W03 Analysis of DC Circuits. Yrd. Doç. Dr. Aytaç Gören

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "W03 Analysis of DC Circuits. Yrd. Doç. Dr. Aytaç Gören"

Transcription

1 W03 Analysis of DC Circuits Yrd. Doç. Dr. Aytaç Gören

2 ELK Contents W01 Basic Concepts in Electronics W02 AC to DC Conversion W03 Analysis of DC Circuits (self and condenser) W04 Transistors and Applications (H-Bridge) W05 Op Amps and Applications W06 Sensors and Measurement (1/2) W07 Sensors and Measurement (2/2) W08 Midterm W09 Basic Concepts in Digital Electronics (Boolean Algebra, Decimal to binary, gates) W10 Digital Logic Circuits (Gates and Flip Flops) W11 PLC s W12 Microprocessors W13 Data Acquisition, D/A and A/D Converters. 2 Yrd. Doç. Dr. Aytaç Gören

3 ELK 2018 W01 Contents 1. Kirchoffs Circuit Law 2. Basic definitions for circuit analysis 3. Circuit Analysis 1. Mesh Current Analysis 2. Nodal Voltage Analysis 4. Thevenins Theorem 5. Nortons Theorem 6. Transient Analysis 7. Transient Analysis Capacitor 8. Transient Analysis - Inductor Extra Reference for this week: 3 Yrd. Doç. Dr. Aytaç Gören

4 Reminder Yrd. Doç. Dr. Aytaç Gören

5 Reminder Parameter Symbol Measuring Unit Description Voltage Volt V or E Current Ampere I or i Resistance Ohm R or Ω Conductance Siemen G or Capacitance Farad C Charge Coulomb Q Inductance Henry L or H Power Watts W Impedance Ohm Z Frequency Hertz Hz Unit of Electrical Potential V = I R Unit of Electrical Current I = V R Unit of DC Resistance R = V I Reciprocal of Resistance G = 1 R Unit of Capacitance C = Q V Unit of Electrical Charge Q = C V Unit of Inductance V L = -L(di/dt) Unit of Power P = V I or I 2 R Unit of AC Resistance Z 2 = R 2 + X 2 Unit of Frequency ƒ = 1 T Yrd. Doç. Dr. Aytaç Gören

6 Reminder Prefix Symbol Multiplier Power of Ten Terra T 1,000,000,000, Giga G 1,000,000, Mega M 1,000, kilo k 1, none none centi c 1/ milli m 1/1, micro µ 1/1,000, nano n 1/1,000,000, pico p 1/1,000,000,000, Yrd. Doç. Dr. Aytaç Gören

7 Yrd. Doç. Dr. Aytaç Gören Kirchoffs Circuit Law In complex circuits such as bridge or T networks, we can not simply use Ohm's Law alone to find the voltages or currents circulating within the circuit. Kirchoff developed a pair or set of rules which deal with the conservation of current and energy within electrical circuits. The rules are commonly known as: Kirchoffs Circuit Laws with one of these laws dealing with current flow around a closed circuit, Kirchoffs Current Law, (KCL) and the other which deals with the voltage around a closed circuit, Kirchoffs Voltage Law, (KVL).

8 Kirchoffs Circuit Law Kirchoffs Current Law or KCL, states that the "total current or charge entering a junction or node is exactly equal to the charge leaving the node as it has no other place to go except to leave, as no charge is lost within the node". (Conservation of Charge) The term Node in an electrical circuit generally refers to a connection or junction of two or more current carrying paths or elements such as cables and components

9 Kirchoffs Circuit Law Kirchoffs Voltage Law or KVL, states that "in any closed loop network, the total voltage around the loop is equal to the sum of all the voltage drops within the same loop" which is also equal to zero. In other words the algebraic sum of all voltages within the loop must be equal to zero.

10 Basic definitions for circuit analysis The terms, used frequently in circuit analysis: Path - a line of connecting elements or sources with no elements or sources included more than once. Node - a node is a junction, connection or terminal within a circuit were two or more circuit elements are connected or joined together giving a connection point between two or more branches. A node is indicated by a dot. Branch - a branch is a single or group of components such as resistors or a source which are connected between two nodes. Loop - a loop is a simple closed path in a circuit in which no circuit element or node is encountered more than once. Mesh - a mesh is a single open loop that does not have a closed path.

11 Example Using Kirchoffs Current Law (KCL) the equations are given as: At node A : I 1 + I 2 = I 3 At node B : I 3 = I 1 + I 2 Using Kirchoffs Voltage Law, KVL the equations are given as; Loop 1 is given as : 10 = R 1 x I 1 + R 3 x I 3 = 10I I 3 Loop 2 is given as : 20 = R 2 x I 2 + R3 x I3 = 20I I 3 Loop 3 is given as : = 10I 1-20I 2 As I 3 is the sum of I1 + I2 we can rewrite the equations as; 10 = 10I (I 1 + I 2 ) = 50I I 2 20 = 20I (I 1 + I 2 ) = 40I I 2

12 Example I 1 = Amps (Wrong Direction) I 2 = Amps I 3 = I 1 + I 2 At node B : I 3 = I 1 + I = Amps Using Kirchoff's Circuit Laws is as follows: 1. Assume all voltage sources and resistances are given. 2. Label each branch with a branch current. 3. Find Kirchoff's first law equations for each node. 4. Find Kirchoff's second law equations for each of the independent loops of the circuit. 5. Use Linear simultaneous equations as required to find the unknown currents.

13 Circuit Analysis While Kirchoff s Laws give us the basic method for analysing any complex electrical circuit, there are different ways of improving upon this method by using Mesh Current Analysis Nodal Voltage Analysis that results in a lessening of the math's involved and when large networks are involved this reduction in maths can be a big advantage.

14 Circuit Analysis One simple method of reducing the amount of math's involved is to analyse the circuit using Kirchoff's Current Law equations to determine the currents, I 1 and I 2 flowing in the two resistors. Then there is no need to calculate the current I 3 as its just the sum of I 1 and I 2. So Kirchoff's second voltage law simply becomes: Equation No 1 : 10 = 50I I 2 Equation No 2 : 20 = 40I I 2 therefore, one line of math's calculation have been saved.

15 Mesh Current Analysis A more easier method of solving the above circuit is by using Mesh Current Analysis or Loop Analysis which is also sometimes called Maxwell s Circulating Currents method. Instead of labelling the branch currents we need to label each "closed loop" with a circulating current. As a general rule of thumb, only label inside loops in a clockwise direction with circulating currents as the aim is to cover all the elements of the circuit at least once

16 Mesh Current Analysis Kirchoff's voltage law equation can be applied in the same way as before to solve them but the advantage of this method is that it ensures that the information obtained from the circuit equations is the minimum required to solve the circuit as the information is more general and can easily be put into a matrix form.

17 Mesh Current Analysis [ V ] gives the total battery voltage for loop 1 and then loop 2. [ I ] states the names of the loop currents [ R ] is called the resistance matrix.

18 Mesh Current Analysis The basic procedure for solving Mesh Current Analysis equations is as follows: 1. Label all the internal loops with circulating currents. (I 1, I 2,...I L etc) 2. Write the [ L x 1 ] column matrix [ V ] giving the sum of all voltage sources in each loop. 3. Write the [ L x L ] matrix, [ R ] for all the resistances in the circuit as follows; o R 11 = the total resistance in the first loop. o R nn = the total resistance in the nth loop.

19 Nodal Voltage Analysis Nodal Voltage Analysis uses the "Nodal" equations of Kirchoff's first law to find the voltage potentials around the circuit. By adding together all these nodal voltages the net result will be equal to zero. For each node we apply Kirchoff's first law equation, that is: "the currents entering a node are exactly equal in value to the currents leaving the node" then express each current in terms of the voltage across the branch.

20 As V a = 10v and V c = 20v Nodal Voltage Analysis

21 Thevenins Theorem Thevenins Theorem states that "Any linear circuit containing several voltages and resistances can be replaced by just a Single Voltage in series with a Single Resistor". it is possible to simplify any "Linear" circuit, to an equivalent circuit with just a single voltage source in series with a resistance connected to a load as shown below. Thevenins Theorem is especially useful in analyzing power or battery systems and other interconnected circuits where it will have an effect on the adjoining part of the circuit.

22 Thevenins Theorem Example the value of the voltage required Vs is the total voltage across terminals A and B with an open circuit and no load resistor Rs connected. The value of resistor Rs is found by calculating the total resistance at the terminals A and B with all the emf s removed

23 Thevenins Theorem Example The Equivalent Resistance (Rs) The Equivalent Voltage (Vs)

24 Thevenins Theorem Example Thevenins Equivalent circuit is shown below with the 40Ω resistor connected. The basic procedure for solving a circuit using Thevenins Theorem is as follows: 1. Remove the load resistor R L or component concerned. 2. Find R S by shorting all voltage sources or by open circuiting all the current sources. 3. Find V S by the usual circuit analysis methods. 4. Find the current flowing through the load resistor R L.

25 Nortons Theorem Nortons Theorem states that "Any linear circuit containing several energy sources and resistances can be replaced by a single Constant Current generator in parallel with a Single Resistor". The value of this "constant current" is one which would flow if the two output terminals where shorted together while the source resistance would be measured looking back into the terminals, (the same as Thevenin).

26 Nortons Theorem To find the Nortons equivalent of the above circuit we firstly have to remove the centre 40Ω load resistor and short out the terminals A and B to give us the following circuit.

27 Nortons Theorem When the terminals A and B are shorted together the two resistors are connected in parallel across their two respective voltage sources and the currents flowing through each resistor as well as the total short circuit current can now be calculated as:

28 Nortons Theorem The value of the internal resistor Rs is found by calculating the total resistance at the terminals A and B giving us the following circuit.

29 Nortons Theorem Nortons equivalent circuit. The basic procedure for solving a circuit using Nortons Theorem is as follows: 1. Remove the load resistor R L or component concerned. 2. Find R S by shorting all voltage sources or by open circuiting all the current sources. 3. Find I S by placing a shorting link on the output terminals A and B. 4. Find the current flowing through the load resistor R L.

30 Transient Analysis The time constant Electrical or Electronic circuits or systems suffer from some form of "time-delay" between its input and output, when a signal or voltage, either continuous, (DC) or alternating (AC) is firstly applied to it. This delay is generally known as the Time Constant of the circuit and it is the time response of the circuit when a step voltage or signal is firstly applied. The resultant time constant of any circuit or system will mainly depend upon the reactive components either capacitive or inductive.

31 Transient Analysis - Capacitor When an increasing DC voltage is applied to a discharged Capacitor the capacitor draws a charging current and "charges up", and when the voltage is reduced, the capacitor discharges in the opposite direction. Because capacitors are able to store electrical energy they act like small batteries and can store or release the energy as required. The charge on the plates of the capacitor is given as: Q = CV. This charging (storage) and discharging (release) of a capacitors energy is never instant but takes a certain amount of time to occur with the time taken for the capacitor to charge or discharge to within a certain percentage of its maximum supply value being known as its Time Constant (τ).

32 Transient Analysis - Capacitor RC Charging Circuit The figure below shows a capacitor, (C) in series with a resistor, (R) forming a RC Charging Circuitconnected across a DC battery supply (Vs) via a mechanical switch. When the switch is closed, the capacitor will gradually charge up through the resistor until the voltage across it reaches the supply voltage of the battery.

33 Transient Analysis - Capacitor RC Charging Circuit If C is fully "discharged" and the switch (S) is fully open, these are the initial conditions of the circuit, then t = 0, i = 0 and q = 0. When the switch is closed the time begins at t = 0 and current begins to flow into the capacitor via the resistor. Since the initial voltage across the capacitor is zero, (V c = 0) the capacitor appears to be a short circuit and the maximum current flows through the circuit restricted only by the resistor R.

34 Transient Analysis - Capacitor RC Charging Circuit The current no flowing around the circuit is called the Charging Current and is found by using Ohms law as:i = V R /R.

35 Transient Analysis - Capacitor RC Charging Circuit The capacitor now starts to charge up as shown, with the rise in the RC charging curve steeper at the beginning because the charging rate is fastest at the start and then slow down as the capacitor takes on additional charge at a slower rate. As the capacitor charges up, the voltage difference between Vs and Vc reduces, so to does the circuit current, i. Then at the final condition, t =, i = 0, q = Q = CV. Then at infinity the current diminishes to zero, the capacitor acts like an open circuit condition therefore, the voltage drop is entirely across the capacitor.

36 Transient Analysis - Capacitor RC Charging Circuit As the capacitor charges the potential difference across its plates increases with the actual time taken for the charge on the capacitor to reach 63% of its maximum possible voltage, in our curve 0.63Vs being known as the Time Constant, (T) of the circuit. V is related to charge on a capacitor given by the equation, Vc = Q/C, the voltage across the value of the voltage across the capacitor, (Vc) at any instant in time during the charging period is given as:

37 Transient Analysis - Capacitor RC Charging Circuit Vc is the voltage across the capacitor Vs is the supply voltage RC is the time constant of the RC charging circuit After a period equivalent to 4 time constants, (4T) the capacitor in this RC charging circuit is virtually fully charged and the voltage across the capacitor is approx 0.99Vs. The time period taken for the capacitor to reach this 4T point is known as the Transient Period. As the capacitor is fully charged no more current flows in the circuit. The time period after this 5T point is known as the Steady State Period.

38 Transient Analysis - Inductor An inductor could not change instantaneously, but would increase at a constant rate determined by the self-induced emf in the inductor. In other words, an inductor in a circuit opposes the flow of current, ( i ) through it. An LR Series Circuit consists basically of an inductor of inductance L connected in series with a resistor of resistance R. The resistance R is the DC resistive value of the wire turns or loops that goes into making up the inductors coil.

39 Transient Analysis - Inductor The above LR series circuit is connected across a constant voltage source, (the battery) and a switch. Assume that the switch, S is open until it is closed at a time t = 0, and then remains permanently closed producing a "step response" type voltage input. The current, i begins to flow through the circuit but does not rise rapidly to its maximum value of I max as determined by the ratio of V / R (Ohms Law). This limiting factor is due to the presence of the self induced emf within the inductor as a result of the growth of magnetic flux, (Lenz's Law).

40 Transient Analysis - Inductor After a time the voltage source neutralizes the effect of the self induced emf, the current flow becomes constant and the induced current and field are reduced to zero. Kirchoffs Voltage Law, (KVL) to define the individual voltage drops:

41 Transient Analysis - Inductor Expression for the Current in an LR Series Circuit Since the voltage drop across the resistor, V R is equal to IxR (Ohms Law), it will have the same exponential growth and shape as the current. However, the voltage drop across the inductor, V L will have a value equal to: Ve (-Rt/L).

42 Ref for this week: 42 Yrd. Doç. Dr. Aytaç Gören

Yrd. Doç. Dr. Aytaç Gören

Yrd. Doç. Dr. Aytaç Gören H2 - AC to DC Yrd. Doç. Dr. Aytaç Gören ELK 2018 - Contents W01 Basic Concepts in Electronics W02 AC to DC Conversion W03 Analysis of DC Circuits W04 Transistors and Applications (H-Bridge) W05 Op Amps

More information

Example: Determine the power supplied by each of the sources, independent and dependent, in this circuit:

Example: Determine the power supplied by each of the sources, independent and dependent, in this circuit: Example: Determine the power supplied by each of the sources, independent and dependent, in this circuit: Solution: We ll begin by choosing the bottom node to be the reference node. Next we ll label the

More information

Thevenin Equivalent Circuits

Thevenin Equivalent Circuits hevenin Equivalent Circuits Introduction In each of these problems, we are shown a circuit and its hevenin or Norton equivalent circuit. he hevenin and Norton equivalent circuits are described using three

More information

Current Probes, More Useful Than You Think

Current Probes, More Useful Than You Think Current Probes, More Useful Than You Think Training and design help in most areas of Electrical Engineering Copyright 1998 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. Reprinted from the IEEE 1998

More information

W04 Transistors and Applications. Yrd. Doç. Dr. Aytaç Gören

W04 Transistors and Applications. Yrd. Doç. Dr. Aytaç Gören W04 Transistors and Applications W04 Transistors and Applications ELK 2018 - Contents W01 Basic Concepts in Electronics W02 AC to DC Conversion W03 Analysis of DC Circuits (self and condenser) W04 Transistors

More information

Current Loop Application Note 1495

Current Loop Application Note 1495 Current Loop Application Note Document No. CLAN1495 International Headquarter B&B Electronics Mfg. Co. Inc. 707 Dayton Road -- P.O. Box 1040 -- Ottawa, IL 61350 USA Phone (815) 433-5100 -- General Fax

More information

Power supplies. EE328 Power Electronics Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mutlu BOZTEPE Ege University, Dept. of E&E

Power supplies. EE328 Power Electronics Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mutlu BOZTEPE Ege University, Dept. of E&E Power supplies EE328 Power Electronics Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mutlu BOZTEPE Ege University, Dept. of E&E EE328 POWER ELECTRONICS Outline of lecture Introduction to power supplies Modelling a power transformer

More information

However, industrial applications may utilize a relay, which short-circuits the ICL path after the inrush sequence.

However, industrial applications may utilize a relay, which short-circuits the ICL path after the inrush sequence. Application note for Inrush Current Limiters (ICL) Turning on electrical devices generally cause high inrush currents which can damage electronic components and cause interruption of the line voltage if

More information

A Simple Current-Sense Technique Eliminating a Sense Resistor

A Simple Current-Sense Technique Eliminating a Sense Resistor INFINITY Application Note AN-7 A Simple Current-Sense Technique Eliminating a Sense Resistor Copyright 998 A SIMPE CURRENT-SENSE TECHNIQUE EIMINATING A SENSE RESISTOR INTRODUCTION A sense resistor R S,

More information

Understanding Power Factor and How it Affects Your Electric Bill. Presented by Scott Peele PE

Understanding Power Factor and How it Affects Your Electric Bill. Presented by Scott Peele PE Understanding Power Factor and How it Affects Your Electric Bill Presented by Scott Peele PE Understanding Power Factor Definitions kva, kvar, kw, Apparent Power vs. True Power Calculations Measurements

More information

LM1084 5A Low Dropout Positive Regulators

LM1084 5A Low Dropout Positive Regulators 5A Low Dropout Positive Regulators General Description The LM1084 is a series of low dropout voltage positive regulators with a maximum dropout of 1.5 at 5A of load current. It has the same pin-out as

More information

Touch Screen Technology. Taking apart a tablet

Touch Screen Technology. Taking apart a tablet Touch Screen Technology Topics covered: 1) Resistance, Capacitance, Charge, Voltage, and Current 2) Introduction to simple circuits Taking apart a tablet For example, an ipad2 Touchscreen Motherboard Lots

More information

APPLICATION NOTE. Measuring Current Output Transducers with Campbell Scientific Dataloggers. App. Note Code: 2MI-B Revision: 1

APPLICATION NOTE. Measuring Current Output Transducers with Campbell Scientific Dataloggers. App. Note Code: 2MI-B Revision: 1 App. Note Code: 2MI-B Revision: 1 APPLICATION NOTE Measuring Current Output s with Campbell Scientific Dataloggers 815 W. 1800 N. Logan, Utah 84321-1784 (435) 753-2342 FAX (435) 750-9540 Copyright (C)

More information

Rectifier filter stage post filtering sense

Rectifier filter stage post filtering sense TopCon DC power supplies Customer support files Nr. 042.0208.016_e Topic: Protecting the DC output 1. Abstract TopCon DC power supplies are generally well suited for operation into reactive DC loads. Reactive

More information

Selecting Current Transformers Part 1 By Darrell G. Broussard, P.E.

Selecting Current Transformers Part 1 By Darrell G. Broussard, P.E. By Darrell G. Broussard, P.E. Introduction: As engineers, we are aware that electrical power systems have grown. How much have they grown? When was the last time you specified a 2400-volt system, a 4160-volt

More information

Wireless Precision Temperature Sensor Powers Itself, Forms Own Network, Enabling Easy Deployment in Industrial Environments

Wireless Precision Temperature Sensor Powers Itself, Forms Own Network, Enabling Easy Deployment in Industrial Environments Wireless Precision Temperature Sensor Powers Itself, Forms Own Network, Enabling Easy Deployment in Industrial Environments Kris Lokere While the Internet connects people via a worldwide computer network,

More information

Reyrolle Protection Devices. 7PG17 - XR Intertripping, Interposing, Supervision and Special Purpose Relays. Answers for energy

Reyrolle Protection Devices. 7PG17 - XR Intertripping, Interposing, Supervision and Special Purpose Relays. Answers for energy Reyrolle Protection Devices 7PG17 - XR Intertripping, Interposing, Supervision and Special Purpose Relays. Answers for energy Siemens Protection Devices Limited 2 7PG17 XR101 & XR102 Intertripping Relay

More information

Evaluating AC Current Sensor Options for Power Delivery Systems

Evaluating AC Current Sensor Options for Power Delivery Systems Evaluating AC Current Sensor Options for Power Delivery Systems State-of-the-art isolated ac current sensors based on CMOS technology can increase efficiency, performance and reliability compared to legacy

More information

CMOS, the Ideal Logic Family

CMOS, the Ideal Logic Family CMOS, the Ideal Logic Family INTRODUCTION Let s talk about the characteristics of an ideal logic family. It should dissipate no power, have zero propagation delay, controlled rise and fall times, and have

More information

www.keithley.com LLM 6 th Edition Low Level Measurements Handbook Precision DC Current, Voltage, and Resistance Measurements

www.keithley.com LLM 6 th Edition Low Level Measurements Handbook Precision DC Current, Voltage, and Resistance Measurements www.keithley.com LLM 6 th Edition Low Level Measurements Handbook Precision DC Current, Voltage, and Resistance Measurements Low Level Measurements Handbook Precision DC Current, Voltage, and Resistance

More information

www.jameco.com 1-800-831-4242

www.jameco.com 1-800-831-4242 Distributed by: www.jameco.com 1-800-831-4242 The content and copyrights of the attached material are the property of its owner. LF411 Low Offset, Low Drift JFET Input Operational Amplifier General Description

More information

ELABOTrainingsSysteme Aus- und Weiterbildung GmbH. Electrical Engineering Electronics Digital Technology. www.elabo-ts.com

ELABOTrainingsSysteme Aus- und Weiterbildung GmbH. Electrical Engineering Electronics Digital Technology. www.elabo-ts.com Aus- und Weiterbildung GmbH Electrical Engineering Electronics Digital Technology www.elabo-ts.com Principles of Electrical Engineering... Analysis of electrical-engineering systems on component level

More information

SWITCH-MODE POWER SUPPLY CONTROLLER PULSE OUTPUT DC OUTPUT GROUND EXTERNAL FUNCTION SIMULATION ZERO CROSSING INPUT CONTROL EXTERNAL FUNCTION

SWITCH-MODE POWER SUPPLY CONTROLLER PULSE OUTPUT DC OUTPUT GROUND EXTERNAL FUNCTION SIMULATION ZERO CROSSING INPUT CONTROL EXTERNAL FUNCTION SWITCH-MODE POWER SUPPLY CONTROLLER. LOW START-UP CURRENT. DIRECT CONTROL OF SWITCHING TRAN- SISTOR. COLLECTOR CURRENT PROPORTIONAL TO BASE-CURRENT INPUT REERSE-GOING LINEAR OERLOAD CHARACTERISTIC CURE

More information

Current Loop Tuning Procedure. Servo Drive Current Loop Tuning Procedure (intended for Analog input PWM output servo drives) General Procedure AN-015

Current Loop Tuning Procedure. Servo Drive Current Loop Tuning Procedure (intended for Analog input PWM output servo drives) General Procedure AN-015 Servo Drive Current Loop Tuning Procedure (intended for Analog input PWM output servo drives) The standard tuning values used in ADVANCED Motion Controls drives are conservative and work well in over 90%

More information

MODEL 1211 CURRENT PREAMPLEFIER

MODEL 1211 CURRENT PREAMPLEFIER MODEL 1211 CURRENT PREAMPLEFIER Phone: (607)539-1108 Email: info@dlinstruments.com www.dlinstruments.com The Model 1211 Current Preamplifier was designed to provide all of the features required of a modern

More information

EE 42/100 Lecture 24: Latches and Flip Flops. Rev B 4/21/2010 (2:04 PM) Prof. Ali M. Niknejad

EE 42/100 Lecture 24: Latches and Flip Flops. Rev B 4/21/2010 (2:04 PM) Prof. Ali M. Niknejad A. M. Niknejad University of California, Berkeley EE 100 / 42 Lecture 24 p. 1/20 EE 42/100 Lecture 24: Latches and Flip Flops ELECTRONICS Rev B 4/21/2010 (2:04 PM) Prof. Ali M. Niknejad University of California,

More information

Collection of Solved Feedback Amplifier Problems

Collection of Solved Feedback Amplifier Problems c Copyright 2009. W. Marshall Leach, Jr., Professor, Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering. Collection of Solved Feedback Amplifier Problems This document contains

More information

The following are general terms that we have found being used by tenants, landlords, IT Staff and consultants when discussing facility space.

The following are general terms that we have found being used by tenants, landlords, IT Staff and consultants when discussing facility space. The following are general terms that we have found being used by tenants, landlords, IT Staff and consultants when discussing facility space. Terminology: Telco: Dmarc: NOC: SAN: GENSET: Switch: Blade

More information

ABB ! CAUTION. Type COQ Negative Sequence Generator Relay. (50/60 Hertz) 41-161J. Instruction Leaflet

ABB ! CAUTION. Type COQ Negative Sequence Generator Relay. (50/60 Hertz) 41-161J. Instruction Leaflet ABB Instruction Leaflet 41-161J Effective: May 1997 Supersedes I.L. 41-161H Dated July 1984 ( ) Denotes Change Since Previous Issue Type COQ Negative Sequence Generator Relay (50/60 Hertz)! CAUTION Before

More information

What Does Rail-to-Rail Operation Really Mean?

What Does Rail-to-Rail Operation Really Mean? What Does Rail-to-Rail Operation Really Mean? 2004 Microchip Technology Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. What does Rail-to-Rail Operation really mean? 1 Agenda What does Rail-to-Rail output operation

More information

Voltage, energy and power in electric circuits. Science teaching unit

Voltage, energy and power in electric circuits. Science teaching unit Voltage, energy and power in electric circuits Science teaching unit Disclaimer The Department for Children, Schools and Families wishes to make it clear that the Department and its agents accept no responsibility

More information

LM118/LM218/LM318 Operational Amplifiers

LM118/LM218/LM318 Operational Amplifiers LM118/LM218/LM318 Operational Amplifiers General Description The LM118 series are precision high speed operational amplifiers designed for applications requiring wide bandwidth and high slew rate. They

More information

Chapter 11 Current Programmed Control

Chapter 11 Current Programmed Control Chapter 11 Current Programmed Control Buck converter v g i s Q 1 D 1 L i L C v R The peak transistor current replaces the duty cycle as the converter control input. Measure switch current R f i s Clock

More information

LM134-LM234-LM334. Three terminal adjustable current sources. Features. Description

LM134-LM234-LM334. Three terminal adjustable current sources. Features. Description Three terminal adjustable current sources Features Operates from 1V to 40V 0.02%/V current regulation Programmable from 1µA to 10mA ±3% initial accuracy Description The LM134/LM234/LM334 are 3-terminal

More information

DRAFT. University of Pennsylvania Moore School of Electrical Engineering ESE319 Electronic Circuits - Modeling and Measurement Techniques

DRAFT. University of Pennsylvania Moore School of Electrical Engineering ESE319 Electronic Circuits - Modeling and Measurement Techniques University of Pennsylvania Moore School of Electrical Engineering ESE319 Electronic Circuits - Modeling and Measurement Techniques 1. Introduction. Students are often frustrated in their attempts to execute

More information

Neutral Currents in Three Phase Wye Systems

Neutral Currents in Three Phase Wye Systems POWER SYSTEMS ENGINEERING DATA PUBLISHED BY SQUARE D, OSHKOSH, WISCONSIN Subject: Neutral Currents in Three Phase Wye Systems by Robert Arthur Square D Company Oshkosh, Wisconsin (414) 46-80 and R. A.

More information

TDA4605 CONTROL CIRCUIT FOR SWITCH MODE POWER SUPPLIES USING MOS TRANSISTORS

TDA4605 CONTROL CIRCUIT FOR SWITCH MODE POWER SUPPLIES USING MOS TRANSISTORS CONTROL CIRCUIT FOR SWITCH MODE POWER SUPPLIES USING MOS TRANSISTORS Fold-Back Characteristic provides Overload Protection for External Diodes Burst Operation under Short-Circuit and no Load Conditions

More information

Power Electronic Circuits

Power Electronic Circuits Power Electronic Circuits Assoc. Prof. Dr. H. İbrahim OKUMUŞ Karadeniz Technical University Engineering Faculty Department of Electrical And Electronics 1 DC to DC CONVERTER (CHOPPER) General Buck converter

More information

Vehicle data acquisition using CAN By Henning Olsson, OptimumG henning.olsson@optimumg.com

Vehicle data acquisition using CAN By Henning Olsson, OptimumG henning.olsson@optimumg.com Vehicle data acquisition using By Henning Olsson, OptimumG henning.olsson@optimumg.com Introduction: Data acquisition is one of the best tools to increase the understanding of vehicle behavior. One can

More information

SDI Multi Sensor Module with Charger Enclosure Station Support

SDI Multi Sensor Module with Charger Enclosure Station Support Description The purpose of the is to provide a low power temperature compensated battery charge controller and a general-purpose interface for analog sensors. Sensor and charge controller data are acquired

More information

Current valve. for AC 24 V pulse/pause control of electrical loads up to 30 kw

Current valve. for AC 24 V pulse/pause control of electrical loads up to 30 kw 4 937 DESIO Current valve for AC 24 V pulse/pause control of electrical loads up to 30 kw SEA45.1 Use The current valve is used for the control of electric heating elements in heating, ventilation and

More information

TDA2040. 20W Hi-Fi AUDIO POWER AMPLIFIER

TDA2040. 20W Hi-Fi AUDIO POWER AMPLIFIER 20W Hi-Fi AUDIO POWER AMPLIFIER DESCRIPTION The TDA2040 is a monolithic integrated circuit in Pentawatt package, intended for use as an audio class AB amplifier. Typically it provides 22W output power

More information

CONTROLS DATA MANAGEMENT PROCESS AUTOMATION EUROCUBE. General purpose single phase thyristors and solid state relays Product data.

CONTROLS DATA MANAGEMENT PROCESS AUTOMATION EUROCUBE. General purpose single phase thyristors and solid state relays Product data. 425 CONTROLS DATA MANAGEMENT PROCESS AUTOMATION EUROCUBE General purpose single phase thyristors and solid state relays Product data abc 425 EUROCUBE A complete range of low cost solid state relays and

More information

Solid-State Relays (SSRs) vs Electromechanical Relays (EMRs)

Solid-State Relays (SSRs) vs Electromechanical Relays (EMRs) Oct 2010 Solid-State Relays (SSRs) vs Electromechanical Relays (EMRs) A study on worldwide relays market found the market size of solid state relays to be between $200M and $600M, which represent 17% of

More information

AVX EMI SOLUTIONS Ron Demcko, Fellow of AVX Corporation Chris Mello, Principal Engineer, AVX Corporation Brian Ward, Business Manager, AVX Corporation

AVX EMI SOLUTIONS Ron Demcko, Fellow of AVX Corporation Chris Mello, Principal Engineer, AVX Corporation Brian Ward, Business Manager, AVX Corporation AVX EMI SOLUTIONS Ron Demcko, Fellow of AVX Corporation Chris Mello, Principal Engineer, AVX Corporation Brian Ward, Business Manager, AVX Corporation Abstract EMC compatibility is becoming a key design

More information

Chapter 14: Inductor design

Chapter 14: Inductor design Chapter 14 Inductor Design 14.1 Filter inductor design constraints 14.2 A step-by-step design procedure 14.3 Multiple-winding magnetics design using the K g method 14.4 Examples 14.5 Summary of key points

More information

TWO PORT NETWORKS h-parameter BJT MODEL

TWO PORT NETWORKS h-parameter BJT MODEL TWO PORT NETWORKS h-parameter BJT MODEL The circuit of the basic two port network is shown on the right. Depending on the application, it may be used in a number of different ways to develop different

More information

SELECTION OF CURRENT TRANSFORMERS & WIRE SIZING IN SUBSTATIONS. Sethuraman Ganesan ABB Inc. Allentown, PA

SELECTION OF CURRENT TRANSFORMERS & WIRE SIZING IN SUBSTATIONS. Sethuraman Ganesan ABB Inc. Allentown, PA SELECTION OF CURRENT TRANSFORMERS & WIRE SIZING IN SUBSTATIONS Sethuraman Ganesan ABB Inc. Allentown, PA ABSTRACT More and more sub-stations are retrofitted with numerical relays, meters and monitoring

More information

DRM compatible RF Tuner Unit DRT1

DRM compatible RF Tuner Unit DRT1 FEATURES DRM compatible RF Tuner Unit DRT1 High- Performance RF Tuner Frequency Range: 10 KHz to 30 MHz Input ICP3: +13,5dBm, typ. Noise Figure @ full gain: 14dB, typ. Receiver Factor: -0,5dB, typ. Input

More information

7 th. Low Level Measurements Handbook. Edition. Precision DC Current, Voltage, and Resistance Measurements

7 th. Low Level Measurements Handbook. Edition. Precision DC Current, Voltage, and Resistance Measurements 7 th Edition Low Level Measurements Handbook Precision DC Current, Voltage, and Resistance Measurements Low Level Measurements Handbook Precision DC Current, Voltage, and Resistance Measurements SEVENTH

More information

)454 6 %,%#42)#!, #(!2!#4%2)34)#3 &/2 5."!,!.#%$ $/5",%#522%.4 ).4%2#(!.'% #)2#5)43 $!4! #/--5.)#!4)/. /6%2 4(% 4%,%0(/.%.%47/2+ )454 Recommendation 6

)454 6 %,%#42)#!, #(!2!#4%2)34)#3 &/2 5.!,!.#%$ $/5,%#522%.4 ).4%2#(!.'% #)2#5)43 $!4! #/--5.)#!4)/. /6%2 4(% 4%,%0(/.%.%47/2+ )454 Recommendation 6 INTERNATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATION UNION )454 6 TELECOMMUNICATION (03/93) STANDARDIZATION SECTOR OF ITU $!4! #/--5.)#!4)/. /6%2 4(% 4%,%0(/.%.%47/2+ %,%#42)#!, #(!2!#4%2)34)#3 &/2 5."!,!.#%$ $/5",%#522%.4

More information

VIO-VELOCITY OPERATING MANUAL

VIO-VELOCITY OPERATING MANUAL VIO-VELOCITY OPERATING MANUAL Rev 5/00 Elmo Motion Control VIO-Velocity - Operating Manual Rev 09/09. Elmo Motion Control TABLE OF CONTENTS Safety Information...1 Introduction...3 Servo Amplifier Description...5

More information

ELECTROMAGNETIC LEVITATION THESIS

ELECTROMAGNETIC LEVITATION THESIS ELECTROMAGNETIC LEVITATION THESIS 2005 COMPILED BY: LANCE WILLIAMS ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to acknowledge the help and support of Professor J. Greene in the formation and development of this thesis.

More information

)454 6 %LECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS FOR BALANCED DOUBLECURRENT INTERCHANGE CIRCUITS OPERATING AT DATA SIGNALLING RATES UP TO -BITS

)454 6 %LECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS FOR BALANCED DOUBLECURRENT INTERCHANGE CIRCUITS OPERATING AT DATA SIGNALLING RATES UP TO -BITS INTERNATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATION UNION )454 6 TELECOMMUNICATION STANDARDIZATION SECTOR OF ITU (10/96) SERIES V: DATA COMMUNICATION OVER THE TELEPHONE NETWORK Interfaces and voiceband modems %LECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS

More information

RS-422 and RS-485 Application Note

RS-422 and RS-485 Application Note RS-422 and RS-485 Application Note International Headquarters B&B Electronics Mfg. Co. Inc. 707 Dayton Road -- P.O. Box 1040 -- Ottawa, IL 61350 USA Phone (815) 433-5100 -- General Fax (815) 433-5105 Home

More information

A Practical Guide to Free Energy Devices

A Practical Guide to Free Energy Devices A Practical Guide to Free Energy Devices Part PatD5: Last updated: 28th January 2006 Author: Patrick J. Kelly Please note that this is a re-worded excerpt from this patent. It describes a self-contained

More information

DOE FUNDAMENTALS HANDBOOK ELECTRICAL SCIENCE Volume 4 of 4

DOE FUNDAMENTALS HANDBOOK ELECTRICAL SCIENCE Volume 4 of 4 DOE-HDBK-1011/4-92 JUNE 1992 DOE FUNDAMENTALS HANDBOOK ELECTRICAL SCIENCE Volume 4 of 4 U.S. Department of Energy Washington, D.C. 20585 FSC-6910 Distribution Statement A. Approved for public release;

More information

If A is divided by B the result is 2/3. If B is divided by C the result is 4/7. What is the result if A is divided by C?

If A is divided by B the result is 2/3. If B is divided by C the result is 4/7. What is the result if A is divided by C? Problem 3 If A is divided by B the result is 2/3. If B is divided by C the result is 4/7. What is the result if A is divided by C? Suggested Questions to ask students about Problem 3 The key to this question

More information

Effects of AC Ripple Current on VRLA Battery Life. A Technical Note from the Experts in Business-Critical Continuity

Effects of AC Ripple Current on VRLA Battery Life. A Technical Note from the Experts in Business-Critical Continuity Effects of AC Ripple Current on VRLA Battery Life A Technical Note from the Experts in Business-Critical Continuity Introduction Given the importance of battery life to UPS system users and the fact that

More information

Method 1: 30x50 30 50 18.75 15 18.75 0.8. 80 Method 2: 15

Method 1: 30x50 30 50 18.75 15 18.75 0.8. 80 Method 2: 15 The University of New South Wales School of Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications ELEC Electrical and Telecommunications Engineering Tutorial Solutions Q. In the figure below a voltage source and

More information

Analog outputs. Public Document. VS10XX AppNote: Connecting analog outputs

Analog outputs. Public Document. VS10XX AppNote: Connecting analog outputs : Connecting analog outputs Description This document describes how to protect the analog outputs of VS10XX series devices from ESD and how to make a prtoected line-out connection. It shows an example

More information

Power factor correction. An introduction to technology and techniques

Power factor correction. An introduction to technology and techniques Power factor correction An introduction to technology and techniques 2 Contents Understanding power factor 03 Power factor correction 05 Implementing power factor correction techniques 06 Glossary 07 Further

More information

FAULT FINDING MANUAL For Self Excited and Separately Excited Generators

FAULT FINDING MANUAL For Self Excited and Separately Excited Generators FAULT FINDING MANUAL For Self Excited and Separately Excited Generators SAFETY PRECAUTIONS Before testing the generating set, read the generating set Installation Manual, and this Fault Finding Manual,

More information

Consolidated Answers to Questions Posed on the Little Box Challenge Website

Consolidated Answers to Questions Posed on the Little Box Challenge Website Consolidated Answers to Questions Posed on the Little Box Challenge Website Question: My question wasn t answered. Why not? Answer: Many potential questions are answered in the terms and conditions of

More information

The Pass Zen Amplifier: 10 Watts of Single-Stage Single-Ended Class A

The Pass Zen Amplifier: 10 Watts of Single-Stage Single-Ended Class A The Pass Zen Amplifier: 10 Watts of Single-Stage Single-Ended Class A I. "What is the sound of one transistor clapping?" There are two most essential principles to audio amplifier design. The first is

More information

Voltage Derating Rules for Solid Tantalum and Niobium Capacitors

Voltage Derating Rules for Solid Tantalum and Niobium Capacitors Voltage Derating Rules for Solid Tantalum and Niobium Capacitors Tomáš Zedníček AVX Czech Republic s.r.o., Dvorakova 328, 563 01 Lanskroun, Czech Republic Phone: +420 467 558 126 Fax: +420 467 558 128

More information

Environmental Monitoring with Sensors: Hands-on Exercise

Environmental Monitoring with Sensors: Hands-on Exercise Environmental Monitoring with Sensors: Hands-on Exercise Now that you ve seen a few types of sensors, along with some circuits that can be developed to condition their responses, let s spend a bit of time

More information

Limited WARRANTY: Make Noise implies and accepts no responsibility for harm to person or apparatus caused through operation of this product.

Limited WARRANTY: Make Noise implies and accepts no responsibility for harm to person or apparatus caused through operation of this product. Function Limited WARRANTY: Make Noise warrants this product to be free of defects in materials or construction for a period of one year from the date of purchase (proof of purchase/invoice required). Malfunction

More information

Elettronica dei Sistemi Digitali Costantino Giaconia SERIAL I/O COMMON PROTOCOLS

Elettronica dei Sistemi Digitali Costantino Giaconia SERIAL I/O COMMON PROTOCOLS SERIAL I/O COMMON PROTOCOLS RS-232 Fundamentals What is RS-232 RS-232 is a popular communications interface for connecting modems and data acquisition devices (i.e. GPS receivers, electronic balances,

More information

Design and Construction of Microcontroller- Based Telephone Exchange System

Design and Construction of Microcontroller- Based Telephone Exchange System Design and Construction of Microcontroller- Based Telephone Exchange System Aye Sandar Win Abstract This paper demonstrates design and construction of microcontroller-based telephone exchange system and

More information

.OPERATING SUPPLY VOLTAGE UP TO 46 V

.OPERATING SUPPLY VOLTAGE UP TO 46 V L298 DUAL FULL-BRIDGE DRIVER.OPERATING SUPPLY VOLTAGE UP TO 46 V TOTAL DC CURRENT UP TO 4 A. LOW SATURATION VOLTAGE OVERTEMPERATURE PROTECTION LOGICAL "0" INPUT VOLTAGE UP TO 1.5 V (HIGH NOISE IMMUNITY)

More information

Hi-Rel Latch-Up Current Limiter (LCL) High Input Voltage Range, 2A Output Current Radiation Hardened Design

Hi-Rel Latch-Up Current Limiter (LCL) High Input Voltage Range, 2A Output Current Radiation Hardened Design Features Protection device to power sensitive load with automatic disconnection in case of over-current Large input voltage range : 0.8V to 5.5V Output current up to 2A Low voltage drop (95mV @ 1A) Fast

More information

Effective: September 10, 2006 Vermont Attachment 1 to Rule 5.500 Public Service Board Page 1 of 6

Effective: September 10, 2006 Vermont Attachment 1 to Rule 5.500 Public Service Board Page 1 of 6 Public Service Board Page 1 of 6 STANDARD APPLICATION FOR INTERCONNECTION OF GENERATION RESOURCES IN PARALLEL TO THE ELECTRIC SYSTEM OF: (Interconnecting Utility) Preamble and Instructions: An owner of

More information

Damage Identification in Electrical Network for Structural Health Monitoring

Damage Identification in Electrical Network for Structural Health Monitoring Damage Identification in Electrical Network for Structural Health Monitoring Marek Kokot Ph.D. Dissertation supervised by prof. Jan Holnicki-Szulc Contents 1 Introduction 2 1.1 Motivation.............................

More information

Series AMEPR30-AZ up to 2.5A AC-DC / DC-DC LED Driver / Converter

Series AMEPR30-AZ up to 2.5A AC-DC / DC-DC LED Driver / Converter FEATURES: Click on Series name for product info on aimtec.com Models Single output Model Max Output Power (W) 1 AC-DC Constant Current or Constant Over temperature protection Voltage LED Driver Over current

More information

Series AMLDL-Z Up to 1000mA LED Driver

Series AMLDL-Z Up to 1000mA LED Driver FEATURES: Click on Series name for product info on aimtec.com Series Up to ma LED Driver Models Single output Model Input Voltage (V) Step Down DC/DC LED driver Operating Temperature range 4ºC to 85ºC

More information

Inductor and Magnetic Product Terminology

Inductor and Magnetic Product Terminology INTRODUCTION IFC LPT ILB IHSM IM IMC LPE TJ LPC IRF IHB The scope of this application note is to define the terminology associated with inductors and their applications. Some of these terms are listed

More information

PHYS 222 Spring 2012 Final Exam. Closed books, notes, etc. No electronic device except a calculator.

PHYS 222 Spring 2012 Final Exam. Closed books, notes, etc. No electronic device except a calculator. PHYS 222 Spring 2012 Final Exam Closed books, notes, etc. No electronic device except a calculator. NAME: (all questions with equal weight) 1. If the distance between two point charges is tripled, the

More information

Elementary Functions

Elementary Functions Chapter Three Elementary Functions 31 Introduction Complex functions are, of course, quite easy to come by they are simply ordered pairs of real-valued functions of two variables We have, however, already

More information

SET/RESET FUNCTION FOR MAGNETIC SENSORS

SET/RESET FUNCTION FOR MAGNETIC SENSORS APPLICATION NOTE SET/RESET FUNCTION FOR MAGNETIC SENSORS ABSTRACT Honeywell s Anisotropic Magneto-Resistive (AMR) sensors are fabricated with Permalloy (NiFe) thin films that create changes in resistivity

More information

STPS40L15CW. 2 x 20 Amps SCHOTTKY RECTIFIER. Case Styles. I F(AV) = 40Amp V R = 15V. Bulletin PD-20622 rev. B 10/06. Description/ Features

STPS40L15CW. 2 x 20 Amps SCHOTTKY RECTIFIER. Case Styles. I F(AV) = 40Amp V R = 15V. Bulletin PD-20622 rev. B 10/06. Description/ Features Bulletin PD-20622 rev. B 0/06 STPS40L5CW SCHOTTKY RECTIFIER 2 x 20 Amps I F(AV) = 40Amp V R = 5V Major Ratings and Characteristics Characteristics Values Units I F(AV) Rectangular 40 A waveform V RRM 5

More information

MODEL 2202IQ (1991-MSRP $549.00)

MODEL 2202IQ (1991-MSRP $549.00) F O R T H E L O V E O F M U S I C F O R T H E L O V E O F M U S I C MODEL 2202IQ (1991-MSRP $549.00) OWNER'S MANUAL AND INSTALLATION GUIDE INTRODUCTION Congratulations on your decision to purchase a LINEAR

More information

TDA2040. 20W Hi-Fi AUDIO POWER AMPLIFIER

TDA2040. 20W Hi-Fi AUDIO POWER AMPLIFIER 20W Hi-Fi AUDIO POWER AMPLIFIER DESCRIPTION The TDA2040 is a monolithic integrated circuit in Pentawatt package, intended for use as an audio class AB amplifier. Typically it provides 22W output power

More information

Tire pressure monitoring

Tire pressure monitoring Application Note AN601 Tire pressure monitoring 1 Purpose This document is intended to give hints on how to use the Intersema pressure sensors in a low cost tire pressure monitoring system (TPMS). 2 Introduction

More information

Elektrotechnikai és elektronikai gyakorló, 12 300 sorozat

Elektrotechnikai és elektronikai gyakorló, 12 300 sorozat Tulajdonságok Ismertetés The 12 300 series is a set of workboards that provides hands on teaching of basic electricity, magnetism and electronics. Each board covers a different subject area and contains

More information

(!' ) "' # "*# "!(!' +,

(!' ) ' # *# !(!' +, ( Controls Signal Processing Telecommunications Network and processor modeling and simulation http://www.mathworks.com/academia/classroom-resources/departments/electrical-computerengineering.html ( MATLAB

More information

S-Band Low Noise Amplifier Using the ATF-10136. Application Note G004

S-Band Low Noise Amplifier Using the ATF-10136. Application Note G004 S-Band Low Noise Amplifier Using the ATF-10136 Application Note G004 Introduction This application note documents the results of using the ATF-10136 in low noise amplifier applications at S band. The ATF-10136

More information

Model UT33B/C/D: OPERATING MANUAL Table of Contents (1)

Model UT33B/C/D: OPERATING MANUAL Table of Contents (1) Table of Contents (1) Title Overview Unpacking Inspection Safety Information Rules For Safe Operation International Electrical Symbols The Meter structure Functional Buttons Measurement Operation A. DC

More information

Subminiature Load Cell Model 8417

Subminiature Load Cell Model 8417 w Technical Product Information Subminiature Load Cell 1. Introduction... 2 2. Preparing for use... 2 2.1 Unpacking... 2 2.2 Using the instrument for the first time... 2 2.3 Grounding and potential connection...

More information

LM134-LM234 LM334 THREE TERMINAL ADJUSTABLE CURRENT SOURCES. OPERATES from 1V to 40V

LM134-LM234 LM334 THREE TERMINAL ADJUSTABLE CURRENT SOURCES. OPERATES from 1V to 40V LM134-LM234 LM334 THREE TERMINAL USTABLE CURRENT SOURCES OPERATES from 1 to 40. 0.02% CURRENT REGULATION PROGRAMMABLE from 1µA to 10mA ±3% INITIAL ACCURACY DESCRIPTION The LM134/LM234/LM334 are 3-terminal

More information

MOBILE SYSTEM FOR DIAGNOSIS OF HIGH VOLTAGE CABLES (132KV/220KV) VLF-200 HVCD

MOBILE SYSTEM FOR DIAGNOSIS OF HIGH VOLTAGE CABLES (132KV/220KV) VLF-200 HVCD MOBILE SYSTEM FOR DIAGNOSIS OF HIGH VOLTAGE CABLES (132KV/220KV) VLF-200 HVCD VERY LOW FREQUENCY (VLF) - PARTIAL DISCHARGES AND TANGENT DELTA HV/EHV POWER CABLES DIAGNOSTIC AND ON-SITE FIELD TESTING WITH

More information

Bi-directional level shifter for I²C-bus and other systems.

Bi-directional level shifter for I²C-bus and other systems. APPLICATION NOTE Bi-directional level shifter for I²C-bus and other Abstract With a single MOS-FET a bi-directional level shifter circuit can be realised to connect devices with different supply voltages

More information

The Bergeron Method. A Graphic Method for Determining Line Reflections in Transient Phenomena

The Bergeron Method. A Graphic Method for Determining Line Reflections in Transient Phenomena The ergeron Method Graphic Method for Determining Line Reflections in Transient Phenomena SDY04 October 996 IMPORTNT NOTICE Texas Instruments (TI) reserves the right to make changes to its products or

More information

SL Series AC and DC Electronic Loads

SL Series AC and DC Electronic Loads SL Series AC and DC Electronic Loads Applications AC & DC Power Supply Testing Rechargeable batteries and chargers Fuel cell test - cells and stacks PFC circuit test Pulsed LED Test and Burn-in Laser Diode

More information

Low Voltage Products

Low Voltage Products Low Voltage Products ABB Power Quality Filters: The most efficient solution for active filtering of harmonics, smooth reactive power compensation and load balancing. Enabling trouble-free and efficient

More information

Automatic Gain Control (AGC) in Receivers

Automatic Gain Control (AGC) in Receivers Automatic Gain Control (AGC) in Receivers Iulian Rosu, YO3DAC / VA3IUL http://www.qsl.net/va3iul/ AGC was implemented in first radios for the reason of fading propagation (defined as slow variations in

More information

EMERGENCY EGRESS LIGHTING POWER SUPPLY PART NO. 5925-6 COMPONENT MAINTENANCE MANUAL WITH ILLUSTRATED PARTS LIST

EMERGENCY EGRESS LIGHTING POWER SUPPLY PART NO. 5925-6 COMPONENT MAINTENANCE MANUAL WITH ILLUSTRATED PARTS LIST EMERGENCY EGRESS LIGHTING POWER SUPPLY PART NO. WITH ILLUSTRATED PARTS LIST Initial Issue: June 16, 1995 33-51-80Page 1 May 20/2010 RECORD OF REVISIONS REV. NO. ISSUE DATE A 01-26-96 B 09-21-99 C 10-26-09

More information

Quantec Wiring Instructions

Quantec Wiring Instructions Approved Document No. DNUQ777 Rev Quantec Wiring Instructions GENERAL Quantec can be compared to a very sophisticated analogue addressable fire alarm system where the integrity of the wiring is of paramount

More information

SOLAR PV STANDARD ELECTRICAL PLAN Microinverter Systems for Single Family Dwellings

SOLAR PV STANDARD ELECTRICAL PLAN Microinverter Systems for Single Family Dwellings *** Provide this document to the inspector along with ALL system installation instructions *** Project Address: Scope: Standard plan for the installation of grounded microinverter solar PV systems, not

More information

Current Probes. User Manual

Current Probes. User Manual Current Probes User Manual ETS-Lindgren L.P. reserves the right to make changes to any product described herein in order to improve function, design, or for any other reason. Nothing contained herein shall

More information