Biology Final Exam Study Guide: Semester 2

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1 Biology Final Exam Study Guide: Semester 2 Questions 1. Scientific method: What does each of these entail? Investigation and Experimentation Problem Hypothesis Methods Results/Data Discussion/Conclusion 2. Experimental Design: Define the following: Control group Experimental group Constants Independent Variable Dependent Variable

2 Questions 3. DNA Structure: Draw a simple DNA strand and label the following parts: Phosphate backbone Nucleotides Deoxyribose sugar DNA 4. What is the central dogma of molecular biology? 5. Scientists: Describe their major contributions to the discovery of DNA: Griffith Hershey and Chase Avery Watson and Crick Rosalind Franklin

3 6. Describe the base-pairing rule and write the complimentary strand for the DNA below: A-C-C-G-C-T-A-T-A-C 7. DNA Replication: Draw a picture of DNA replicating and label all the parts and enzymes. Proofreading enzymes Helicase Ligase DNA polymerase During what phase of the cell cycle is this occurring?

4 Questions 8. Transcription: Draw a diagram of transcription. Indicate where it is occurring within the cell. Label important structures. Protein Synthesis 9. Translation: Draw a diagram of translation. Indicate where it is occurring within the cell. Label important structures.

5 10. Structures: Describe the function of each of the following in protein synthesis. Codon Anticodon mrna trna Uracil rrna/ribosome RNA polymerase 11. Amino Acids: Use an amino acid table to decode the following codons: AGU CAA ACA UUA UAG 12. Endomembrane Transport System: Create a flow chart that shows the path that proteins take as they are being created, modified, and packaged.

6 13. Types of Proteins: Describe the following types of proteins. Enzymes Structural proteins Transport proteins Motor proteins Hormones Storage proteins 14. Enzymes: Draw a simple enzyme and label the following: Enzyme Active site Substrate Product Questions 15. Explain why prokaryotic bacteria are used for DNA technology. DNA Technology

7 16. Recombinant DNA: Draw a flowchart to illustrate how recombinant DNA can be made and used to produce desired proteins. 17. Electrophoresis: Describe how electrophoresis can be used to fingerprint DNA. Your description should include the following terms: Restriction enzymes DNA fragments Electrode Agar gel Positive Negative Bands Questions 18. Chromosome number: What is the difference between haploid and diploid? Meiosis

8 19. Meiosis I: Draw the phases of meiosis I. Be sure to label the structures below: Homologous chromosomes Centromere Daughter cells Metaphase plate Tetrads Are the cells created haploid or diploid? 20. Meiosis II: Draw the phases of meiosis II. Be sure to label the structures below: Sister chromatids Centromere Daughter cells Metaphase plate Are the cells created haploid or diploid?

9 Questions 21. Terms: Define the following terms: Genetics Allele Phenotype Genotype Diploid Haploid Dominant Recessive Heterozygous Homozygous Karyotype 22. Punnett Squares: Create Punnett squares and list the genotypic and phenotypic ratios for the crosses below. Red flowers are dominant over yellow flowers. A homozygous red flower and a yellow flower.

10 Two heterozygous red flowers. A heterozygous red flower and a yellow flower. In a certain breed of guinea pigs, straight hair (H) is a dominant trait and curly hair (h) is recessive. Black eyes (B) for guinea pigs is another dominant trait while pink eyes (b) is recessive. A male who is heterozygous for both hair and eye color and a female with curly hair and who was heterozygous for black eyes.

11 23. Codominance: Explain the genotypes for each blood type and how this is an example of codominance. (Blood types = A, AB, B, O) 24. Incomplete dominance: Red snapdragons crossed with white snapdragons produce pink snapdragons. Show a Punnett Square for this cross and explain how it is an example of incomplete dominance. 25. Sex-linked traits: Explain the difference between sex-linked and autosomal traits.

12 26. Pedigrees: Use the pedigree on the right to answer the questions below. This pedigree shows the inheritance of color-blindness, sex-linked trait found on the X chromosome. Based on the pedigree, is this trait dominant or recessive? What is the genotype of the mother of the colorblind girl in the F3 generation? Explain why colorblindness afflicts more males than females. Questions 27. Evolution: Compare and contrast microevolution and macroevolution. Use the following terms: Adaptations Alleles Natural selection Speciation Gene frequency Evolution

13 28. Natural selection: Does natural selection affect a population s genotype or phenotype? Explain. 29. Genetic drift: Describe how genetic drift affects the diversity of a population and why. 30. Speciation: What are the requirements for speciation to occur? How do we define a species?

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