Guilford County Schools Traditional Schedule Curriculum Guide. Dates Objective Sample Essential Questions

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1 Guilford County Schools Traditional Schedule Curriculum Guide Instructions for use: Follow the weekly recommendations for teaching the objectives listed on the pacing document. When you need clarification on an objective, go to the objective guide. There you will find instructional strategies, sample assessments, resources, and guidance on prerequisite skills needed for success. Time Unit (Days) Dates Objective Sample Essential Questions 2 Introductions- Goal 1 should be embedded into goals 2-5 throughout the school year Compare and contrast the structure and functions of the following organic molecules: Carbohydrates. Proteins. Lipids. Nucleic acids. Distinguish between carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. (What are the monomers for each and what do they do?) What do these tests identify-benedict s, Iodine, Biuret s?

2 Investigate and describe the structure and functions of cells including: Cell organelles. Cell specialization. Communication among cells within an organism Investigate and analyze the cell as a living system including: Maintenance of homeostasis. Movement of materials into and out of cells. Energy use and release in biochemical reactions Investigate and describe the structure and function of enzymes and explain their importance in biological systems Investigate and analyze the bioenergetic reactions: Aerobic Respiration. Anaerobic Respiration. What is the difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells? Draw plant and animal cells. Label the nucleus, plasma membrane, cell wall, mitochondria, vacuole, chloroplast, and ribosome. Tell what each of these cell organelles does. What is the difference between unicellular and multicellular? What are the levels of organization from cell to an organism? How do cells communicate using chemical signals? How are hormones involved in cell communication? What is a receptor protein? How is total magnification calculated when using a microscope? How does the light microscope work? Describe how to make a slide. What is homeostasis? How does a cell maintain homeostasis? (water, ph, regulate temperature, blood glucose, food). Distinguish between active and passive transport. What is diffusion? How does diffusion differ from osmosis? What does semi-permeable mean? What is ATP? How do cells store energy with ATP and ADP? Describe the structure and function of enzymes. Give examples of enzymes What is a catalyst? How do enzymes work in biochemical reactions? What is a substrate? Describe the lock and key hypothesis. What is the overall equation for photosynthesis? What is the purpose of photosynthesis? What is the overall equation for respiration (aerobic)? What is the purpose of respiration? How many ATP are produced? Which is more efficient, anaerobic or aerobic respiration? Why? How does anaerobic respiration differ from aerobic? What are two types of anaerobic respiration?

3 Photosynthesis. 1 Benchmark 1 Goals /21/08-10/30/ Analyze the molecular basis of heredity including: DNA replication. Protein synthesis (transcription, translation). Gene regulation. How does DNA differ from RNA? What bases pair in each? Explain how DNA nucleotide sequences result in proteins (Protein synthesis). Explain the role or the process of the following in making proteins a. transcription b.translation c.trna d.rrna e. mrna f. codon g. anticodon Be able to use a codon chart. How does semi-conservative DNA replication work? What causes a mutation? What are addition, deletion, frame-shift, and point mutations? Distinguish between gene and chromosomal mutations. What is a hydrogen bond? Where do they occur? Draw a nucleotide and label it. Explain the statement, in multicellular organisms, all cells have the same DNA/genes, but cells have different functions Compare and contrast the characteristics of asexual and sexual reproduction. What is mitosis? What is the result of mitosis? What cells undergo mitosis? How is mitosis different from meiosis? What is the result of meiosis? Draw each process (mitosis/meiosis). Be able to put the diagrams in order and describe what occurs in each phase. Describe each: Crossing-over, random assortment of chromosomes, gene mutation, nondisjuction, and fertilization. How does the process of meiosis lead to greater genetic diversity? Why is genetic diversity important?

4 Interpret and predict patterns of inheritance. Dominant, recessive and intermediate traits. Multiple alleles. Polygenic inheritance. Sex-linked traits. Independent assortment. Test cross. Pedigrees. Punnett squares. Distinguish between genotype and phenotype. Complete a Punnett square-monohybrid cross, showing each of the generations.(p, F 1, F 2 ) Interpret a karyotype. Be able to distinguish male, female, Down s syndrome, Klinefelter s syndrome, Turner s syndrome Define: Dominant, recessive, heterozygous, homozygous, incomplete dominance, codominance. Give examples of each. What genetic circumstance makes a roan cow? Red+white=pink flowers? ABO blood groups? What are sex-linked traits? Give two examples. What are polygenic traits? Give an example. What are multigenic traits? Give an example. What is a test cross? How does it work and why would you do one? What is a pedigree? How can a pedigree be interpreted to show phenotype? Describe what happens in these autosomal diseases a.sickle cell disease b.cystic fibrosis c. Huntington s What causes Down s syndrome? What is the cause of hemophilia? 1 Benchmark II Goals /20/09-1/28/ Assess the impact of advances in genomics on individuals and society. Human genome project. Applications of biotechnology. What is the Human Genome Project? How was it useful in helping develop gene therapy for humans? How does the process of gel electrophoresis work? What is a DNA fingerprint and how is it used? What is a transgenic organism? Give an example. What is a practical use for such an animal? Define biotechnology. What are some of the ethical issues of GMOs? What are some of the ethical issues of stem cell research? Examine the development of the theory of evolution by natural selection including: Development of the theory. The origin and history of life. What is Natural Selection? Compare biogenesis to abiogenesis(spontaneous generation). What experiments led to the idea that life came from life? Describe Stanley Miller s experiment. What type of organisms were probably the first on earth? How did eukaryotes probably evolve? What is speciation? What is the role of geographic isolation in speciation? Define species.

5 Fossil and biochemical evidence. Mechanisms of evolution. Applications (pesticide and antibiotic resistance) Analyze the classification of organisms according to their evolutionary relationships. The historical development and changing nature of classification systems. Similarities and differences between eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms. Similarities and differences among the eukaryotic kingdoms: Protists, Fungi, Plants, Animals. Classify organisms using keys. How does the environment select out adaptations? How do organisms become pesticide and antibiotic resistant? What is a cladogram? What are the 7 levels of classification? What are the Kingdoms of living organisms? Describe the characteristics of each. What is binomial nomenclature? What is a phylogenic tree? Know how to construct and use a dichotomous key to classify organisms. 1 Benchmark III Goals /24/09-4/2/09

6 Analyze the processes by which organisms representative of the following groups accomplish essential life functions including: For each of the following terms, define the purpose of the process and give at least 3 examples of how different organisms (protists, non-vascular plants, gymnosperms, angiosperms, annelid worms, insects, amphibians, mammals) carry out the particular process. (transport, excretion, regulation, respiration, nutrition, synthesis, reproduction, growth and development) Unicellular protists, annelid worms, insects, amphibians, mammals, non vascular plants, gymnosperms and angiosperms. Transport, excretion, respiration, regulation, nutrition, synthesis, reproduction, and growth and development Assess, describe and explain adaptations affecting survival and reproductive success. Structural adaptations in plants and animals (form to function). Disease-causing viruses and microorganisms Co-evolution Analyze and explain the interactive role of internal and external factors in health and disease: What is a virus? Give some examples of some pathogenic viruses. How are viruses different from bacteria? What is an angiosperm? What pollinates them? Distinguish between self-pollination and crosspollination. What is co-evolution? What is sickle cell anemia? How is a person who is heterozygous for the condition less likely to be affected by the disease? What is malaria? How is it spread? Describe the life cycle of Plasmodium. How can lung/mouth cancer be prevented?

7 Genetics. Immune response. Nutrition. Parasites. Toxins. What is diabetes and how is it controlled? What is PKU? How is it treated? Describe the role of each of the following in the immune system: T cells, B cells, antibodies, antigens, memory cells, killer T cells How does good nutrition help lead to good health? What are the environmental effects of A. lead B. mercury? Analyze the broad patterns of animal behavior as adaptations to the environment. Innate behavior. Learned behavior. Social behavior Investigate and analyze the interrelationships among organisms, populations, communities, and ecosystems. Techniques of field ecology. Abiotic and biotic factors. Carrying capacity Using examples, explain the difference between taxis and instinct. Compare and contrast habituation, imprinting, classical conditioning, and trial and error learning. Describe examples of the following: communication among a colony of bees, courtship among organisms, territorial defense. Define symbiosis. Distinguish between mutualism, commensalisms, and parasitism. Give examples of each. How does species diversity change over time? Distinguish between primary and secondary succession. What are biotic and abiotic factors? Give examples of each. How do they interact with each other and what is their importance. What are limiting factors and how do they influence carrying capacity? What is an S- curve? J-curve? What do they mean? How do predator-prey graphs look? Distinguish between predator and prey.

8 Analyze the flow of energy and the cycling of matter in the ecosystem Relationship of the carbon cycle to photosynthesis and respiration. Trophic levels - direction and efficiency of energy transfer Assess human population and its impact on local ecosystems and global environments: Explain how carbon cycles. (include a discussion of photosynthesis and respiration) Fill in: Energy, nutrients. How does energy flow through a food chain and food web? Draw a food chain and show how energy flows from primary consumer to secondary consumer and then to tertiary consumer. Draw an Energy Pyramid and describe how energy is lost at each level. What does the human population graph look like from the 1800 s until now? What will it look like in 2050? What is birth rate? What is death rate? How are they calculated? Describe effects of population size, density, and resource use on the environment? Historic and potential changes in population. Factors associated with those changes. Climate change. Resource use. Sustainable practices/stewardship.

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