Cells & Cell Organelles

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1 Cells & Cell Organelles The Building Blocks of Life H Biology

2 Types of cells bacteria cells Prokaryote - no organelles Eukaryotes - organelles animal cells plant cells

3 Cell size comparison Animal cell Bacterial cell most bacteria 1-10 microns eukaryotic cells microns micron = micrometer = 1/1,000,000 meter diameter of human hair = ~20 microns

4 Why study cells? Cells Tissues Organs Bodies bodies are made up of cells cells do all the work of life!

5 The Work of Life What jobs do cells have to do for an organism to live breathe gas exchange: CO 2 vs. O 2 eat take in & digest food make energy ATP build molecules proteins, carbohydrates, fats, nucleic acids remove wastes control internal conditions respond to external environment build more cells ATP growth, repair, reproduction & development

6 Organelles Organelles do the work of cells each structure has a job to do keeps the cell alive; keeps you alive Model Animal Cell

7 Cells need power! Making energy to fuel daily life & growth, the cell must take in food & digest it take in oxygen (O 2 ) ATP make ATP remove waste organelles that do this work cell membrane lysosomes vacuoles & vesicles mitochondria

8 Cell membrane Function separates cell from outside controls what enters or leaves cell O 2,CO 2, food, H 2 O, nutrients, waste recognizes signals from other cells allows communication between cells Structure double layer of fat phospholipid bilayer receptor molecules proteins phosphate head lipid tail

9 cytoplasm jelly-like material holding organelles in place cell membrane cell boundary controls movement of materials in & out recognizes signals

10 Vacuoles & vesicles small food particle Function moving material around cell storage Structure membrane sac vacuole digesting food inside cell

11 Food & water storage plant cells central vacuole food vacuoles animal cells contractile vacuole

12 cytoplasm jelly-like material holding organelles in place vacuole & vesicles transport inside cells storage cell membrane cell boundary controls movement of materials in & out recognizes signals

13 Lysosomes small food particle vacuole lysosomes Function digest food clean up & recycle digest broken organelles Structure membrane sac of digestive enzymes digesting broken organelles digesting food

14 cytoplasm jelly-like material holding organelles in place vacuole & vesicles transport inside cells storage lysosome food digestion garbage disposal & recycling cell membrane cell boundary controls movement of materials in & out recognizes signals

15 Mitochondria Function make ATP energy from cellular respiration sugar + O 2 ATP fuels the work of life Structure double membrane ATP in both animal & plant cells

16 cytoplasm jelly-like material holding organelles in place vacuole & vesicles transport inside cells storage lysosome food digestion garbage disposal & recycling mitochondria make ATP energy from sugar + O 2 cell membrane cell boundary controls movement of materials in & out recognizes signals

17 Plants make energy two ways! Mitochondria ATP make energy from sugar + O 2 cellular respiration sugar + O 2 ATP Chloroplasts make energy + sugar from sunlight photosynthesis sunlight + CO 2 ATP & sugar ATP = active energy sugar = stored energy build leaves & roots & fruit out of the sugars sugar ATP

18 Mitochondria are in both cells!! animal cells plant cells mitochondria chloroplast

19 cytoplasm central vacuole storage: food, water or waste mitochondria make ATP in cellular respiration cell membrane cell boundary controls movement of materials in & out recognizes signals lysosome digestion & clean up cell wall support chloroplast make ATP & sugars in photosynthesis

20 Cells need workers (proteins)! Making proteins to run daily life & growth, the cell must read genes (DNA) build proteins structural proteins (muscle fibers, hair, skin, claws) enzymes (speed up chemical reactions) signals (hormones) & receptors organelles that do this work nucleus ribosomes endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Golgi apparatus

21 Proteins do all the work! one of the major job of cells is to make proteins, because proteins do all the work! structure enzymes signals receptors DNA proteins cells

22 Nucleus Function control center of cell protects DNA instructions for building proteins Structure nuclear membrane nucleolus ribosome factory chromosomes DNA

23 cytoplasm jelly-like material holding organelles in place vacuole & vesicles transport inside cells storage lysosome food digestion garbage disposal & recycling nucleus protects DNA controls cell chromosomes DNA mitochondria make ATP energy from sugar + O 2 cell membrane cell boundary controls movement of materials in & out recognizes signals

24 Ribosomes Function protein factories read instructions to build proteins from DNA Structure 2 subunits some free in cytoplasm some attached to ER Ribosomes on ER large subunit small subunit

25 cytoplasm jelly-like material holding organelles in place vacuole & vesicles transport inside cells storage lysosome food digestion garbage disposal & recycling nucleus protects DNA controls cell mitochondria make ATP energy from sugar + O 2 cell membrane cell boundary controls movement of materials in & out recognizes signals ribosomes builds proteins

26 Endoplasmic Reticulum Function part of protein factory helps complete the proteins makes membranes Structure rough ER ribosomes attached works on proteins smooth ER makes membranes

27 cytoplasm jelly-like material holding organelles in place vacuole & vesicles transport inside cells storage lysosome food digestion garbage disposal & recycling nucleus protects DNA controls cell mitochondria make ATP energy from sugar + O 2 cell membrane cell boundary controls movement of materials in & out recognizes signals ER helps finish proteins makes membranes ribosomes builds proteins

28 Golgi Apparatus Function finishes, sorts, labels & ships proteins like UPS headquarters shipping & receiving department ships proteins in vesicles UPS trucks Structure membrane sacs vesicles carrying proteins transport vesicles

29 cytoplasm jelly-like material holding organelles in place vacuole & vesicles transport inside cells storage lysosome food digestion garbage disposal & recycling nucleus protects DNA controls cell mitochondria make ATP energy from sugar + O 2 cell membrane cell boundary controls movement of materials in & out recognizes signals ER helps finish proteins makes membranes ribosomes builds proteins Golgi apparatus finishes, packages & ships proteins

30 nucleus DNA endoplasmic reticulum protein on its way! TO: RNA vesicle TO: ribosomes TO: vesicle Making Proteins protein Golgi apparatus TO: finished protein

31 nucleus control cell protects DNA cytoplasm endoplasmic reticulum processes proteins makes membranes ribosomes make proteins Golgi apparatus finish & ship proteins mitochondria make ATP in cellular respiration cell membrane cell boundary controls movement of materials in & out recognizes signals lysosome digestion & clean up central vacuole storage: food, water or waste cell wall support chloroplast make ATP & sugars in photosynthesis

32 Cells need to make more cells! Making more cells to replace, repair & grow, the cell must copy their DNA make extra organelles divide the new DNA & new organelles between 2 new daughter cells organelles that do this work nucleus centrioles

33 Centrioles Function help coordinate cell division Structure one pair in each cell motor proteins

34 cytoplasm jelly-like material holding organelles in place vacuole & vesicles transport inside cells storage lysosome food digestion garbage disposal & recycling nucleus protects DNA controls cell centrioles cell division mitochondria make ATP energy from sugar + O 2 cell membrane cell boundary controls movement of materials in & out recognizes signals ER helps finish proteins makes membranes ribosomes builds proteins Golgi apparatus finishes, packages & ships proteins

35 Cell Summary Cells have 3 main jobs make energy need food + O 2 cellular respiration & photosynthesis need to remove wastes make proteins need instructions from DNA need to chain together amino acids & finish & ship the protein make more cells need to copy DNA & divide it up Our organelles do all those jobs!

36 That s my cellular story Any Questions? H Biology

37 H Biology EXTRA SLIDES

38 Nucleus

39 nucleus nuclear pore cell membrane Making proteins protein secreted rough ER ribosome vesicle proteins smooth ER transport vesicle cytoplasm Golgi apparatus

40 Lysosomes white blood cells attack & eat invading germs = digest them in lysosomes

41 When things go bad Diseases of lysosomes are fatal digestive enzyme not working in lysosome picks up food, but can t digest it lysosomes fill up with undigested material grow larger & larger until disrupts cell & organ function example: Tay-Sachs disease build up undigested fat in brain cells

42 But sometimes cells need to die Lysosomes can be used to kill cells when they are supposed to be destroyed some cells have to die for proper development in an organism ex: tadpole tail gets re-absorbed when it turns into a frog ex: getting rid of webbing between your fingers during fetal development auto-destruct process lysosomes break open and kill cell cell suicide

43 Fetal development 6 weeks syndactyly 15 weeks

44 Chloroplasts sun energy ATP & sugars photosynthesis carbon dioxide ATP + water + energy glucose + oxygen 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + light C 6 H 12 O 6 6O energy + 2

45 Compare the equations Photosynthesis carbon dioxide + water + energy glucose + oxygen 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + light C 6 H 12 O 6 6O energy + 2 Respiration glucose + oxygen carbon + water + energy dioxide C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + ATP

46 The Great ENERGY Circle of Life sun Photosynthesis plants CO 2 + H 2 O + O 2 glucose sugar Respiration animals & plants ATP

47 Types of Endoplasmic Reticulum rough ER ribosomes attached works on proteins smooth ER makes membranes

48 Growth & Reproduction We ll learn about this in a later unit!

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