General Biology. Course Description and Philosophy

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1 General Biology Course Description and Philosophy Biology is the study of life on the planet Earth. This is a standard college preparatory life science course. Among the concepts covered in the course are the structures and functions of cells, the biochemical basis of life, the characteristics of various organisms, the classification of organisms, genetics (including molecular genetics) and heredity, evolution and ecological relationships. The unity and diversity of life are emphasized. Various biological processes such as photosynthesis, respiration, circulation, digestion and nervous response are investigated. Laboratory investigations include studies of cells using the microscope, the examination of live and preserved organism, and the analysis of genetic problems. Student performance will be evaluated using a variety of assessments, including teacher-generated tests and quizzes, examinations, laboratory activities, homework, research projects, and class participation. As a summary experience, there will be two half-year examinations, which will represent 20% of the students grades for the year. Text Reference: Biggs, M.S., Alton; Kathleen Gregg, Ph.D.; Whitney Crispen Haagins, M.A., M.A.T.; Chris Kapicka, Ph.D.; Linda Lundgren, M.S.; Peter Rillero, Ph.D., Biology: The Dynamics of Life, copyright 2002 by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, Columbus, Ohio. Updated August 2006

2 Unit 1: What is Biology? Essential Questions: What are the questions and answers of biology and how are the answers learned? Objectives Students will be able to: Recognize some possible benefits from studying biology. Summarize the characteristics of living things. Compare different scientific methods. Differentiate among hypothesis, theory, and principle. Compare and contrast quantitative and descriptive research. Explain why science and technology cannot solve all problems. Topic/Content Skills Assessment Resources Instructional Method Tech Infusion NJCCCS: Unit Chapter 1: Biology: The Study Tests/Quizzes Text Lecture Internet Research 5.1 A, B, C of Life Term Paper Lab Material Discussion Laserdisc 5.3 A, B, D The Science of Biology Lab Activity LaserDisc Small Group Work Powerpoint 5.5 A Biologists Study the Diversity Homework IBooks Individual Research IBooks/Probes of Life Participation Media Center Lab Work VCR Characteristics of Living Things Lab Supplies SmartBoard Observing and Hypothesizing DVDs Experimenting Kinds of Research Science and Society

3 Unit II: The Principles of Ecology Essential Questions: What are the relationships and interactions that exist among organisms and their environments? Objectives Students will be able to: Distinguish between the biotic and abiotic factors in the environment. Compare the different levels of biological organization and living relationships important in ecology. Explain the difference between a niche and a habitat. Compare how organisms satisfy their nutritional needs. Trace the path of energy and matter in an ecosystem. Analyze how nutrients are cycled in the abiotic and biotic parts of the biosphere. Explain how limiting factors and ranges of tolerance affect distribution of organisms. Sequence the stages of ecological succession. Compare and contrast the photic and aphotic zones of marine biomes. Identify the major limiting factors affecting distribution of terrestrial biomes. Distinguish among biomes. Compare and contrast exponential and linear population growth. Relate the reproduction patterns of different populations of organisms to models of population growth. Predict effects of environmental factors on population growth. Relate population characteristics to population growth rates. Compare the age structure of rapidly growing, slowgrowing, and no-growth countries. Hypothesize about problems that can be caused by immigration and emigration.

4 Topic/Content Skills Assessment Resources Instructional Method Tech Infusion NJCCCS: Unit Chapter 2: Principles of Ecology Tests/Quizzes Text Lecture Internet Research 5.1 A, B, C What is Ecology? Term Paper Lab Material Discussion Laserdisc 5.2 A, B Aspects of Ecological Study Lab Activity LaserDisc Small Group Work Powerpoint 5.3 B, D Levels of Organization in Homework IBooks Individual Research IBooks/Probes 5.4 A, B, C Ecology Participation Media Center Lab Work VCR 5.5 A, B Organisms in Ecosystems Lab Supplies SmartBoard 5.10 A, B How Organisms Obtain Energy DVDs Matter and Energy Flow in Ecosystems Cycles in Nature Living in the Community Succession: Changes over Time Aquatic Biomes: Life in Water Terrestrial Biomes Principles of Population Growth Organism Interactions Limit Population Size Demographic Trends Chapter 3: Communities and Biomes Living in the Community Succession: Changes over Time Aquatic Biomes: Life in the Water Terrestrial Biomes

5 Chapter 4: Population Biology Principles of Population Growth Organisms Interactions Limit Population Size Demographic Trends

6 Unit III: The Life of a Cell Essential Question: What is the basic chemistry of life, the structure and function of cells, and cell energetics. Objectives Students will be able to: Relate the particle structure of an atom to the identity of elements. Relate the formation of covalent and ionic chemical bonds to the stability of atoms. Distinguish mixtures and solutions. Define acids and bases and relate their importance to biological systems. Relate water s unique features to polarity. Explain how the process of diffusion occurs and why it is important to cells. Classify the variety of organic compounds. Describe how polymers are formed and broken down in organisms. Compare the chemical structures of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids, and relate their importance of living things. Relate advances in microscope technology to discoveries about cells and cell structure. Compare the operation of a compound light microscope with that of an electron microscope. Identify the main ideas of the cell theory. Explain how a cell s plasma membrane functions. Relate the function of the plasma membrane to the fluid mosaic model. Understand the structure and function of the parts of a typical eukaryotic cell. Explain the advantages of highly folded membranes in cells. Compare and contrast the structures of plant and animal cells. Explain how the processes of diffusion, passive transport, and active transport occur and why they are important to cells. Predict the effect of hypotonic, hypertonic, and isotonic solutions on a cell. Sequence the events of the cell cycle. Relate the function of a cell to its organization as a tissue, organ, and an organ system. Describe the role of enzymes in the regulation of the cell cycle. Distinguish between the events of a normal cell cycle and the abnormal events that result in cancer. Identify ways to potentially reduce the risk of cancer. Explain why organisms need a supply of energy. Describe how energy is stored and released by ATP. Relate the structure of chloroplasts to the events in photosynthesis. Describe light-dependent reactions.

7 Explain the reactions and products of the lightindependent Calvin cycle. Compare and contrast cellular respiration and fermentation. Explain how cells obtain energy from cellular respiration. Topic/Content Skills Assessment Resources Instructional Method Tech Infusion NJCCCS: Unit Chapter 6: The Chemistry of Life Tests/Quizzes Text Lecture Internet Research 5.3 A, B, C, D Elements Term Paper Lab Material Discussion Laserdisc 5.5 A Atoms: The Building Blocks of Lab Activity LaserDisc Small Group Work Powerpoint 5.6 A, B Elements Homework IBooks Individual Research IBooks/Probes Isotopes of an Element Participation Media Center Lab Work VCR Compounds and Bonding Lab Supplies SmartBoard Chemical Reactions DVDs Mixtures and Solutions Water and Its Importance Diffusion Role of Carbon Organisms Chapter 7: A View of the Cell The History of the Cell Theory Two Basic Cell Types Maintaining a Balance Structures of a Plasma Membrane Cellular Boundaries Assembly, Transport, and Storage Energy Transformers Structures for Support and Locomotion

8 Chapter 8: Cellular Transport and the Cell Cycle Osmosis: Diffusion of Water Passive Transport Active Transport Cell Size Limitations Cell Reproduction The Cell Cycle Interphase: A Busy Time The Phases of Mitosis Normal Control of the Cell Cycle Cancer: A Mistake in the Cell Cycle Chapter 9: Energy in a Cell Cell Energy Forming and Breaking Down of ATP Uses of Cell Energy Trapping Energy from Sunlight Light-Dependent Reactions Light-Independent Reactions Cellular Respiration Fermentation Comparing Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration

9 Unit 4: Genetics Essential Questions: What is genetics and how does it play a role in determining the traits of organisms? Objectives Students will be able to: Analyze the results obtained by Gregor Mendel in his experiments with garden peas. Predict the possible offspring of a genetic cross by using a Punnett square. Analyze how meiosis maintains a constant number of chromosomes within a species. Infer how meiosis leads to a variation in a species. Relate Mendel s law of heredity to the events of meiosis. Analyze the structure of DNA. Determine how the structure of DNA enables it to reproduce itself accurately. Relate the concept of the gene to the sequences of nucleotides in DNA. Sequence the steps involved in protein synthesis. Categorize the different kinds of mutations that can occur in DNA. Compare the effects of different kinds of mutations on cells and organisms. Interpret a pedigree Determine human genetic disorders that are caused by inheritance of recessive alleles. Predict how a human disorder can be determined by a simple dominant allele. Distinguish between incompletely dominant and codominant alleles. Compare multiple allelic and polygenic inheritance. Analyze the pattern of sex-linked inheritance. Summarize how internal and external environments affect gene expression. Compare codominance, multiple allelic, sex-linked, and polygenic patterns of inheritance in humans. Distinguish among conditions in which extra autosomal or sex chromosomes exist. Predict the outcome of a test cross. Evaluate the importance of plant and animal breeding to humans. Summarize the steps used to engineer transgenic organisms. Give examples of applications and benefits of genetic engineering. Analyze how the effort to completely map and sequence the human genome will advance human knowledge. Predict future applications of the Human Genome Project.

10 Topic/Content Skills Assessment Resources Instructional Method Tech Infusion NJCCCS: Unit Chapter 10: Mendel and Meiosis Tests/Quizzes Text Lecture Internet Research 5.1 A, B, C Why Mendel Succeeded Term Paper Lab Material Discussion Laserdisc 5.2 A, B Mendel s Monohybrid Crosses Lab Activity LaserDisc Small Group Work Powerpoint 5.5 A, B, C Phenotypes and Genotypes Homework IBooks Individual Research IBooks/Probes 5.6 A, B Mendel s Dihybrid Crosses Participation Media Center Lab Work VCR Punnett Squares Lab Supplies SmartBoard Probability DVDs Genes, Chromosomes, and Numbers The Phases of Meiosis Meiosis Provides for Genetic Variation Mistakes in Meiosis Chapter 11: DNA: The Molecule of Heredity What is DNA? Replication of DNA Genes and Proteins RNA Transcription The Genetic Code Translation: From mrna to Protein Mutation: A Change in DNA Chromosomal Mutations Causes of Mutations

11 Chapter 12: Patterns of Heredity and Human Genetics Making a Pedigree Simple Recessive Heredity Simple Dominant Heredity Complex Patterns of Inheritance Environmental Influences Codominance in Humans Multiple Alleles in Humans Sex-Linked Traits in Humans Polygenic Inheritance in Humans Changes in Chromosome Numbers Chapter 13: Genetic Technology Selective Breeding Determining Genotypes Genetic Engineering Applications of DNA Technology Mapping and Sequencing the Human Genome Applications of the Human Genome Project

12 Unit 5: Change Through Time Essential Question: What are the principles of evolution and classification and how do they play a role with the other concepts of Biology. Objectives Students will be able to: Identify the different types of fossils and how they are formed. Summarize the major events of the Geologic Time Scale. Analyze early experiments that support the concept of biogenesis. Compare and contrast modern theories of the origin of life. Relate hypotheses about the origin of cells to the environmental conditions of early Earth. Summarize Darwin s theory of natural selection. Explain how the structural and physiological adaptations of organisms relate to natural selection. Distinguish among the types of evidence for evolution. Summarize the effects of the different types of natural selection on gene pools. Relate changes in genetic equilibrium to mechanisms of speciation. Explain the role of natural selection in convergent and divergent evolution. Evaluate the history, purpose, and methods of taxonomy. Explain the meaning of a scientific name. Describe the organization of taxa a biological classification system. Describe how evolutionary relationships are determined. Explain how cladistics reveals phylogenetic relationships. Compare the six kingdoms of organisms.

13 Topic/Content Skills Assessment Resources Instructional Method Tech Infusion NJCCCS: Unit Chapter 14: The History of Life Tests/Quizzes Text Lecture Internet Research 5.1 A, B, C Early History of Earth Term Paper Lab Material Discussion Laserdisc 5.2 A, B History of Rocks Lab Activity LaserDisc Small Group Work Powerpoint D The Age of a Fossil Homework IBooks Individual Research IBooks/Probes A A Trip Through Geologic Time Participation Media Center Lab Work VCR 5.5 A, B, C Origins: The Early Ideas Lab Supplies SmartBoard Origins: The Modern Ideas DVDs The Evolution of Cells Chapter 15: The Theory of Evolution Charles Darwin and Natural Selection Adaptations: Evidence for Evolution Other Evidence for Evolution Population Genetics and Evolution The Evolution of Species Pattern of Evolution Chapter 17: Classification How Classification Began Biological Classification How Living Things are Classified How are Evolutionary Relationships Determined? Phylogenetic Classification: Models The Six Kingdoms of Organisms

14 Unit 10: The Human Body Essential Question: What are the organs and systems of the human body and how do they interact with one another? Objectives Students will be able to: Compare the makeup and functions of the dermis and epidermis. Recognize the role of the skin in responding to external stimuli. Outline the healing process that takes place when the skin is injured. Identify the structure and functions of the skeleton. Compare the different types of movable joints. Recognize how bone is formed. Classify the three types of muscles. Analyze the structure of a myofibril. Interpret the sliding filament theory. Recognize the different functions of the organs of a digestive system. Outline the pathway food allows through the digestive tract. Interpret the role of enzymes in chemical digestion. Summarize the contribution of the six classes of nutrients to body nutrition. Identify the role of the liver in food storage. Relate caloric intake to weight loss or gain. Identify the functions of some of the hormones secreted by endocrine glands. Summarize the negative feedback mechanism controlling hormone levels in the body. Contrast the actions of steroid and amino acid hormones. Analyze how nerve impulses travel within the nervous system. Recognize the functions of the major parts of the nervous system. Compare voluntary responses and involuntary responses. Define the role of the senses in the human nervous system. Recognize how senses detect chemical, light, and mechanical stimulation. Identify ways in which the senses work together to gather information. Recognize the medicinal uses of drugs. Identify the different classes of drugs. Interpret the effect of drug misuse and abuse on the body. List the structures involved in external respiration. Explain the mechanics of breathing. Contrast external and cellular respiration. Distinguish among the various components of blood and among blood groups. Trace the route blood takes through the body and heart. Explain how heart rate is controlled.

15 Describe the structures and functions of the urinary systems. Explain the kidneys role in maintaining homeostasis. Topic/Content Skills Assessment Resources Instructional Method Tech Infusion NJCCCS: Unit Chapter 34: Protection, Support, and Tests/Quizzes Text Lecture Internet Research 5.1 A, B, C Locomotion Term Paper Lab Material Discussion Laserdisc 5.5 A, B, C Structure and Function of the Lab Activity LaserDisc Small Group Work Powerpoint Skin Homework IBooks Individual Research IBooks/Probes Skin Injury and Healing Participation Media Center Lab Work VCR Skeletal System Structure Lab Supplies SmartBoard Formation of Bone DVDs Skeletal System Functions Three Types of Muscles Skeletal Muscle Contraction Muscle Strength and Exercise Chapter 35: The Digestive and Endocrine Systems Functions of the Digestive System The Mouth The Stomach The Small Intestine The Large Intestine The Vital Nutrients Calories and Metabolism Control of the Body Negative Feedback Control Hormone Action Adrenal Hormones and Stress Thyroid and Parathyroid Hormones

16 Chapter 36: The Nervous System Neurons: Basic Units of the Nervous System The Central Nervous System The Peripheral Nervous System Sensing Chemicals Sensing Light Sensing Mechanical Stimulation Drugs Act on the Body Medicinal Uses of Drugs The Misuse and Abuse of Drugs Classes of Commonly Abused Drugs Breaking the Habit Chapter 37: The Respiratory System Passageways and Lungs The Mechanics of Breathing Control of Respiration Your Blood: Fluid Transport ABO Blood Groups Your Blood Vessels: Pathways of Circulation The Heart: The Vital Pump Kidneys: The Body s Janitors The Urinary System and Homeostasis

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