# 1. Digital Logic Circuits

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1 1 Digital Logic ircuits 1. Digital Logic ircuits Many scientific, industrial and commercial advances have been made possible by the advent of computers. Digital Logic ircuits form the basis of any digital (computer) system. In this topic, we will study the essential features of digital logic circuits, which are at the heart of digital computers. Digital Logic circuits may be subdivided into ombinational Logic ircuits and Sequential Logic ircuits. In EG1108, our focus will be on ombinational Logic ircuits. These circuits can be easily analyzed/designed using oolean lgebra, which is the mathematics associated with binary systems. We will see how ombinational Logic ircuits can be designed and used for interesting practical problems. ircuit minization techniques such as Karnaugh maps for simplification of combinatorial logic circuits will also be covered. The main learning objectives for this topic are listed below. Learning Objectives: Understand basic terminology, types of logic gates (ND, OR, NOT, NND, NOR, XOR) Understand the basic operations used in computers and other digital systems asic rules of oolean algebra, De Morgan s laws Universality of NND and NOR gates Karnaugh maps for circuit minimization Recommended text for this section of the course: (i) llan R. Hambley, Electrical Engineering Principles and pplications, hapter 7 (7.1, 7.3, 7.4, 7.5) (ii) Giorgio Rizzoni, Principles and pplications of Electrical Engineering, hapter 12 (12.1, 12.3, 12.4).

2 2 Digital Logic ircuits 1.1. nalog and Digital Signals The circuits we have considered so far process analog signals, in which the signal vs(t) varies continuously with respect to time, as shown below. Notice that the amplitude can take on any value. With the advent of digital computers, another type of signal, 'digital' signal, is popular. In using digital signals, we sample the analog signals at various instants and convert the continuous analog signal into a set of discrete numbers. This is done by a so called 'nalog to Digital onverter (D)' ircuit. The digital signals can only take on values within a finite set of numbers. For example an analog voltage signal may vary continuously within 0 and 50 V. However, a digital meter may display only voltage values in steps of 1V. Most commonly used digital signals are 'binary' in nature. That is, they can take on one of two values (0 and 1). The numbers 0 and 1 are represented typically by two voltages in a circuit. For example, 0 can be represented by 0 volt and 1 by 5 volts. n example of a binary signal is shown in the figure on the right. dvantages of digital systems: Digital systems are extensively used for most practical applications in our modern world. They have the advantages of greater flexibility in computation, ease of designing using simple, reusable building blocks, greater precision and miniaturization. The physical world, however, is analog, and hence almost all digital systems need analog-to-digital conversion before being processed by a digital system, the output of which undergoes digital-to-analog conversion to convert it back to analog form (which is what we use and understand). Data acquisition Data processing Real world signals Sampling /D conversion Digital computer D/ conversion output Fig. 1 We will now look at some important building blocks that form the basis of all digital systems.

3 3 Digital Logic ircuits 1.2 oolean lgebra and Logic Gates oolean algebra (due to George oole) is the mathematics of digital logic and is useful in dealing with binary system of numbers. oolean algebra is used in the analysis and synthesis of logical expressions. Logical expressions are constructed using logical-variables and -operators. The value of any logical expression boils down to any one of the two logical constants listed below: - True - False In oolean algebra, a variable x may take any one of the two possible values 1 and 0. x = 1 and x = 0 which may represent respectively - Truth or Falsehood of a statement - On or Off states of a switch - High (5V) or low (0V) of a voltage level Fig. 2 Electrical circuits designed to represent logical expressions are popularly known as logic circuits. Such circuits are extensively used in industrial processes, household appliances, computers, communication devices, traffic signals and microprocessors to make important logical decisions. Logic circuits are usually represented by logic operations involving boolean variables. There are three basic logic operations as listed below: - OR operation - ND operation - NOT operation We will illustrate these basic logical operations in the following sections using boolean variables and. logic gate is an electronic circuit/device which makes the logical decisions based on these operations. Logic gates have one or more inputs and only one output. The output is active only for certain input combinations. Logic gates are the building blocks of any digital circuit. Logic gates are also called switches. With the advent of integrated circuits, switches have been replaced by TTL (Transistor Transistor Logic) circuits and MOS circuits.

4 4 Digital Logic ircuits ND Operation: ND operation is represented by = Its associated TRUTH TLE is shown below. truth table gives the value of output variable (here ) for all combinations of input variable values (here and ). Thus in an ND operation, the output will be 1 (True) only if all of the inputs are 1 (True). Fig. 3 The following relationships can be easily derived from this circuit:. = 1. = 0. = 0.Ā = 0. =..(.) = (.). =.. Note: The sign can be omitted when indicating an ND operation. Thus, = and = mean the same operation. OR Operation: OR operation is represented by = + Here, & are logical (oolean) variables and the + sign represents the logical addition, called an 'OR' operation. The symbol for the operation (called an OR gate) is shown in Fig. 4. Its associated TRUTH TLE is shown below. Thus in an OR operation, the output will be 1 (True) if either of the inputs is 1 (True). If both inputs are 0 (False), only then the output will be 0 (False). Notice that though the symbol + is used, the logical addition described above does not follow the rules of normal arithmetic addition. Fig. 4 The following relationships can be easily derived from this circuit: +Ā = 1 + = 0+ = 1+ = 1 (+)+=+(+)=++

5 5 Digital Logic ircuits Electronic ircuit implementation: The following figure shows how an OR gate can be implemented using diodes and a resistor. In general, however, OR and other gates are implemented using electronic circuits based on active transistor (MOSFET or JT) devices. The focus in our EG1108 module will not be on such circuit implementation of logic gates. NOT Operation: NOT operation is represented by The NOT gate has only one input which is then inverted by the gate. Here, is the 'complement' of. The symbol and truth table for the operation are shown below: Fig. 5 Multivariable Logic Gates: Many logic gates can be implemented with more than two inputs, and for reasons of space in circuits, usually multiple input, complex gates are made. You will encounter such gates in real world. The truth tables of 3-input ND and OR gates are shown below. In general, ND function on n variables is 1 if and only if LL its arguments are 1. OR function on n variables is 1 if and only if at least one of its arguments is 1. Truth table for 3-input ND gate Input Output

6 6 Digital Logic ircuits Truth table for 3-input OR gate is shown below: Input Output NND Gate: We could combine ND and NOT operations together to form a NND gate. Thus the logical expression for a NND gate is The symbol and truth table are given in the following figure. The NND gate symbol is given by an ND gate symbol with a circle at the output to indicate the inverting operation. Fig. 6 NOR Gate: Similarly, OR and NOT gates could be combined to form a NOR gate. Fig. 7

7 7 Digital Logic ircuits 1.3 Elements of oolean lgebra symbolic binary logic expression consists of binary variables and the operators ND, OR and NOT (e.g. ). The possible values for any oolean expression can be tabulated in a truth table. oolean algebra expressions can be implemented by interconnection of ND gates, OR gates, and inverters. Fig. 8 s can be seen, the number of simple gates needed to implement an expression is equal to the number of operations in the oolean expression. We could use the rules of oolean lgebra or Karnaugh Maps to simplify a given oolean expression. This would allow the given expression to be implemented using less number of gates. asic Laws of oolean lgebra Some of the basic rules of oolean algebra that may be used to simplify the oolean expressions are shown below. These rules may be proved using the truth tables. Essentially, we consider all combinations of inputs and show that in all cases the LHS expression and RHS expression lead to the same result. Such a method of proving logical equations is known as proof by perfect induction.

8 8 Digital Logic ircuits Example 1: Show by perfect induction that. [See rule 18 above]. Solution: Let us create the following table and show the LHS = RHS for all the values of and. De Morgan's Laws: These laws are very useful in simplifying oolean expressions. ccording to De Morgan's theorem: Notice that the De Morgan's Laws give the link between the OR operation and the ND operation. pplication of De Morgan's theorem makes it easy to design logic circuits using NND and NOR logic gates which we will soon see. ecause of the above relationships, any logical function can be implemented by using only 1)ND and NOT gates or 2)OR and NOT gates. Thus an OR gate can be implemented with ND and NOT gates as shown below. + Fig. 9 De Morgan's Laws are valid for more than two variables also. For example, and

9 9 Digital Logic ircuits 1.4 Universality of NND and NOR Gates Universality of NND Gates NND gates can be used to implement the functions of both a NOT gate and an ND gate. Fig. 10 Thus, any given logic function can be implemented by using NND gates alone. For this reason, NND gate is said to be logically complete. Example 2: Implement Z D using only NND gates. Solution: Z D D D ircuit implementation using NND gates: Fig. 11

10 10 Digital Logic ircuits Universality of NOR Gates Likewise, it can be shown that any logic function can be implemented using NOR gates alone. This is so because NOR gates can be used to implement the functions of both a NOT gate and an OR gate. Fig. 12 NOR gate is functionally complete because ND, OR, and NOT gates can be implemented using NOR gates alone. Example 3: Implement Z D using only NOR gates. Solution: ircuit implementation using NOR gates: Fig. 13

11 11 Digital Logic ircuits 1.5 Exclusive OR Operation: In logic circuits, exclusive OR operation is represented as shown below. Fig. 14 Its associated TRUTH TLE: Example 4: Figure below shows a logical circuit that may be used to achieve exclusive OR operation. Determine the output. Fig. 15 Solution: The output of the OR gate is + while that of NND gate is Hence, the output is given by ( ) ( ).. Example 5: Simplify the expression for and draw an equivalent logical circuit for exclusive OR operation. Solution: Fig. 16

12 12 Digital Logic ircuits 1.6 Designing Logic ircuits In designing digital circuits, the designer often begins with a truth table describing what the circuit should do. The design task is to determine what type of circuit will perform the function described in the truth table. lthough, it may not always be obvious what kind of logic circuit would satisfy the truth table, two simple methods for designing such a circuit are found in standard form of oolean expression called the Sum-Of-Products (or SOP) form and Product-Of-Sums (or POS) forms. ased on the description of the problem, natural language is first translated into a truth table and oolean expressions are found methodically using one of these two methods. The oolean expression is then simplified using rules of oolean algebra or Karnaugh Maps (which we will study later), so that it can be implemented using minimum number of logic gates for practical implementation. Sum-of-Products Implementation s you might suspect, a Sum-Of-Products oolean expression is literally a set of oolean terms added (summed) together, each term being a multiplicative (product) combination of oolean variables. sum-of-products-expression = term + term... + term Product terms that include all of the input variables (or their inverses) are called minterms. In a sum-of-products expression, we form a product of all the input variables (or their inverses) for each row of the truth table for which the result is logic 1. The output is the logical sum of these minterms Sum-Of-Products expressions are easy to generate from truth tables as shown in the example below, by determining which rows of the table have an output of 1, writing one product term for each row, and finally summing all the product terms. This creates a oolean expression representing the truth table as a whole. Sum-Of-Products expressions lend themselves well to implementation as a set of ND gates (products) feeding into a single OR gate (sum). Example 6: Obtain W from the truth table in the Sum Of Products (SOP) form. Draw the logical circuit to implement it. Using this method, the resulting oolean expression and its circuit implementation are shown below. W Note that each product term in the oolean expression includes all of the input variables (or their inverses).

13 13 Digital Logic ircuits Fig. 17 Example 7: Simplify the logical expression W obtained in example 5 and show its implementation. Solution: The oolean expression can be simplified as follows. W ) ( ) ( Implementation of W after simplification: Fig. 18

14 14 Digital Logic ircuits Product-of-Sums Implementation n alternative to generating a Sum-Of-Products expression to account for all the "high" (1) output conditions in the truth table is to generate a Product-Of-Sums, or POS, expression, to account for all the "low" (0) output conditions instead. POS oolean expressions can be generated from truth tables quite easily, by determining which rows of the table have an output of 0, writing one sum term for each row, and finally multiplying all the sum terms. This creates a oolean expression representing the truth table as a whole. These sum terms that include all of the input variables (or their inverses) are called maxterms. For POS implementation, the output variable is the logical product of maxterms. Product-Of-Sums expressions lend themselves well to implementation as a set of OR gates (sums) feeding into a single ND gate (product). Example 8: Find Z in terms of, and in product-of-sum (POS) form from the following truth table. To begin, we identify which rows in the last truth table column have "low" (0) outputs, and write a oolean sum term that would equal 0 for that row's input conditions. For instance, in the fifth row of the truth table, where =1, =0, and =0, the sum term would be (Ā + + ), since that term would have a value of 0 if and only if Ā =0, =0, and =0. Similarly, maxterms for the 6 th and 7 th row can be found. The completed Product-Of-Sums expression, of course, is the multiplicative combination of these three sum terms. Z ( ) ( ) ( ) Whereas a Sum-Of-Products expression could be implemented in the form of a set of ND gates with their outputs connecting to a single OR gate, a Product-Of-Sums expression can be implemented as a set of OR gates feeding into a single ND gate.

15 15 Digital Logic ircuits Karnaugh Maps From the previous examples we can see that rules of oolean algebra can be applied in order to simplify expressions. part from being laborious (and requiring us to remember all the laws) this method can lead to solutions which, though they appear minimal, are not. The Karnaugh map provides a simple and straight-forward method of minimising boolean expressions. With the Karnaugh map oolean expressions having up to four and even six variables can be simplified easily. The simplified logical expression is then used so that minimum hardware is employed in the implementation of logical circuits. Karnaugh map provides a pictorial method of grouping together expressions with common factors and therefore eliminating unwanted variables. The values inside the squares are copied from the output column of the truth table, therefore there is one square in the map for every row in the truth table. round the edge of the Karnaugh map are the values of the two input variable. is along the top and is down the left hand side. The diagram below explains this. oolean Expressions in Two Variables: onsider the following truth table. The logical expression X is given by X The Karnaugh map of the above truth table is shown in the following figure. The values inside the squares are copied from the output column of the truth table, therefore there is one square in the map for every row in the truth table. round the edge of the Karnaugh map are the values of the two input variable and and their inverses. In other words, we may say that Karnaugh map is a graphical representation of the truth table. onsider the logical expression Y Its Karnaugh map is shown below. The two adjacent squares may be combined together as shown by the loop. Referring to the map above, the two adjacent 1's are grouped together. Through inspection it can be seen that variable has its true and false form within the group. This eliminates variable leaving only variable which only has its true form. The minimised answer therefore is Y =. It simply means that we are combining the two terms of the above expression Y as shown below:

16 16 Digital Logic ircuits Y ( ) Therefore, as the variable changes from its normal form to its inverse form (Ā) when we move from one square to the adjacent one, the simplified expression of Y will be independent of. Taking another example, the expression Z is simplified as follows. First, combining the two adjacent squares in row 1, we get. Next, combining the two adjacent squares in column 1, we get. Hence, we get Z as shown below: Z = + Therefore we can easily conclude that, combining two adjacent squares in Karnaugh map eliminates one variable from the resulting oolean expression of the corresponding squares. oolean Expressions in Three Variables: onsider the following truth table. The corresponding oolean expression using SOP is: X Figure below shows the Karnaugh map of the above truth table. The expression X may be simplified by combining two adjacent squares as shown. The simplified expression of X is: X

17 17 Digital Logic ircuits Now, consider another expression Y given below: Y The Karnaugh map of Y is shown below. In this case, we are able to combine four adjacent squares. Note that Y can also be obtained as: Y ) ( ) ( onsider another example: Z The corresponding Karnaugh map is shown below: In this case also, we are able to combine 4 adjacent squares. Note that - ombining the two adjacent squares in columns 2 and 3 of row 1, the variable gets eliminated, and we are left with Z 1 - ombining the two adjacent squares in columns 2 and 3 of row 2, the variable gets eliminated and we are left with Z 2 ombining these two expressions, Z Finally, let us consider another expression W below: W The Karnaugh map of W is shown below. Note that the resulting expression should be independent of and. So, W is simplified as: W = Therefore, we can conclude that combining four adjacent squares in Karnaugh map eliminates two variables from the resulting oolean expression of the corresponding squares.

18 18 Digital Logic ircuits oolean Expressions in Four Variables Knowing how to generate Gray code should allow us to build larger maps. ctually, all we need to do is look at the left to right sequence across the top of the 3-variable map, follow a similar sequence for the other two variables and write it down on the left side of the 4-variable map. Karnaugh map of four variables,, and D is shown in the following figure. s we have shown in the previous examples, we may easily prove that: ombining eight adjacent squares in Karnaugh map eliminates three variables from the resulting oolean expression of the corresponding squares. Example 9: Simplify the oolean expression: X D D D D Karnaugh map of X is shown in Figure s we could combine 4 adjacent squares as shown below, the simplified expression should be independent of two variables. djacent squares in a row suggest that the resultant expression should be independent of. Similarly, adjacent squares in a column suggest that it should also be independent of. Hence, the simplified expression of X is given by: X D Example 10: Simplify the following oolean expression using Karnaugh map. Y D D D D D D D D D Solution: Karnaugh map of Y is shown below. There are four loops enclosing 4-adjacent squares. First, consider the loop 1. The resulting expression for these squares should be independent of and D. Next, consider loop 2. The resulting expression of these squares should be independent of and D. Thirdly, consider loop 3. The resulting expression of these squares should be independent of and. Finally, consider loop 4.

19 19 Digital Logic ircuits The resulting expression of these squares should be independent of and. Hence, we get Y D D Reductions could be done with oolean algebra. However, the Karnaugh map is faster and easier, especially if there are many logic reductions to do. Karnaugh maps: omplete Simplification Process 1. Draw out the pattern of output 1 s and 0 s in a matrix of input values 2. onstruct the K map and place 1s and 0s in the squares according to the truth table. 3. Group the isolated 1s which are not adjacent to any other 1s. (single loops) 4. Group any pair which contains a 1 adjacent to only one other 1. (double loops) 5. Group any quad that contains one or more 1s that have not already been grouped, making sure to use the minimum number of groups. 6. Group any pairs necessary to include any 1s that have not yet been grouped, making sure to use the minimum number of groups. 7. Form the OR sum of all the terms generated by each group. ompared to the algebraic method, the K-map process is a more orderly process requiring fewer steps and always producing a minimum expression. It must be noted that the minimum expression is generally NOT unique.

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