# CHAPTER 2. Logic. 1. Logic Definitions. Notation: Variables are used to represent propositions. The most common variables used are p, q, and r.

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "CHAPTER 2. Logic. 1. Logic Definitions. Notation: Variables are used to represent propositions. The most common variables used are p, q, and r."

## Transcription

1 CHAPTER 2 Logic 1. Logic Definitions 1.1. Propositions. Definition A proposition is a declarative sentence that is either true (denoted either T or 1) or false (denoted either F or 0). Notation: Variables are used to represent propositions. The most common variables used are p, q, and r. Logic has been studied since the classical Greek period ( BC). The Greeks, most notably Thales, were the first to formally analyze the reasoning process. Aristotle ( BC), the father of logic, and many other Greeks searched for universal truths that were irrefutable. A second great period for logic came with the use of symbols to simplify complicated logical arguments. Gottfried Leibniz ( ) began this work at age 14, but failed to provide a workable foundation for symbolic logic. George Boole ( ) is considered the father of symbolic logic. He developed logic as an abstract mathematical system consisting of defined terms (propositions), operations (conjunction, disjunction, and negation), and rules for using the operations. It is this system that we will study in the first section. Boole s basic idea was that if simple propositions could be represented by precise symbols, the relation between the propositions could be read as precisely as an algebraic equation. Boole developed an algebra of logic in which certain types of reasoning were reduced to manipulations of symbols Examples. Example Drilling for oil caused dinosaurs to become extinct. is a proposition. 21

2 Example Look out! is not a proposition. 1. LOGIC DEFINITIONS 22 Example How far is it to the next town? is not a proposition. Example x + 2 = 2x is not a proposition. Example x + 2 = 2x when x = 2 is a proposition. Recall a proposition is a declarative sentence that is either true or false. Here are some further examples of propositions: Example All cows are brown. Example The Earth is further from the sun than Venus. Example There is life on Mars. Example = 5. Here are some sentences that are not propositions. Example Do you want to go to the movies? Since a question is not a declarative sentence, it fails to be a proposition. Example Clean up your room. Likewise, an imperative is not a declarative sentence; hence, fails to be a proposition. Example x = 2 + x. This is a declarative sentence, but unless x is assigned a value or is otherwise prescribed, the sentence neither true nor false, hence, not a proposition. Example This sentence is false. What happens if you assume this statement is true? false? This example is called a paradox and is not a proposition, because it is neither true nor false. Each proposition can be assigned one of two truth values. We use T or 1 for true and use F or 0 for false Logical Operators. Definition Unary Operator negation: not p, p. Definitions Binary Operators (a) conjunction: p and q, p q. (b) disjunction: p or q, p q. (c) exclusive or: exactly one of p or q, p xor q, p q. (d) implication: if p then q, p q. (e) biconditional: p if and only if q, p q.

3 1. LOGIC DEFINITIONS 23 A sentence like I can jump and skip can be thought of as a combination of the two sentences I can jump and I can skip. When we analyze arguments or logical expression it is very helpful to break a sentence down to some composition of simpler statements. We can create compound propositions using propositional variables, such as p, q, r, s,..., and connectives or logical operators. A logical operator is either a unary operator, meaning it is applied to only a single proposition; or a binary operator, meaning it is applied to two propositions. Truth tables are used to exhibit the relationship between the truth values of a compound proposition and the truth values of its component propositions Negation. Negation Operator, not, has symbol. Example p: This book is interesting. p can be read as: (i.) This book is not interesting. (ii.) This book is uninteresting. (iii.) It is not the case that this book is interesting. Truth Table: p T F p F T The negation operator is a unary operator which, when applied to a proposition p, changes the truth value of p. That is, the negation of a proposition p, denoted by p, is the proposition that is false when p is true and true when p is false. For example, if p is the statement I understand this, then its negation would be I do not understand this or It is not the case that I understand this. Another notation commonly used for the negation of p is p. Generally, an appropriately inserted not or removed not is sufficient to negate a simple statement. Negating a compound statement may be a bit more complicated as we will see later on.

4 1. LOGIC DEFINITIONS Conjunction. Conjunction Operator, and, has symbol. Example p: This book is interesting. q: I am staying at home. p q: This book is interesting, and I am staying at home. Truth Table: p q p q T T T T F F F T F F F F The conjunction operator is the binary operator which, when applied to two propositions p and q, yields the proposition p and q, denoted p q. The conjunction p q of p and q is the proposition that is true when both p and q are true and false otherwise Disjunction. Disjunction Operator, inclusive or, has symbol. Example p: This book is interesting. q: I am staying at home. p q: This book is interesting, or I am staying at home. Truth Table: p q p q T T T T F T F T T F F F The disjunction operator is the binary operator which, when applied to two propositions p and q, yields the proposition p or q, denoted p q. The disjunction p q of p and q is the proposition that is true when either p is true, q is true, or both are true, and is false otherwise. Thus, the or intended here is the inclusive or. In fact, the symbol is the abbreviation of the Latin word vel for the inclusive or.

5 1. LOGIC DEFINITIONS Exclusive Or. Exclusive Or Operator, xor, has symbol. Example p: This book is interesting. q: I am staying at home. p q: Either this book is interesting, or I am staying at home, but not both. Truth Table: p q p q T T F T F T F T T F F F The exclusive or is the binary operator which, when applied to two propositions p and q yields the proposition p xor q, denoted p q, which is true if exactly one of p or q is true, but not both. It is false if both are true or if both are false. Many times in our every day language we use or in the exclusive sense. In logic, however, we always mean the inclusive or when we simply use or as a connective in a proposition. If we mean the exclusive or it must be specified. For example, in a restaurant a menu may say there is a choice of soup or salad with a meal. In logic this would mean that a customer may choose both a soup and salad with their meal. The logical implication of this statement, however, is probably not what is intended. To create a sentence that logically states the intent the menu could say that there is a choice of either soup or salad (but not both). The phrase either... or... is normally indicates the exclusive or Implications. Implication Operator, if...then..., has symbol. Example p: This book is interesting. q: I am staying at home. p q: If this book is interesting, then I am staying at home. Truth Table: p q p q T T T T F F F T T F F T Equivalent Forms of If p then q :

6 p implies q If p, q p only if q p is a sufficient condition for q q if p q whenever p q is a necessary condition for p 1. LOGIC DEFINITIONS 26 The implication p q is the proposition that is often read if p then q. If p then q is false precisely when p is true but q is false. There are many ways to say this connective in English. You should study the various forms as shown above. One way to think of the meaning of p q is to consider it a contract that says if the first condition is satisfied, then the second will also be satisfied. If the first condition, p, is not satisfied, then the condition of the contract is null and void. In this case, it does not matter if the second condition is satisfied or not, the contract is still upheld. For example, suppose your friend tells you that if you meet her for lunch, she will give you a book she wants you to read. According to this statement, you would expect her to give you a book if you do go to meet her for lunch. But what if you do not meet her for lunch? She did not say anything about that possible situation, so she would not be breaking any kind of promise if she dropped the book off at your house that night or if she just decided not to give you the book at all. If either of these last two possibilities happens, we would still say the implication stated was true because she did not break her promise. Exercise Which of the following statements are equivalent to If x is even, then y is odd? There may be more than one or none. (1) y is odd only if x is even. (2) x is even is sufficient for y to be odd. (3) x is even is necessary for y to be odd. (4) If x is odd, then y is even. (5) x is even and y is even. (6) x is odd or y is odd Terminology. For the compound statement p q p is called the premise, hypothesis, or the antecedent. q is called the conclusion or consequent. q p is the converse of p q.

7 p q is the inverse of p q. q p is the contrapositive of p q. 1. LOGIC DEFINITIONS 27 We will see later that the converse and the inverse are not equivalent to the original implication, but the contrapositive q p is. In other words, p q and its contrapositive have the exact same truth values Example. Example Implication: If this book is interesting, then I am staying at home. Converse: If I am staying at home, then this book is interesting. Inverse: If this book is not interesting, then I am not staying at home. Contrapositive: If I am not staying at home, then this book is not interesting. The converse of your friend s promise given above would be if she gives you a book she wants you to read, then you will meet her for lunch, and the inverse would be If you do not meet her for lunch, then she will not give you the book. We can see from the discussion about this statement that neither of these are the same as the original promise. The contrapositive of the statement is if she does not give you the book, then you do not meet her for lunch. This is, in fact, equivalent to the original promise. Think about when would this promise be broken. It should be the exact same situation where the original promise is broken. Exercise p is the statement I will prove this by cases, q is the statement There are more than 500 cases, and r is the statement I can find another way. (1) State ( r q) p in simple English. (2) State the converse of the statement in part 1 in simple English. (3) State the inverse of the statement in part 1 in simple English. (4) State the contrapositive of the statement in part 1 in simple English Biconditional. Biconditional Operator, if and only if, has symbol. Example p: This book is interesting. q: I am staying at home. p q: This book is interesting if and only if I am staying at home.

8 1. LOGIC DEFINITIONS 28 Truth Table: p q p q T T T T F F F T F F F T The biconditional statement is equivalent to (p q) (q p). In other words, for p q to be true we must have both p and q true or both false. The difference between the implication and biconditional operators can often be confusing, because in our every day language we sometimes say an if...then statement, p q, when we actually mean the biconditional statement p q. Consider the statement you may have heard from your mother (or may have said to your children): If you eat your broccoli, then you may have some ice cream. Following the strict logical meaning of the first statement, the child still may or may not have ice cream even if the broccoli isn t eaten. The if...then construction does not indicate what would happen in the case when the hypothesis is not true. The intent of this statement, however, is most likely that the child must eat the broccoli in order to get the ice cream. When we set out to prove a biconditional statement, we often break the proof down into two parts. First we prove the implication p q, and then we prove the converse q p. Another type of if...then statement you may have already encountered is the one used in computer languages. In this if...then statement, the premise is a condition to be tested, and if it is true then the conclusion is a procedure that will be performed. If the premise is not true, then the procedure will not be performed. Notice this is different from if...then in logic. It is actually closer to the biconditional in logic. However, it is not actually a logical statement at all since the conclusion is really a list of commands, not a proposition NAND and NOR Operators. Definition The NAND Operator, which has symbol ( Sheffer Stroke ), is defined by the truth table p q p q T T F T F T F T T F F T

9 1. LOGIC DEFINITIONS 29 Definition The NOR Operator, which has symbol ( Peirce Arrow ), is defined by the truth table p q p q T T F T F F F T F F F T These two additional operators are very useful as logical gates in a combinatorial circuit, a topic we will discuss later Example. Example Write the following statement symbolically, and then make a truth table for the statement. If I go to the mall or go to the movies, then I will not go to the gym. Solution. Suppose we set p = I go to the mall q = I go to the movies r = I will go to the gym The proposition can then be expressed as If p or q, then not r, or (p q) r. p q r (p q) r (p q) r T T T T F F T T F T T T T F T T F F T F F T T T F T T T F F F T F T T T F F T F F T F F F F T T When building a truth table for a compound proposition, you need a row for every possible combination of T s and F s for the component propositions. Notice if there

10 1. LOGIC DEFINITIONS 30 is only one proposition involved, there are 2 rows. If there are two propositions, there are 4 rows, if there are 3 propositions there are 8 rows. Exercise How many rows should a truth table have for a statement involving n different propositions? It is not always so clear cut how many columns one needs. If we have only three propositions p, q, and r, you would, in theory, only need four columns: one for each of p, q, and r, and one for the compound proposition under discussion, which is (p q) r in this example. In practice, however, you will probably want to have a column for each of the successive intermediate propositions used to build the final one. In this example it is convenient to have a column for p q and a column for r, so that the truth value in each row in the column for (p q) r is easily supplied from the truth values for p q and r in that row. Another reason why you should show the intermediate columns in your truth table is for grading purposes. If you make an error in a truth table and do not give this extra information, it will be difficult to evaluate your error and give you partial credit. Example Suppose p is the proposition the apple is delicious and q is the proposition I ate the apple. Notice the difference between the two statements below. (a) p q = The apple is not delicious, and I ate the apple. (b) (p q) = It is not the case that: the apple is delicious and I ate the apple. Exercise Find another way to express Example Part b without using the phrase It is not the case. Example Express the proposition If you work hard and do not get distracted, then you can finish the job symbolically as a compound proposition in terms of simple propositions and logical operators. Set p = you work hard q = you get distracted r = you can finish the job In terms of p, q, and r, the given proposition can be written (p q) r. The comma in Example is not necessary to distinguish the order of the operators, but consider the sentence If the fish is cooked then dinner is ready and I

11 1. LOGIC DEFINITIONS 31 am hungry. Should this sentence be interpreted as f (r h) or (f r) h, where f, r, and h are the natural choices for the simple propositions? A comma needs to be inserted in this sentence to make the meaning clear or rearranging the sentence could make the meaning clear. Exercise Insert a comma into the sentence If the fish is cooked then dinner is ready and I am hungry. to make the sentence mean (a) f (r h) (b) (f r) h Example Here we build a truth table for p (q r) and (p q) r. When creating a table for more than one proposition, we may simply add the necessary columns to a single truth table. p q r q r p q p (q r) (p q) r T T T T T T T T T F F T F F T F T T F T T T F F T F T T F T T T F T T F T F F F T T F F T T F T T F F F T F T T Exercise Build one truth table for f (r h) and (f r) h Bit Strings. Definition A bit is a 0 or a 1 and a bit string is a list or string of bits. The logical operators can be turned into bit operators by thinking of 0 as false and 1 as true. The obvious substitutions then give the table 0 = 1 1 = = = = = = = = = = = = = 0

12 1. LOGIC DEFINITIONS 32 We can define the bitwise NEGATION of a string and bitwise OR, bitwise AND, and bitwise XOR of two bit strings of the same length by applying the logical operators to the corresponding bits in the natural way. Example (a) = (b) = (c) = (d) = 01011

### Florida State University Course Notes MAD 2104 Discrete Mathematics I

Florida State University Course Notes MAD 2104 Discrete Mathematics I Florida State University Tallahassee, Florida 32306-4510 Copyright c 2011 Florida State University Written by Dr. John Bryant and Dr.

### 31 is a prime number is a mathematical statement (which happens to be true).

Chapter 1 Mathematical Logic In its most basic form, Mathematics is the practice of assigning truth to welldefined statements. In this course, we will develop the skills to use known true statements to

### WUCT121. Discrete Mathematics. Logic

WUCT121 Discrete Mathematics Logic 1. Logic 2. Predicate Logic 3. Proofs 4. Set Theory 5. Relations and Functions WUCT121 Logic 1 Section 1. Logic 1.1. Introduction. In developing a mathematical theory,

### 2. Propositional Equivalences

2. PROPOSITIONAL EQUIVALENCES 33 2. Propositional Equivalences 2.1. Tautology/Contradiction/Contingency. Definition 2.1.1. A tautology is a proposition that is always true. Example 2.1.1. p p Definition

### Section 1. Statements and Truth Tables. Definition 1.1: A mathematical statement is a declarative sentence that is true or false, but not both.

M3210 Supplemental Notes: Basic Logic Concepts In this course we will examine statements about mathematical concepts and relationships between these concepts (definitions, theorems). We will also consider

### 22C:19 Discrete Math. So. What is it? Why discrete math? Fall 2009 Hantao Zhang

22C:19 Discrete Math Fall 2009 Hantao Zhang So. What is it? Discrete mathematics is the study of mathematical structures that are fundamentally discrete, in the sense of not supporting or requiring the

### CHAPTER 1. Logic, Proofs Propositions

CHAPTER 1 Logic, Proofs 1.1. Propositions A proposition is a declarative sentence that is either true or false (but not both). For instance, the following are propositions: Paris is in France (true), London

### Propositional Logic. Definition: A proposition or statement is a sentence which is either true or false.

Propositional Logic Definition: A proposition or statement is a sentence which is either true or false. Definition:If a proposition is true, then we say its truth value is true, and if a proposition is

### Discrete Mathematics, Chapter : Propositional Logic

Discrete Mathematics, Chapter 1.1.-1.3: Propositional Logic Richard Mayr University of Edinburgh, UK Richard Mayr (University of Edinburgh, UK) Discrete Mathematics. Chapter 1.1-1.3 1 / 21 Outline 1 Propositions

### Handout #1: Mathematical Reasoning

Math 101 Rumbos Spring 2010 1 Handout #1: Mathematical Reasoning 1 Propositional Logic A proposition is a mathematical statement that it is either true or false; that is, a statement whose certainty or

### CSE 191, Class Note 01 Propositional Logic Computer Sci & Eng Dept SUNY Buffalo

Propositional Logic CSE 191, Class Note 01 Propositional Logic Computer Sci & Eng Dept SUNY Buffalo c Xin He (University at Buffalo) CSE 191 Discrete Structures 1 / 37 Discrete Mathematics What is Discrete

### Logic in Computer Science: Logic Gates

Logic in Computer Science: Logic Gates Lila Kari The University of Western Ontario Logic in Computer Science: Logic Gates CS2209, Applied Logic for Computer Science 1 / 49 Logic and bit operations Computers

### 1.2 Truth and Sentential Logic

Chapter 1 Mathematical Logic 13 69. Assume that B has m left parentheses and m right parentheses and that C has n left parentheses and n right parentheses. How many left parentheses appear in (B C)? How

### Discrete Mathematics Lecture 1 Logic of Compound Statements. Harper Langston New York University

Discrete Mathematics Lecture 1 Logic of Compound Statements Harper Langston New York University Administration Class Web Site http://cs.nyu.edu/courses/summer05/g22.2340-001/ Mailing List Subscribe at

### Quantifiers are used to describe variables in statements. - The universal quantifier means for all. - The existential quantifier means there exists.

11 Quantifiers are used to describe variables in statements. - The universal quantifier means for all. - The existential quantifier means there exists. The phrases, for all x in R if x is an arbitrary

### 2. Methods of Proof Types of Proofs. Suppose we wish to prove an implication p q. Here are some strategies we have available to try.

2. METHODS OF PROOF 69 2. Methods of Proof 2.1. Types of Proofs. Suppose we wish to prove an implication p q. Here are some strategies we have available to try. Trivial Proof: If we know q is true then

### 1 Propositional Logic

1 Propositional Logic Propositions 1.1 Definition A declarative sentence is a sentence that declares a fact or facts. Example 1 The earth is spherical. 7 + 1 = 6 + 2 x 2 > 0 for all real numbers x. 1 =

### Chapter I Logic and Proofs

MATH 1130 1 Discrete Structures Chapter I Logic and Proofs Propositions A proposition is a statement that is either true (T) or false (F), but or both. s Propositions: 1. I am a man.. I am taller than

### Statements, negations, connectives, truth tables, equivalent statements, De Morgan s Laws, arguments, Euler diagrams

Logic Statements, negations, connectives, truth tables, equivalent statements, De Morgan s Laws, arguments, Euler diagrams Part 1: Statements, Negations, and Quantified Statements A statement is a sentence

### Definition 10. A proposition is a statement either true or false, but not both.

Chapter 2 Propositional Logic Contrariwise, continued Tweedledee, if it was so, it might be; and if it were so, it would be; but as it isn t, it ain t. That s logic. (Lewis Carroll, Alice s Adventures

### Students in their first advanced mathematics classes are often surprised

CHAPTER 8 Proofs Involving Sets Students in their first advanced mathematics classes are often surprised by the extensive role that sets play and by the fact that most of the proofs they encounter are

### Chapter 3. Cartesian Products and Relations. 3.1 Cartesian Products

Chapter 3 Cartesian Products and Relations The material in this chapter is the first real encounter with abstraction. Relations are very general thing they are a special type of subset. After introducing

### Propositional Logic. A proposition is a declarative sentence (a sentence that declares a fact) that is either true or false, but not both.

irst Order Logic Propositional Logic A proposition is a declarative sentence (a sentence that declares a fact) that is either true or false, but not both. Are the following sentences propositions? oronto

### 1. Use the following truth table to answer the questions.

Topic 3: Logic 3.3 Introduction to Symbolic Logic Negation and Conjunction Disjunction and Exclusive Disjunction 3.4 Implication and Equivalence Disjunction and Exclusive Disjunction Truth Tables 3.5 Inverse,

### DISCRETE MATH: LECTURE 3

DISCRETE MATH: LECTURE 3 DR. DANIEL FREEMAN 1. Chapter 2.2 Conditional Statements If p and q are statement variables, the conditional of q by p is If p then q or p implies q and is denoted p q. It is false

### 3. Mathematical Induction

3. MATHEMATICAL INDUCTION 83 3. Mathematical Induction 3.1. First Principle of Mathematical Induction. Let P (n) be a predicate with domain of discourse (over) the natural numbers N = {0, 1,,...}. If (1)

### 1 Proposition, Logical connectives and compound statements

Discrete Mathematics: Lecture 4 Introduction to Logic Instructor: Arijit Bishnu Date: July 27, 2009 1 Proposition, Logical connectives and compound statements Logic is the discipline that deals with the

### Logic, Sets, and Proofs

Logic, Sets, and Proofs David A. Cox and Catherine C. McGeoch Amherst College 1 Logic Logical Statements. A logical statement is a mathematical statement that is either true or false. Here we denote logical

### Likewise, we have contradictions: formulas that can only be false, e.g. (p p).

CHAPTER 4. STATEMENT LOGIC 59 The rightmost column of this truth table contains instances of T and instances of F. Notice that there are no degrees of contingency. If both values are possible, the formula

### Comp 150 Booleans and Digital Logic

Comp 150 Booleans and Digital Logic Recall the bool date type in Python has the two literals True and False and the three operations: not, and, or. The operations are defined by truth tables (see page

### def: An axiom is a statement that is assumed to be true, or in the case of a mathematical system, is used to specify the system.

Section 1.5 Methods of Proof 1.5.1 1.5 METHODS OF PROOF Some forms of argument ( valid ) never lead from correct statements to an incorrect. Some other forms of argument ( fallacies ) can lead from true

### conditional statement conclusion Vocabulary Flash Cards Chapter 2 (p. 66) Chapter 2 (p. 69) Chapter 2 (p. 66) Chapter 2 (p. 76)

biconditional statement conclusion Chapter 2 (p. 69) conditional statement conjecture Chapter 2 (p. 76) contrapositive converse Chapter 2 (p. 67) Chapter 2 (p. 67) counterexample deductive reasoning Chapter

### Chapter 1 LOGIC AND PROOF

Chapter 1 LOGIC AND PROOF To be able to understand mathematics and mathematical arguments, it is necessary to have a solid understanding of logic and the way in which known facts can be combined to prove

### We now explore a third method of proof: proof by contradiction.

CHAPTER 6 Proof by Contradiction We now explore a third method of proof: proof by contradiction. This method is not limited to proving just conditional statements it can be used to prove any kind of statement

### n logical not (negation) n logical or (disjunction) n logical and (conjunction) n logical exclusive or n logical implication (conditional)

Discrete Math Review Discrete Math Review (Rosen, Chapter 1.1 1.6) TOPICS Propositional Logic Logical Operators Truth Tables Implication Logical Equivalence Inference Rules What you should know about propositional

### Applications of Methods of Proof

CHAPTER 4 Applications of Methods of Proof 1. Set Operations 1.1. Set Operations. The set-theoretic operations, intersection, union, and complementation, defined in Chapter 1.1 Introduction to Sets are

### CSL105: Discrete Mathematical Structures. Ragesh Jaiswal, CSE, IIT Delhi

Propositional Logic: logical operators Negation ( ) Conjunction ( ) Disjunction ( ). Exclusive or ( ) Conditional statement ( ) Bi-conditional statement ( ): Let p and q be propositions. The biconditional

### It is time to prove some theorems. There are various strategies for doing

CHAPTER 4 Direct Proof It is time to prove some theorems. There are various strategies for doing this; we now examine the most straightforward approach, a technique called direct proof. As we begin, it

### CSE 220: Systems Fundamentals I Unit 7: Logic Gates; Digital Logic Design: Boolean Equations and Algebra

CSE 220: Systems Fundamentals I Unit 7: Logic Gates; Digital Logic Design: Boolean Equations and Algebra Logic Gates Logic gatesare simple digital circuits that take one or more binary inputs and produce

### Inference Rules and Proof Methods

Inference Rules and Proof Methods Winter 2010 Introduction Rules of Inference and Formal Proofs Proofs in mathematics are valid arguments that establish the truth of mathematical statements. An argument

### Introduction to Proofs

Chapter 1 Introduction to Proofs 1.1 Preview of Proof This section previews many of the key ideas of proof and cites [in brackets] the sections where they are discussed thoroughly. All of these ideas are

### DISCRETE MATHEMATICS W W L CHEN

DISCRETE MATHEMATICS W W L CHEN c W W L Chen, 1982, 2008. This chapter originates from material used by the author at Imperial College, University of London, between 1981 and 1990. It is available free

### CHAPTER 3. Methods of Proofs. 1. Logical Arguments and Formal Proofs

CHAPTER 3 Methods of Proofs 1. Logical Arguments and Formal Proofs 1.1. Basic Terminology. An axiom is a statement that is given to be true. A rule of inference is a logical rule that is used to deduce

### Symbolic Logic on the TI-92

Symbolic Logic on the TI-92 Presented by Lin McMullin The Sixth Conference on the Teaching of Mathematics June 20 & 21, 1997 Milwaukee, Wisconsin 1 Lin McMullin Mathematics Department Representative, Burnt

### p: I am elected q: I will lower the taxes

Implication Conditional Statement p q (p implies q) (if p then q) is the proposition that is false when p is true and q is false and true otherwise. Equivalent to not p or q Ex. If I am elected then I

### CS 441 Discrete Mathematics for CS Lecture 2. Propositional logic. CS 441 Discrete mathematics for CS. Course administration

CS 441 Discrete Mathematics for CS Lecture 2 Propositional logic Milos Hauskrecht milos@cs.pitt.edu 5329 Sennott Square Course administration Homework 1 First homework assignment is out today will be posted

### The Importance of discrete mathematics in computer science

The Importance of discrete mathematics in computer science Exemplified by deductive logic and Boolean algebra By Mathias Schilling BSc Computing, Birkbeck, University of London Preface Discrete mathematics

### Mathematical Induction

Mathematical Induction In logic, we often want to prove that every member of an infinite set has some feature. E.g., we would like to show: N 1 : is a number 1 : has the feature Φ ( x)(n 1 x! 1 x) How

### 1. True or False? A voltage level in the range 0 to 2 volts is interpreted as a binary 1.

File: chap04, Chapter 04 1. True or False? A voltage level in the range 0 to 2 volts is interpreted as a binary 1. 2. True or False? A gate is a device that accepts a single input signal and produces one

### MAT2400 Analysis I. A brief introduction to proofs, sets, and functions

MAT2400 Analysis I A brief introduction to proofs, sets, and functions In Analysis I there is a lot of manipulations with sets and functions. It is probably also the first course where you have to take

### Chapter 1. Logic and Proof

Chapter 1. Logic and Proof 1.1 Remark: A little over 100 years ago, it was found that some mathematical proofs contained paradoxes, and these paradoxes could be used to prove statements that were known

### A set is a Many that allows itself to be thought of as a One. (Georg Cantor)

Chapter 4 Set Theory A set is a Many that allows itself to be thought of as a One. (Georg Cantor) In the previous chapters, we have often encountered sets, for example, prime numbers form a set, domains

### Sets and functions. {x R : x > 0}.

Sets and functions 1 Sets The language of sets and functions pervades mathematics, and most of the important operations in mathematics turn out to be functions or to be expressible in terms of functions.

### (Refer Slide Time 6:09)

Digital Circuits and Systems Prof. S. Srinivasan Department of Electrical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Madras Lecture 3 Combinational Logic Basics We defined digital signal as a signal which

### It is not immediately obvious that this should even give an integer. Since 1 < 1 5

Math 163 - Introductory Seminar Lehigh University Spring 8 Notes on Fibonacci numbers, binomial coefficients and mathematical induction These are mostly notes from a previous class and thus include some

### Mathematics for Computer Science/Software Engineering. Notes for the course MSM1F3 Dr. R. A. Wilson

Mathematics for Computer Science/Software Engineering Notes for the course MSM1F3 Dr. R. A. Wilson October 1996 Chapter 1 Logic Lecture no. 1. We introduce the concept of a proposition, which is a statement

### Unit 2: Number Systems, Codes and Logic Functions

Unit 2: Number Systems, Codes and Logic Functions Introduction A digital computer manipulates discrete elements of data and that these elements are represented in the binary forms. Operands used for calculations

### The last three chapters introduced three major proof techniques: direct,

CHAPTER 7 Proving Non-Conditional Statements The last three chapters introduced three major proof techniques: direct, contrapositive and contradiction. These three techniques are used to prove statements

### What is logic? Propositional Logic. Negation. Propositions. This is a contentious question! We will play it safe, and stick to:

Propositional Logic This lecture marks the start of a new section of the course. In the last few lectures, we have had to reason formally about concepts. This lecture introduces the mathematical language

### The Foundations: Logic and Proofs. Chapter 1, Part III: Proofs

The Foundations: Logic and Proofs Chapter 1, Part III: Proofs Rules of Inference Section 1.6 Section Summary Valid Arguments Inference Rules for Propositional Logic Using Rules of Inference to Build Arguments

### WHAT ARE MATHEMATICAL PROOFS AND WHY THEY ARE IMPORTANT?

WHAT ARE MATHEMATICAL PROOFS AND WHY THEY ARE IMPORTANT? introduction Many students seem to have trouble with the notion of a mathematical proof. People that come to a course like Math 216, who certainly

### Logic and Proofs. Chapter 1

Section 1.0 1.0.1 Chapter 1 Logic and Proofs 1.1 Propositional Logic 1.2 Propositional Equivalences 1.3 Predicates and Quantifiers 1.4 Nested Quantifiers 1.5 Rules of Inference 1.6 Introduction to Proofs

### Geometry - Chapter 2 Review

Name: Class: Date: Geometry - Chapter 2 Review Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Determine if the conjecture is valid by the Law of Syllogism.

### Discrete Mathematics

Slides for Part IA CST 2014/15 Discrete Mathematics Prof Marcelo Fiore Marcelo.Fiore@cl.cam.ac.uk What are we up to? Learn to read and write, and also work with, mathematical

### Formal Languages and Automata Theory - Regular Expressions and Finite Automata -

Formal Languages and Automata Theory - Regular Expressions and Finite Automata - Samarjit Chakraborty Computer Engineering and Networks Laboratory Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) Zürich March

### Introduction to mathematical arguments

Introduction to mathematical arguments (background handout for courses requiring proofs) by Michael Hutchings A mathematical proof is an argument which convinces other people that something is true. Math

### Discrete Mathematics and Probability Theory Fall 2009 Satish Rao, David Tse Note 1

CS 70 Discrete Mathematics and Probability Theory Fall 2009 Satish Rao, David Tse Note 1 Course Outline CS70 is a course on Discrete Mathematics and Probability for EECS Students. The purpose of the course

### PROVING STATEMENTS IN LINEAR ALGEBRA

Mathematics V2010y Linear Algebra Spring 2007 PROVING STATEMENTS IN LINEAR ALGEBRA Linear algebra is different from calculus: you cannot understand it properly without some simple proofs. Knowing statements

### Arithmetic Circuits Addition, Subtraction, & Multiplication

Arithmetic Circuits Addition, Subtraction, & Multiplication The adder is another classic design example which we are obliged look at. Simple decimal arithmetic is something which we rarely give a second

### Mathematical Logic and Sets

Chapter 1 Mathematical Logic and Sets In this chapter we introduce symbolic logic and set theory. These are not specific to calculus, but are shared among all branches of mathematics. There are various

Lecture Notes in Discrete Mathematics Marcel B. Finan Arkansas Tech University c All Rights Reserved 2 Preface This book is designed for a one semester course in discrete mathematics for sophomore or junior

### 2.1 Simple & Compound Propositions

2.1 Simle & Comound Proositions 1 2.1 Simle & Comound Proositions Proositional Logic can be used to analyse, simlify and establish the equivalence of statements. A knowledge of logic is essential to the

### Chapter 6: Formal Proofs and Boolean Logic

Chapter 6: Formal Proofs and Boolean Logic The Fitch program, like the system F, uses introduction and elimination rules. The ones we ve seen so far deal with the logical symbol =. The next group of rules

### 2.) 5000, 1000, 200, 40, 3.) 1, 12, 123, 1234, 4.) 1, 4, 9, 16, 25, Draw the next figure in the sequence. 5.)

Chapter 2 Geometry Notes 2.1/2.2 Patterns and Inductive Reasoning and Conditional Statements Inductive reasoning: looking at numbers and determining the next one Conjecture: sometimes thought of as an

### INTRODUCTION TO PROOFS: HOMEWORK SOLUTIONS

INTRODUCTION TO PROOFS: HOMEWORK SOLUTIONS STEVEN HEILMAN Contents 1. Homework 1 1 2. Homework 2 6 3. Homework 3 10 4. Homework 4 16 5. Homework 5 19 6. Homework 6 21 7. Homework 7 25 8. Homework 8 28

### 8.7 Mathematical Induction

8.7. MATHEMATICAL INDUCTION 8-135 8.7 Mathematical Induction Objective Prove a statement by mathematical induction Many mathematical facts are established by first observing a pattern, then making a conjecture

### Gates, Circuits and Boolean Functions

Lecture 2 Gates, Circuits and Boolean Functions DOC 112: Hardware Lecture 2 Slide 1 In this lecture we will: Introduce an electronic representation of Boolean operators called digital gates. Define a schematic

### Table 3.1: Arithmetic operators

26 Chapter 3 Arithmetic Expressions Java programs can solve mathematical problems. Often programs that appear nonmathematical on the surface perform a large number of mathematical calculations behind the

### Math 3000 Running Glossary

Math 3000 Running Glossary Last Updated on: July 15, 2014 The definition of items marked with a must be known precisely. Chapter 1: 1. A set: A collection of objects called elements. 2. The empty set (

### MATH 55: HOMEWORK #2 SOLUTIONS

MATH 55: HOMEWORK # SOLUTIONS ERIC PETERSON * 1. SECTION 1.5: NESTED QUANTIFIERS 1.1. Problem 1.5.8. Determine the truth value of each of these statements if the domain of each variable consists of all

### Logic Appendix. Section 1 Truth Tables CONJUNCTION EXAMPLE 1

Logic Appendix T F F T Section 1 Truth Tables Recall that a statement is a group of words or symbols that can be classified collectively as true or false. The claim 5 7 12 is a true statement, whereas

### 1.10 (a) Effects of logic gates AND, OR, NOT on binary signals in a processor

Chapter 1.10 Logic Gates 1.10 (a) Effects of logic gates AND, OR, NOT on binary signals in a processor Microprocessors are the central hardware that runs computers. There are several components that make

### Objectives. Materials

Activity 5 Exploring Infinite Series Objectives Identify a geometric series Determine convergence and sum of geometric series Identify a series that satisfies the alternating series test Use a graphing

### Geometry Topic 5: Conditional statements and converses page 1 Student Activity Sheet 5.1; use with Overview

Geometry Topic 5: Conditional statements and converses page 1 Student Activity Sheet 5.1; use with Overview 1. REVIEW Complete this geometric proof by writing a reason to justify each statement. Given:

### SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING & BUILT ENVIRONMENT. Mathematics. Numbers

SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING & BUILT ENVIRONMENT Mathematics Numbers. Factors 2. Multiples 3. Prime and Composite Numbers 4. Modular Arithmetic 5. Boolean Algebra 6. Modulo 2 Matrix Arithmetic 7. Number Systems

### Module 1: Propositional Logic. CPSC 121: Models of Computation. Module 1: Coming up... Module 1: Coming up...

CPSC 121: Models of Computation By the start of the class, you should be able to: Translate back and forth between simple natural language statements and propositional logic. Evaluate the truth of propositional

### MATH20302 Propositional Logic. Mike Prest School of Mathematics Alan Turing Building Room

MATH20302 Propositional Logic Mike Prest School of Mathematics Alan Turing Building Room 1.120 mprest@manchester.ac.uk April 10, 2015 Contents I Propositional Logic 3 1 Propositional languages 4 1.1 Propositional

### Definition of Statement: A group words or symbols that can be classified as true or false.

Logic Math 116 Section 3.1 Logic and Statements Statements Definition of Statement: A group words or symbols that can be classified as true or false. Examples of statements Violets are blue Five is a natural

### Secondary Logic Functions: NAND/NOR/XOR/XNOR/Buffer

OpenStax-CNX module: m46620 1 Secondary Logic Functions: NAND/NOR/XOR/XNOR/Buffer George Self This work is produced by OpenStax-CNX and licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 3.0 Abstract

### The set consisting of all natural numbers that are in A and are in B is the set f1; 3; 5g;

Chapter 5 Set Theory 5.1 Sets and Operations on Sets Preview Activity 1 (Set Operations) Before beginning this section, it would be a good idea to review sets and set notation, including the roster method

### Computing Science 272 Solutions to Midterm Examination I Tuesday February 8, 2005

Computing Science 272 Solutions to Midterm Examination I Tuesday February 8, 2005 Department of Computing Science University of Alberta Question 1. 8 = 2+2+2+2 pts (a) How many 16-bit strings contain exactly

### Ex 1: For points A, B, and C, AB = 10, BC = 8, and AC = 5. Make a conjecture and draw a figure to illustrate your conjecture.

Geometry 2-1 Inductive Reasoning and Conjecturing A. Definitions 1. A conjecture is an guess. 2. Looking at several specific situations to arrive at a is called inductive reasoning. Ex 1: For points A,

### The equation for the 3-input XOR gate is derived as follows

The equation for the 3-input XOR gate is derived as follows The last four product terms in the above derivation are the four 1-minterms in the 3-input XOR truth table. For 3 or more inputs, the XOR gate

### Chapter 4. Gates and Circuits. Chapter Goals. Chapter Goals. Computers and Electricity. Computers and Electricity. Gates

Chapter Goals Chapter 4 Gates and Circuits Identify the basic gates and describe the behavior of each Describe how gates are implemented using transistors Combine basic gates into circuits Describe the

### NOT AND OR XOR NAND NOR

NOT AND OR XOR NAND NOR Expression 1: It is raining today Expression 2: Today is my birthday X Meaning True False It is raining today It is not raining Binary representation of the above: X Meaning 1 It

### Fundamentals of Mathematics Lecture 6: Propositional Logic

Fundamentals of Mathematics Lecture 6: Propositional Logic Guan-Shieng Huang National Chi Nan University, Taiwan Spring, 2008 1 / 39 Connectives Propositional Connectives I 1 Negation: (not A) A A T F

### 4. FIRST-ORDER LOGIC

4. FIRST-ORDER LOGIC Contents 4.1: Splitting the atom: names, predicates and relations 4.2: Structures 4.3: Quantification:, 4.4: Syntax 4.5: Semantics 4.6: De Morgan s laws for and 4.7: Truth trees for