# DIGITAL TECHNICS II. Dr. Bálint Pődör. Óbuda University, Microelectronics and Technology Institute. 2nd (Spring) term 2012/2013

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1 DIGITAL TECHNICS II Dr. Bálint Pődör Óbuda University, Microelectronics and Technology Institute 4. LECTURE: COUNTERS AND RELATED 2nd (Spring) term 2012/ LECTURE: COUNTERS AND RELATED 1. Counters, general concepts and properties 2. Ripple (asynchronous) counters 3. Synchronous counters 4. Counter applications Literature: Rőmer, pp Zsom II, pp. 3-51, incl. next-state method (pp ) Rőmer (problems), pp

2 COUNTERS (AND REGISTERS): AN INTRODUCTION Counters and registers belong to the category of MSI sequential logic circuits. They have similar architecture, as both counters and registers comprise a cascaded arrangement of more than one flip flop with or without combinational logic devices. Both constitute very important building blocks of sequential logic, and different types of counter and register available in integrated circuit (IC) form are used in a wide range of digital systems. While counters are mainly used in counting applications, where they either measure the time interval between two unknown time instants or measure the frequency of a given signal, registers are primarily used for the temporary storage of data present at the output of a digital circuit before they are fed to another digital circuit. COUNTERS (AND REGISTERS): AN INTRODUCTION We are all familiar with the role of different types of register used inside a microprocessor, and also their use in microprocessor-based applications. Because of the very nature of operation of registers, they form the basis of a very important class of counters called shift counters or shift-register counters. 2

3 COUNTERS: GENERAL CONCEPTS The counter is a special case of the sequential circuits. Its function is to count the input pulses (clock signal) and store the result till the arrival of the next signal. The counting process, therefore consists of a series of storage and addition operations. The counters are built from flip-flops and of gate circuits. CLASSIFICATION AND PROPERTIES According to the direction of counting: up counter down counter up-down counter According to state encoding: binary decade (e.g. BCD) other 3

4 STATES OF A COUNTER The state transition diagram of counters is of the form of a closed ring. Example: mod 6 counter The number of states, the counter goes through before recycling is the modulus of the counter. The largest possible modulus of a n-bit counter is 2 n. REDUCED CYCLE COUNTERS Egy n helyértékes bináris számláló értéktartománya 0-2 n -1. Modulo számláló: adott számérték elérése után a kezdeti állapotba tér vissza. Pl. 4-bites számláló ha 12-ig számlál ( ): modulo 12 típusú, a számlálási ciklus minden 12-ik impulzus után ismétlődik. A modulus a ciklus hossza. 8 4

5 UP-DOWN MOD 10 COUNTER: STATE TRANSITION DIAGRAM i j h a Up Down g f b c d e State encoding a b c d e f g h i j ASYNCHRONOUS AND SYNCHRONOUS COUNTERS Many different types of electronic counters are available. They are all either asynchronous or synchronous type and are usually constructed using JK flip-flops. Asynchronous (ripple) counter: The input signal is applied to the clock input of the first FF, and the output of each FF is connected directly to the clock input of the next. Synchronous counter: all flip-flops are controlled by a common clock. Logic gates between each stage of the circuit control dataflow from stage to stage so that the desired count behaviour is realized. 5

6 RIPPLE (ASYNCHRONOUS) COUNTER A ripple counter is a cascaded arrangement of flip-flops where the output of one flip-flop drives the clock input of the following flip-flop. The number of flip-flops in the cascaded arrangement depends upon the number of different logic states that it goes through before it repeats the sequence, a parameter known as the modulus of the counter. In a ripple counter, also called an asynchronous counter or a serial counter, the clock input is applied only to the first flip-flop, also called the input flip-flop, in the cascaded arrangement. The clock input to any subsequent flip-flop comes from the output of its immediately preceding flipflop. RIPPLE (ASYNCHRONOUS) COUNTER Generalized block schematic of n-bit binary ripple counter. For instance, the output of the first flip-flop acts as the clock input to the second flip-flop, the output of the second flip-flop feeds the clock input of the third flip-flop and so on. In general, in an arrangement of n flip-flops, the clock input to the nth flip-flop comes from the output of the (n 1)th flipflop for n>1. 6

7 RIPPLE COUNTER (UP) JK flip-flops operating in the toggle mode (J=K=1). ASYNCHRONOUS (RIPPLE) COUNTER (UP) The four-stage ripple counter using JK flip-flops uses the maximum counting capability of the four stages and would thus be classified as mod 16. The FFs are connected to toggle and change state an the negative-going transitions of the waveform applied to the clock input. The input is shown for convenience as being periodic even though it may be completely random. The count is obtained by observing the sequence Q3 Q2 Q1 Q0 which starts of at (=decimal 0). 14 7

8 ASYNCHRONOUS (RIPPLE) COUNTER (UP) Operation: - upon arrival the clock pulses initiate the state changes of the individual flip flops. The effect of clock pulses propagates serially. The Q outputs of the flip-flops are simultaneously control and output (state) points. If the propagation delay of a flip-flop is t pd, the sate change of the nth flip flop occurs only after a delay of nt pd. 15 RIPPLE COUNTER (UP) Asynchronous binary up-counter with asynchronous clear. The delay of the outputs with respect to the clock input is increasing at each new stage. 8

9 RIPPLE COUNTER (DOWN) _ The Q outputs are the control points but the states are represented by Q RIPPLE COUNTER (DOWN) Asynchronous binary down-counter with asynchronous clear. The delay of the outputs with respect to the clock input is increasing at each new stage. 9

10 REVERSIBLE (UP/DOWN) COUNTERS The direction of counting is controlled by an external control signal. A reversible counter can be used to add or subtract two serially coded numbers, so it can be operated as a serial mode subtractor. Application example: preload a number, count down, arriving to zero generate a control signal to start or stop a process. 19 UP/DOWN BINARY RIPPLE COUNTER WITH JK FLIP-FLOPS Scheme of the up/down control between each stages. Clock J Q CLK _ K Q & & 1 J Q CLK _ K Q Up/down 1 AND-OR or NAND-NAND network. 10

11 RIPPLE COUNTER: MAXIMUM OPERATING FREQUENCY t pd t dek n - propagation delay, - decoding time, - number of stages 1 f max = n t pd + t dek The ripple counters, in case of many stages are much slower tha the synchronous counters. 21 RIPPLE COUNTER: FREQUENCY DIVISION The waveform of the binary ripple counter indicates that the Q0 output waveform has a frequency exactly one-half that of the input, the Q1 output frequency is one-quarter of the input frequency, etc. Thus the circuit acts as a frequency divider, or frequency scaler. For an n-flip-flop circuit the output frequency is divided by 2 n in steps of 2. The upper limit on the input frequency of the frequency divider is the same as the maximum rate at which the first fliip-flop in the cascade can toggle

12 RIPPLE COUNTER (UP) WITH D FLIP-FLOPS Q A Q B Q C Clock Q CLK _ D Q Q CLK _ D Q Q CLK _ D Q D flip-flop: edge-triggered (rising edge, 0-1 transition). Down counter: the feedback inside each stage is tha same, however the clock inputs are driven by the respective Q outputs. 23 REVERSIBLE 10-STATE (BCD) COUNTER i j h a UP DOWN g f b c d e State encoding a b c d e f g h i j

13 ASYNCHRONOUS BCD COUNTER (UP) The counter should recycle after the 10th pulse. Upon arrival of the 10th pulse Q1 should not toggle to 1, but Q 3 should toggle back to ASYNCHRONOUS BCD COUNTER (UP) The 4-bit BCD counter uses 10 states out of possible 16. The weighted BCD counter counts the first 9 pulses as the binary counter. Here the 4th FF is excited directly by the 1th FF, its J input being appropriately gated. Upon the arrival of the 10th pulses (1001 is the state) the 1th FF toggles back to 0, the 2nd FF cannot change state, because it is inhibited by the feedback from the 4th FF. The 4th FF is toggling too in response to the signal from the output of the 1st FF, in this way the counter recycles to the initial state. 13

14 SYNCHRONOUS COUNTER In a synchronous counter, also known as a parallel counter, all the flip-flops in the counter change state at the same time in synchronism with the input clock signal. The clock signal in this case is simultaneously applied to the clock inputs of all the flip-flops. The delay involved in this case is equal to the propagation delay of one flip-flop only, irrespective of the number of flipflops used to construct the counter. In other words, the delay is independent of the size of the counter. SYNCHRONOUS COUNTERS: GENERAL Eliminates/reduces the delays inherent in ripple counters. All flip-flops receive simultaneously (parallel) the clock pulse (initiation of state transition signal), the transitions are simultaneous, i.e. synchronized. The flip-flops are controlling each other, their output/sate variables are controlling through appropriate combinational networks the control inputs

15 SCHEMATICS OF SYNCHRONOUS COUNTER SYNCHRONOUS BINARY COUNTER (UP) Series carry propagation, T flip-flop mode 30 15

16 SYNCHRONOUS BINARY COUNTER (UP) Carry (between stages): level 1 appears when the stage contains the largest possible number (1111). The carry signal facilitates the chaining of subsequent stage(s). 31 SYNCHRONOUS COUNTER (UP) Functional diagram of the synchronous binary up-counter. The outputs change their states simultaneously, their delay with respect to the clock is small. 16

17 ASYNCHRONOUS COUNTER (DOWN) Functional diagram of the synchronous binary down-counter. SYNCHRONOUS COUNTER: MAXIMUM FREQUENCY OF OPERATION t pd t dek t k - propagation delay, - decoding time, - AND gate delay 1 f max = t pd + t k + t dek Synchronous counters, in case of many stages, are signoficantly faster than ripple counters

18 SYNCHRONOUS BINARY COUNTER Functional diagram of the synchronous binary up-counter, with additional enable and (pre-)load functions. SYNCHRONOUS COUNTER Functional diagram of the synchronous binary up/down counter, with additional enable and (pre-)load functions 18

19 LOADABLE/PRESETTABLE COUNTERS 3-bit synchronous presettable counter SYNCR. VS ASYNCR. COUNTERS It can be seen that a ripple counter requires less circuitry than a synchronous counter. No logic gates are used at all in the example above. Although the asynchronous counter is easier to construct, it has some major disadvantages over the synchronous counter. First of all, the asynchronous counter is slow. In a synchronous counter, all the flip-flops will change states simultaneously while for an asynchronous counter, the propagation delays of the flip-flops add together to produce the overall delay. Hence, the more bits or number of flipflops in an asynchronous counter, the slower it will be. 19

20 SYNCR. VS ASYNCR. COUNTERS Secondly, there are certain "risks" when using an asynchronous counter. In a complex system, many state changes occur on each clock edge and some ICs respond faster than others. If an external event is allowed to affect a system whenever it occurs (unsynchronised), there is a small chance that it will occur near a clock transition, after some IC's have responded, but before others have. This intermingling of transitions often causes erroneous operations. And the worse this is that these problems are difficult to foresee and test for because of the random time difference between the events. COUNTER APPLICATION EXAMPLE: TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROL Design a traffic light control logic for the traffic signal sequence shown below Red Red & Yellow Green Yellow 25 sec 5 sec 25 sec 5 sec Consider generating three signals R, Y, and G representing traffic light, the lights being switched on when a signal is 1. The timing sequence can be generated using a mod12 counter driven by a 5 sec period clock (0.2/sec repetition rate)

21 TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROL Signal sequence Control logic Red 25 sec Red & Yellow 5 sec A B C D MOD12 Counter Green Yellow 25 sec 5 sec 5 sec period CLK Design based on 7492 type counter, sequence: TYPE 7492 MOD 12 COUNTER To operate as a MOD12 counter connect output QA to clock input CKB 42 21

22 TRAFIC LIGHT: TRUTH TABLE AND CONTROL EQUATIONS Cycle Q D Q C Q B Q A R Y G Control equations R = Σ4 (0-5)X:(6,7,14,15) Y = Σ4 (5,13)X:(6,7,14,15) G = Σ4 (8-12)X:(6,7,14,15) 43 TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROL With standard minimization the required logic to control the red, yellow, and green lights can easily be determined. It was an arbitrary decision to begin the sequence at the state of the counter. Beginning at any other state would result in a different but equally effective design

23 TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROL LOGIC: KARNAUGH MAP Q B Minimization and implementation is straightforward X X Q C 1 1 X X Q D Q A 45 END OF LECTURE 23

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