Name Class Date. Figure Which nucleotide in Figure 13 1 indicates the nucleic acid above is RNA? a. uracil c. cytosine b. guanine d.

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1 13 Multiple Choice RNA and Protein Synthesis Chapter Test A Write the letter that best answers the question or completes the statement on the line provided. 1. Which of the following are found in both DNA and RNA? a. ribose, phosphate groups, and adenine b. deoxyribose, phosphate groups, and guanine c. phosphate groups, guanine, and cytosine d. phosphate groups, guanine, and thymine 2. Which nucleotide in Figure 13 1 indicates the nucleic acid above is RNA? a. uracil c. cytosine b. guanine d. adenine 3. What is produced during transcription? a. RNA molecules c. RNA polymerase b. DNA molecules d. proteins 4. During eukaryotic transcription, the molecule that is formed is a. complementary to both strands of DNA. b. identical to an entire single strand of DNA. c. double-stranded and inside the nucleus. d. complementary to part of one strand of DNA. 5. There are 64 codons and 20 amino acids. Which of the following is true? a. Several different codons can specify the same amino acid. b. Each codon specifies a different amino acid. c. Some amino acids have no link to a codon. d. Each amino acid is specified by only one codon. 6. A promoter is a a. binding site for DNA polymerase. b. binding site for RNA polymerase. c. start signal for replication. d. stop signal for transcription. Figure During translation, the type of amino acid that is added to the growing polypeptide depends on the a. codon on the mrna and the anticodon on the rrna. b. anticodon on the mrna and the anticodon on the trna. c. anticodon on the rrna and the codon on the mrna. d. codon on the mrna and the anticodon on the trna. 221

2 8. What is an exception to the central dogma of molecular biology? a. Viruses sometimes transfer information from RNA to DNA. b. Viruses sometimes transfer information from DNA to RNA. c. Viruses sometimes transfer information from proteins to DNA. d. Viruses can translate without RNA. 9. In eukaryotes a. Transcription takes place in the cytoplasm, and translation takes place in the nucleus. b. Transcription takes place in the nucleus, and translation takes place in the cytoplasm. c. Transcription and translation both take place in the nucleus. d. Transcription and translation both take place in the cytoplasm. 10. Which of the following is the name of a type of chromosomal mutation AND a type of gene mutation? a. substitution c. deletion b. insertion d. inversion 11. What are some characteristics of polyploidy plants? a. They tend to be weaker and smaller than diploid plants. b. They tend to be bigger and stronger than diploid plants. c. They tend to be weaker, but bigger than diploid plants. d. They tend to be smaller, but stronger than diploid plants. 12. A lac repressor turns OFF the lac genes by a. binding to the promoter. c. binding to the operator. b. DNA polymerase. d. binding to the lac genes. 13. Gene regulation in eukaryotes a. usually involves operons. b. is simpler than in prokaryotes. c. allows for cell specialization. d. includes the action of an operator region. 14. What regulates the expression of most eukaryotic genes? a. mirna c. dicer enzymes b. transcription factors d. silencing complexes 15. Hox genes a. determine when bacteria replicate their chromosome. b. determine where the flagellum is on a bacterium. c. determine when a dog s cells replicate their DNA. d. determine the location of a dog s ears. 222

3 Completion Complete each statement on the line provided. 16. A eukaryotic gene consists of regulatory regions, a(n), and the nucleotide sequence that is transcribed. 17. Insertions and deletions that change the entire genetic message that comes after the mutation are called. Normal Chromosome Mutant 1 Figure 13 2 Mutant Mutant 1 in Figure 13 2 is the result of a(n) because part of the chromosome reverses direction. 19. The element bromine can cause a genetic change, so bromine is called a. 20. A mutation in a series of genes called can change the organs that develop in specific parts of an embryo. Short Answer In complete sentences, write the answers to the questions on the lines provided. 21. What might be the effect of a mutation in the promoter sequence of a gene? 22. According to Figure 13 3, what codons specify glycine? 23. What happens to lac repressors in E. coli when lactose is present? 24. How does microrna (mirna) function to help block gene expression? Figure

4 Protein Synthesis Figure Describe the functions of the three kinds of RNA illustrated in Figure What happens to lac repressors in E. coli when lactose is present? 25. How does mirna function to help block gene expression? Using Science Skills Use the diagram below to answer the following questions on the lines provided. Figure

5 28. Interpret Visuals What is structure E in Figure 13 5? What does it specify? 29. Predict What would happen to structure F in Figure 13 5 if structure C were deleted? 30. Predict In Figure 13 5, what effect would the deletion of structure C have on the process that occurs during step Y? Essay Write the answer to each question in the space provided. 31. Contrast the functions of the three main types of RNA. 32. Explain the process of translation. 225

6 33. Why do some kinds of point mutations generally result in greater changes in proteins than others? 34. What might be the effects of a mutation in the gene that codes for the lac repressor in E. coli? 35. Why is gene regulation necessary in the development of multicellular organisms? Use a specific example to support your argument. 226

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