# CSE140: Midterm 1 Solution and Rubric

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1 CSE140: Midterm 1 Solution and Rubric April 23, Short Answers 1.1 True or (6pts) 1. A maxterm must include all input variables (1pt) True 2. A canonical product of sums is a product of minterms (1pt) 3. To reduce an incompletely specified function to a sum of products form, the don t cares are always assumed to be zero for best results (1pt) 4. Pushing a bubble from the output of a logic gate towards the inputs always transforms the gate (1pt) True or : Both are acceptable 5. In a K-map, non-essential primes are a proper subset of essential primes (1pt) 6. In a K-map, two adjacent cells can sometimes differ in more than one literal?(1pt) 1

2 1.2 Bubble Pushing Draw two equivalent but non-identical circuits for the boolean expression ā + b, (4pts) Above circuit can be implemented with NOT gates instead of bubbles. Each circuit 2 points. Deduct 1 point for not showing input variables (maximum of 2 points) 2

3 2 Problem to Canonical Expression A vending machine has four binary inputs (a, b, c, d) which correspond to four coin slots. The first slot is for a quarter and the rest of the three slots are for three dimes, which corresponds to one dime for each slot. Input a = 1 if the user deposited a quarter at the first slot otherwise a = 0. Likewise, each of the three inputs (b, c, d) indicate if the user deposited a dime in each of the last three slots. For example, if the input (a, b, c, d) = (1, 1, 1, 0), then the user has deposited one quarter and two dimes, a total of 45cents. The output function f = 1 if the user has deposited coins worth more than or equal to 30cents, otherwise f = 0. I. Write the truth table of the output f as a function of inputs a, b, c, d. (5pts) id a b c d f Table 1: Truth table Deduct 0.5 point for each incorrect row in the truth table (maximum deduction 5 pts) II. Describe the function f in the canonical product-of-sums format. (5pts) f(a, b, c, d) = M(0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8) Deduct 2 points if POS expression matches truth table, but table is wrong. SOP instead of POS Deduct 1 point if 3

4 3 Consensus Theorem Prove the following equality using Boolean algebra. a c + a b d + b c d = a c + b c d (15pts) LHS: a c + a b d + b c d = a c + a b d(c + c ) + b c d = a c + a b dc + a b dc + b c d Distributive Law = a c(1 + b d) + b dc (a + 1) Commutative and Distributive Laws = a c(1) + b c d(1) = a c + b c d = RHS Deduct 2 points for each incorrect steps (max deduction 15 pts). Deduct 5 points if Boolean Algebra theorems are not used for the proof (e.g. if an enumerative method is used) No points deducted for using Shannon expansion 4

5 4 Shannon s Expansion Prove the following equality using Shannon s expansion. (a + c)(a + b + d)(b + c + d) = (a + c)(b + c + d) (15pts) Apply Shannon s Expansion twice to LHS LHS: f(a,b,c,d) = (a + c)(a + b + d)(b + c + d) = (c + f(a, b, 0, d)) (c + f(a, b, 1, d)) = (c + a (a + b + d)) (c + (a + b + d) (b + d)) = (c + a (1 + b + d)) (c + (a.0 + b + d)) = (c + a ) (c + b + d) Deduct 2 points for each incorrect steps (max deduction 15 pts). Deduct 5 points if any method other than Shannon s is used. 5

6 5 Karnaugh Map to Reduced Sum of Product I. Use Karnaugh map to simplify the following switching function. List all possible minimal sum of product expressions. There is no need to draw the circuit diagram. f(a, b, c) = m(1, 2, 5, 6, 7) + d(0) (25pts) Prime Implicants: 1. m(0, 2) = a c 2. m(0, 1) = a b 3. m(2, 6) = bc 4. m(6, 7) = ab 5. m(1, 5) = b c 6. m(5, 7) = ac There are no Essential Prime Implicants. Minimal Sum of Product Expresssions: 1. f(a, b, c) = m(2, 6) + m(6, 7) + m(1, 5) 2. f(a, b, c) = m(0, 2) + m(6, 7) + m(1, 5) 3. f(a, b, c) = m(2, 6) + m(5, 7) + m(1, 5) 4. f(a, b, c) = m(2, 6) + m(5, 7) + m(0, 1) If all expression are correct full points (25) For each wrong expression deduct 6 points. at this point if total is below 5 pts and the K-map is shown and is correct then give 8 points else give 5 points (total) for attempting. Okay if expression is shown in terms of implicants and not literals 6

7 6 Karnaugh Map to Reduced Product of Sum Use Karnaugh map to simplify the following switching function. List all possible minimal product of sum expressions. There is no need to draw the circuit diagram. (25pts) f(a, b, c) = m(1, 2, 6) + d(7) Prime Implicates: 1. M(0, 4) = b + c 2. M(3, 7) = b + c 3. M(4, 5) = a + b 4. M(5, 7) = a + c Essential Prime Implicates: 1. M(3, 7) 2. M(0, 4) Minimal Product of Sum Expresssions: 1. f(a, b, c) = M(0, 4). M(3, 7). M(4, 5) 2. f(a, b, c) = M(0, 4). M(3, 7). M(5, 7) If all expression are correct full points (25) For each wrong expression deduct 12 points. at this point if total is below 12 pts and the K-map is shown and is correct then give 8 points for the K-map else give 5 points(total) for attempting. Okay if expression is shown in terms of implicates and not literals 7

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