# CSEE 3827: Fundamentals of Computer Systems. Standard Forms and Simplification with Karnaugh Maps

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1 CSEE 3827: Fundamentals of Computer Systems Standard Forms and Simplification with Karnaugh Maps

2 Agenda (M&K ) Standard Forms Product-of-Sums (PoS) Sum-of-Products (SoP) converting between Min-terms and Max-terms Simplification via Karnaugh Maps (K-maps) 2, 3, and 4 variable Implicants, Prime Implicants, Essential Prime Implicants Using K-maps to reduce PoS form Don t Care Conditions 2

3 Standard Forms There are many ways to express a boolean expression F = XYZ + XYZ + XZ = XY(Z + Z) + XZ = XY + XZ It is useful to have a standard or canonical way Derived from truth table Generally not the simplest form

4 Two principle standard forms Sum-of-products (SOP) Product-of-sums (POS)

5 Product and sum terms Product term: logical AND of literals (e.g., XYZ) Sum term: logical OR of literals (e.g., A + B + C) 5

6 PoS & SoP Sum of products (SoP): OR of ANDs e.g., F = Y + XYZ + XY Product of sums (PoS): AND of ORs e.g., G = X(Y + Z)(X + Y + Z) 6

7 Converting from PoS (or any form) to SoP Just multiply through and simplify, e.g., G = X(Y + Z)(X + Y + Z) = XYX + XYY + XYZ + XZX + XZY + XZZ = XY + XY + XYZ + XZ + XZY + XZ = XY + XZ 7

8 Converting from SoP to PoS Complement, multiply through, complement via DeMorgan, e.g., Note: X = X F = Y Z + XY Z + XYZ F' = (Y+Z)(X +Y+Z )(X +Y +Z) = YZ + X Y + X Z (after lots of simplification) F = (Y +Z )(X+Y )(X+Z ) 8

9 Minterms e.g., Minterms for 3 variables A,B,C A B C minterm m0 ABC m1 ABC m2 ABC m3 ABC m4 ABC m5 ABC m6 ABC m7 ABC A product term in which all variables appear once, either complemented or uncomplemented (i.e., an entry in the truth table). Each minterm evaluates to 1 for exactly one variable assignment, 0 for all others. Denoted by mx where X corresponds to the variable assignment for which mx = 1. 9

10 Minterms to describe a function sometimes also called a minterm expansion or disjunctive normal form (DNF) This term is TRUE when A=0,B=1,C=0 A B C F F F = ABC + ABC + ABC + ABC + ABC F = ABC + ABC + ABC

11 Sum of minterms form The logical OR of all minterms for which F = 1. A B C minterm F m0 ABC m1 ABC m2 ABC m3 ABC m4 ABC 0 F = ABC + ABC + ABC = m1 + m2 + m3 = m(1,2,3) m5 ABC m6 ABC m7 ABC 0 11

12 Minterm form cont d (variables appear once in each minterm) A B C F F minterm m0 ABC m1 ABC m2 ABC m3 ABC m4 ABC m5 ABC m6 ABC m7 ABC F = ABC + ABC + ABC + ABC + ABC 0 m0 + m1 + m2 + m4 + m5 0 m(0,1,2,4,5) F = ABC + ABC + ABC 0 m3 + m6 + m7 0 m(3,6,7)

13 Minterms as a circuit A B C F = ABC + ABC + ABC + ABC + ABC 0 m0 + m1 + m2 + m4 + m5 0 m(1,0,2,4,5) F Standard form is not minimal form!

14 Maxterms A B C maxterm M0 A+B+C M1 A+B+C M2 A+B+C M3 A+B+C M4 A+B+C M5 A+B+C M6 A+B+C M7 A+B+C A sum term in which all variables appear once, either complemented or uncomplemented. Each maxterm evaluates to 0 for exactly one variable assignment, 1 for all others. Denoted by MX where X corresponds to the variable assignment for which MX = 0. 14

15 Maxterm description of a function sometimes also called a maxterm expansion or conjunctive normal form (CNF) This term is FALSE when A=1,B=1,C=0 A B C F F F = (A+B+C) (A+B+C) (A+B+C) Force to 0

16 Product of maxterms form The logical AND of all maxterms for which F = 0. A B C maxterm F M0 A+B+C M1 A+B+C M2 A+B+C M3 A+B+C M4 A+B+C 0 F = (A+B+C) (A+B+C) (A+B+C) (A+B+C) (A+B+C) = (M0) (M4) (M5) (M6) (M7) = M(0,4,5,6,7) M5 A+B+C M6 A+B+C M7 A+B+C 0 16

17 One final example A B C F F F F Minterms (SOP) Maxterms (POS)

18 Summary of Minterms and Maxterms F F Minterms (SOP) Maxterms (POS) m(f = 1) m(f = 0) M(F = 0) M(F = 1)

19 Relations between standard forms sum of products product of sums F DeMorgan s F sum of minterms product of maxterms all boolean expressions 19

20 Simplification with Karnaugh Maps

21 Cost criteria Literal cost: the number of literals in an expression Gate-input cost: the literal cost + all terms with more than one literal + (optionally) the number of distinct, complemented single literals Roughly proportional to the number of transistors and wires in an AND/OR/NOT circuits. Does not apply, to more complex gates, for example XOR. Literal cost Gate-input cost G = ABCD + ABCD (4) G = (A+B)(B+C)(C+D)(D+A) (4) 21

22 Karnaugh maps (a.k.a., K-maps) All functions can be expressed with a map There is one square in the map for each minterm in a function s truth table X Y F 0 0 m0 0 1 m1 1 0 m2 1 1 m3 X Y m0 XY m2 XY m1 XY m3 XY 22

23 Karnaugh maps express functions Fill out table with value of a function X Y F X Y

24 Simplification using a k-map Whenever two squares share an edge and both are 1, those two terms can be combined to form a single term with one less variable X Y X Y X Y F = Y + XY F = XY + XY + XY X Y F = X + Y F = X + XY 24

25 Simplification using a k-map (2) Circle contiguous groups of 1s (circle sizes must be a power of 2) There is a correspondence between circles on a k-map and terms in a function expression The bigger the circle, the simpler the term Add circles (and terms) until all 1s on the k-map are circled X Y F = X + Y 25

26 3-variable Karnaugh maps Use gray ordering on edges with multiple variables Gray encoding: order of values such that only one bit changes at a time Two minterms are considered adjacent if they differ in only one variable (this means maps wrap ) X Y Z Y= m0 XYZ m1 XYZ m3 XYZ m2 XYZ X=1 1 m4 XYZ m5 XYZ Z=1 m7 XYZ m6 XYZ 26

27 4-variable Karnaugh maps Extension of 3-variable maps WX Y Z Y WXYZ or W+X+Y+Z 0 0 m0 m1 m3 m2 W 0 1 m4 m5 m7 m6 1 1 m12 m13 m15 m m8 m9 m11 m10 Z X 27

28 Implicants Implicant: a product term, which, viewed in a K-Map is a 2 i x 2 j size rectangle (possibly wrapping around) where i=0,1,2, j=0,1,2 WX Y Z Y WX Y Z Y m0 m1 m3 m2 0 0 m0 m1 m3 m2 W 0 1 m4 m5 m7 m6 1 1 m12 m13 m15 m m8 m9 m11 m10 X W 0 1 m4 m5 m7 m6 1 1 m12 m13 m15 m m8 m9 m11 m10 X Z Z 28

29 Implicants Implicant: a product term, which, viewed in a K-Map is a 2 i x 2 j size rectangle (possibly wrapping around) where i=0,1,2, j=0,1,2 WX Y Z Y WX Y Z Y W 0 0 m0 m1 m3 m2 0 1 m4 m5 m7 m6 1 1 m12 m13 m15 m14 WZ WY WXY 1 0 m8 m9 m11 m10 X WXYZ W 0 0 m0 m1 m3 m2 W 0 1 m4 m5 m7 m6 WX 1 1 m12 m13 m15 m m8 m9 m11 m10 X Z Z WXZ Note: bigger rectangles = fewer literals 29

30 4-variable Karnaugh map example W X Y Z F WX Y Z Y W X Z

31 Implicant terminology implicant: a product term, which, viewed in a K-Map is a 2 i x 2 j size rectangle (possibly wrapping around) where i=0,1,2, j=0,1,2 prime implicant: An implicant not contained within another implicant. essential prime implicant: a prime implicant that is the only prime implicant to cover some minterm. 31

32 4-variable Karnaugh maps (3) List all all of the prime implicants for this function Is any of them an essential prime implicant? What is a simplified expression for this function? WX Y Z Y W Z X 32

33 Using K-maps to build simplified circuits Step 1: Identify all PIs and essential PIs Step 2: Include all Essential PIs in the circuit (Why?) Step 3: If any 1-valued minterms are uncovered by EPIs, choose PIs that are big and do a good job covering

34 Design example : 2-bit multiplier a1 a0 b1 b0 z3 z2 z1 z two 2-bit # s multiplied together to give a 4-bit solution e.g., a1a0 = 10, b1b0 = 11, z3z2z1z0 =

35 K-Maps: Complements, PoS, don t care conditions

36 Finding F Find prime implicants corresponding to the 0s on a k-map Y Z Y Z WX WX F = Y + XZ + WZ F = YZ + WXY 36

37 PoS expressions from a k-map Find F as SoP and then apply DeMorgan s WX Y Z F = YZ + XZ + YX DeMorgan s F = (Y+Z)(Z+X)(Y+X) 37

38 Don t care conditions There are circumstances in which the value of an output doesn t matter For example, in that 2-bit multiplier, what if we are told that a and b will be non-0? We don t care what the output looks like for the input cases that should not occur Don t care situations are denoted by an X in a truth table and in Karnaugh maps. a1 a0 b1 b0 z3 z2 z1 z X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Can also be expressed in minterm form: During minimization can be treated as either a 1 or a 0 z2 = m(10,11,14) d2 = m(0,1,2,3,4,8,12) X X X X X X X X

39 2-bit multiplier non-0 multiplier a1 a0 b1 b0 z3 z2 z1 z X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X a1 b0 X X X X X X X s must be covered 0 s must not be covered X s are optionally covered b1 a0 a1 z3 = z2 = b0 X X X X X X X b1 a0 39

40 2-bit multiplier non-0 multiplier (2) a1 a0 b1 b0 z3 z2 z1 z X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X a1 z1 = b0 X X X X X X X b1 a0 a1 b0 X X X X X X X z0 = b1 a0 40

41 Final thoughts on Don t care conditions Sometimes don t cares greatly simplify circuitry A D 1 X X X X 1 X X X 0 0 X 1 C B ABCD + ABCD + ABCD + ABCD vs. A + C 41

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