Typical macr activities are: discussing the nature f educatinal research; giving and seeking infrmatin abut the main appraches t research in educatinal research; examining the nature f research questins; discussing the main methds, techniques and instruments used t cllect and analyse data, in accrdance with the bject and bjectives f a particular research; discussing hw t design a research plan. 14

15 15 Students engage in a range f practical activities, such as defining research questins and bjectives; develping apprpriate instruments fr data cllectin; develping and using methds f analysis fr analysis f data, researching methds in the literature and evaluating their relevance t their wn needs. The assessment achievement is based n a student develped research plan ften used later as the basis fr their research prpsal. 6. Quality enhancement One f the distinctive ways in which bth Teacher Educatin and Educatin Sciences can enhance the quality f their prgrammes is thrugh active partnerships with emplyers and prfessinal bdies. The frmer, thrugh cllabratin in wrk placements, turn a practical eye n the relevance f curses t the scial needs f the time. The latter, thrugh their gate keeping and regulatry functins may ensure that standards are upheld at natinal and, increasingly, internatinal levels. Such interactin with external partners is nt yet true in all EU cuntries. Academics frm Educatin departments and faculties participate r lead in mst research int the prcesses f quality assessment and enhancement in higher educatin (as well as ther sectrs f educatin) and s practices in Educatin are based n evidence. The prcesses f quality assessment are rather cmplex and therefre demand a variety f tls and participants. Cnsequently students are increasingly invlved in quality assurance and imprvement prcesses as part f their develpment as reflective practitiners. A wide range f internal mnitring prcedures are fed int pen systems where implicatins fr imprvement are discussed, such as student satisfactin questinnaires; student discussins and fcus grups, staff views, reviews f student assessment etc.; annual prgramme review which may include students as well as the teaching team; nnjudgemental peer bservatin. In sme cuntries (e.g. UK, Ireland) external examiners at all degree levels are invlved in this prcess t sme extent. In many Educatin departments academic staff undertake cntinuing prfessinal develpment thrugh attendance n shrt curses, cnferences and seminars. Teacher educatin fr university teachers is becming a cmmn way f imprving quality as part f a cntinuing learning strategy used by many institutins. External evaluatin by natinal quality assurance agencies, develped n a cnsultative basis, prvides a fcus fr departmental and persnal reflectin and imprvement, althugh mst educatinists in the Eurpean Tuning grup favur a light external tuch. It was felt that external agency evaluatins are t ften linked t future funding and value fr mney r t the impressins f the plitical mment rather than t enhancement f student learning. 15

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