1 Mutation and Genetic Change

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "1 Mutation and Genetic Change"

Transcription

1 CHAPTER 14 1 Mutation and Genetic Change SECTION Genes in Action KEY IDEAS As you read this section, keep these questions in mind: What is the origin of genetic differences among organisms? What kinds of mutations are possible? What are the possible effects of mutations? How can genetic change occur on a larger scale? What Are Mutations? In genetics, a mutation is a change in the structure or amount of genetic material in an organism. Most genetic differences between organisms began with a mutation. Most mutations occur when DNA or chromosomes are damaged. Mutagens, such as radiation and some chemicals, can make mutations more likely. What Kinds of Mutation Are Possible? There are three main ways that DNA can change. In a point mutation, a single nucleotide in a DNA molecule changes. In an insertion mutation, extra nucleotides are added to a DNA molecule. In a deletion mutation, nucleotides are removed from a DNA molecule. READING TOOLBOX Summarize After you read this section, write a short summary of the information in each figure. If you have trouble, work with a partner or a small group. READING CHECK 1. Define What is a mutagen? EFFECTS OF POINT MUTATIONS No mutation Silent mutation Original DNA strand A T G C C A T C G Point mutation A T G C C T T C G Original reading frame Same reading frame Original amino acids Point mutation Same reading frame Different amino acids Met Pro Ser Missense mutation Met Gln Ser Same amino acids Met Pro Ser A point mutation is a silent mutation if it does not affect the sequence of amino acids the gene codes for. A T G C A A T C G 2. Describe A gene has a nonsense mutation. Will the protein it produces be longer, shorter, or the same length as the protein produced by the normal gene? (Hint: What does a stop codon do?) A point mutation is a missense mutation if it changes one of the amino acids in the sequence. A point mutation is a nonsense mutation if it changes a codon to a stop codon. Interactive Reader 145 Genes in Action

2 SECTION 1 Mutation and Genetic Change continued EFFECTS OF INSERTIONS AND DELETIONS 3. Apply Concepts Suppose three nucleotides are inserted into a gene. Will this insertion mutation cause a frameshift mutation? Explain your answer. Original DNA strand A Original reading frame Original amino acids Met No mutation T G C C A T C G Pro Ser Remember that the genetic code is read in words of three letters each (codons). Insertions or deletions can change the reading frame by changing the groupings of nucleotides that are read during translation. Insertion mutation Different reading frame Different amino acids Frameshift mutation A T G G C C A T C G Met Ala Ile This insertion mutation has caused a frameshift mutation. It has changed the reading frame of the DNA sequence. As a result, the DNA codes for a different set of amino acids. What Are Chromosomal Mutations? In some cases, mutations can affect an entire chromosome. Most of these chromosomal mutations occur during crossing-over in meiosis. A B C D E Original chromosome Gene 4. Compare How is a chromosomal duplication different from a chromosomal translocation? A B D E In a chromosomal deletion, a piece of a chromosome is lost. A B A B C D E In a chromosomal duplication, a piece of a chromosome remains attached to its homologous chromosome after meiosis. The chromosome then carries both alleles for all the genes on that piece. A B D C E In a chromosomal inversion, a piece of a chromosome reattaches to its original chromosome, but in the opposite direction. A B I C D E In a chromosomal translocation, a piece of a chromosome ends up on a completely different, nonhomologous chromosome. What Are the Effects of Genetic Change? Some mutations are harmful to an organism. Some mutations are helpful. However, most mutations are neither harmful nor helpful. Not all mutations can be passed on to offspring. Only mutations in germ cells can be passed on to offspring. The table on the next page gives some examples of human diseases that are caused by inherited mutations. Interactive Reader 146 Genes in Action

3 SECTION 1 Mutation and Genetic Change continued Disorder Dominant or recessive? Effect of mutant allele Sickle cell anemia recessive The protein that carries oxygen in the blood is defective. Tay-Sachs disease recessive in most cases An enzyme in nerve cells is defective. Cystic fibrosis recessive An enzyme in cells that secrete proteins is defective. Hemophilia A recessive (sex-linked) A protein that helps blood clot is defective. Physical symptoms poor blood circulation; organ damage nervous system damage; early death mucus buildup in certain organs; shortened life span lack of formation of blood clots; can cause severe bleeding from minor injuries 5. Identify Give two examples of recessive genetic disorders and one example of a dominant genetic disorder. Huntington disease dominant A protein in brain cells is abnormal. brain damage; shortened life span CANCER-CAUSING MUTATIONS Mutations in somatic cells may change the cells functions. Mutations in genes that control the normal growth or division of cells can cause cancer. This occurs when mutations cause normal somatic cells to start growing and dividing abnormally. What Is Large-Scale Genetic Change? Large-scale genetic change can occur when entire chromosomes or sets of chromosomes are copied or sorted incorrectly during meiosis. Normally, during meiosis, pairs of chromosomes separate in a process called disjunction. As a result, each gamete contains one copy of each chromosome. During nondisjunction, a pair of chromosomes does not separate properly. As a result, a gamete can have more than one copy of a chromosome. If the gamete fertilizes another gamete, the resulting zygote will have an extra chromosome. Another kind of large-scale genetic change happens through nondisjunction of all chromosomes. This produces a cell with multiple sets of chromosomes. This condition of polyploidy is common in plants. READING CHECK 6. Define What is nondisjunction? Interactive Reader 147 Genes in Action

4 Section 1 Review SECTION VOCABULARY mutation a change in the structure or amount of the genetic material of an organism nondisjunction the failure of homologous chromosomes to separate during meiosis I or the failure of sister chromatids to separate during mitosis or meiosis II polyploidy an abnormal condition of having more than two sets of chromosomes 1. Describe How are nondisjunction and polyploidy related? 2. Identify What is the origin of almost all genetic differences between organisms? 3. Describe Explain the difference between point mutations, insertion mutations, and deletion mutations. 4. Compare How is a missense mutation different from a nonsense mutation? How are they similar? 5. Apply Concepts Skin cancer can occur if the DNA in skin cells is mutated by ultraviolet radiation in sunlight. Can the mutation that causes skin cancer be passed on to offspring? Explain your answer. 6. List Describe three types of chromosomal mutations. Interactive Reader 148 Genes in Action

5 CHAPTER 14 SECTION 2 KEY IDEAS Genes in Action Regulating Gene Expression As you read this section, keep these questions in mind: Can the process of gene expression be controlled? What is a common form of gene regulation in prokaryotes? How does gene regulation in eukaryotes differ from gene regulation in prokaryotes? Why are proteins so important and versatile? What Is Gene Regulation? Every somatic cell in your body has the same chromosomes and, therefore, the same genes. However, your somatic cells are not all the same because not all genes are expressed in all cells all the time. Cells have complex systems that regulate, or determine, which genes are expressed in a given cell at a given time. The particular genes that are expressed in a cell determine the proteins that the cell produces. This affects the cell s structure and function. READING TOOLBOX Define As you read this section, underline words you don t understand. When you figure out what they mean, write the words and their definitions in your notebook. How Are Genes Regulated in Prokaryotes? Most gene regulation in prokaryotes depends on operons. An example of such regulation is shown below. An Example of Gene Regulation in Prokaryotes: The lac Operon A gene called a repressor gene codes for a repressor protein. The repressor protein can bind to either the operator site of the DNA or to lactose. When there is no lactose around, the repressor protein binds to the operator site of the DNA. This prevents transcription of the DNA. An operon is a group of genes with related functions and the regions of DNA that regulate them. These genes code for proteins that help break down lactose. 1. Define What is an operon? 2. Infer Would the lac operon work if the repressor protein could not bind to lactose? Explain your answer. When lactose is present, the repressor protein binds to the lactose. It leaves the operator site of the DNA. When the repressor protein leaves the operator site, the genes can be transcribed. The proteins that break down lactose are produced. Interactive Reader 149 Genes in Action

6 SECTION 2 Regulating Gene Expression continued Background Recall that transcription is the process in which the information in a gene is translated into an mrna molecule. Translation is the process in which the information in an mrna molecule is converted into a polypeptide. READING CHECK 3. Define What is a transcription factor? How Are Genes Regulated in Eukaryotes? There are several differences between gene regulation in prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells: More proteins are involved in gene regulation in eukaryotic cells than in prokaryotic cells. Transcription and translation in eukaryotic cells can be regulated separately, because they are separated by the nuclear membrane. Operons are very rare in eukaryotic cells. Much of the DNA in a eukaryotic cell will never be transcribed or translated into proteins. Gene regulation in eukaryotic cells can happen before transcription, after transcription, or after translation. GENE REGULATION BEFORE TRANSCRIPTION Most gene regulation in eukaryotes happens before transcription. The proteins that are involved in this kind of regulation are called transcription factors. The figure below shows an example of gene regulation by transcription factors. An Example of Gene Regulation in Eukaryotes This transcription factor is an activator. It can bind both to an enhancer site on the DNA and to an RNA polymerase. This RNA polymerase can bind to the promoter site on the DNA. This transcription factor can bind to the RNA polymerase and to the coding region of the gene. It helps to make sure the RNA polymerase binds to the correct region of the gene. 4. Describe In the figure, what allows transcription to begin? When the activator binds to both the enhancer site and the RNA polymerase, transcription can begin. Many of the genes in eukaryotes contain introns. Introns are segments of the genetic code that will not be translated into amino acids. Portions of the gene that will be translated into amino acids are called exons. Interactive Reader 150 Genes in Action

7 SECTION 2 Regulating Gene Expression continued GENE REGULATION AFTER TRANSCRIPTION The mrna that forms during transcription contains both introns and exons. During a process called RNA splicing, the introns are removed from the mrna strand. The remaining exons are spliced, or joined, together to form the mrna strand that will be translated into a protein. 5. Explain Why is RNA splicing necessary? RNA Splicing Exon Transcription Intron mrna Introns removed and exons spliced together mrna leaves nucleus Translation mrna 6. Describe Where does RNA splicing occur? GENE REGULATION AFTER TRANSLATION Proteins do not always go straight into action after they are formed. Some undergo chemical changes that alter their shape, stability, and reactions with other molecules. During the process of protein sorting, specific proteins are directed to places in the cell where they are needed. What Roles Do Proteins Have in Cells? A protein s sequence of amino acids determines its structure. The structure, in turn, determines the protein s function. Parts of a protein that have specific chemical structures and functions are called domains. Proteins play key roles in gene expression. Some help to make mrna, trna, and rrna. Others serve as regulatory proteins, such as transcription factors. Proteins are also important in other ways. They help to control the shape and activity of a cell. In fact, proteins do most of the work that keeps a cell functioning. Because proteins have so many different functions, they have a huge variety of structures. READING CHECK 7. Define What is protein sorting? Interactive Reader 151 Genes in Action

8 Section 2 Review SECTION VOCABULARY domain in a protein, a functional unit that has a distinctive pattern of structural folding exon one of several nonadjacent nucleotide sequences that are part of one gene and that are transcribed, joined together, and then translated intron a nucleotide sequence that is part of a gene and that is transcribed from DNA into mrna but not translated into amino acids operon a unit of adjacent genes that consists of functionally related structural genes and their associated regulatory genes; common in prokaryotes and phages transcription factor an enzyme that is needed to begin and/or continue genetic transcription 1. Compare What is the difference between an intron and an exon? 2. Identify What controls most gene regulation in prokaryotes? 3. List Give three differences between gene regulation in eukaryotes and gene regulation in prokaryotes. 4. Identify Fill in the blank spaces in the table to describe ways that genes are regulated in eukaryotic cells. When regulation occurs Example and description transcription factors determine when a gene is transcribed After transcription, but before translation After translation 5. Describe Give two ways that proteins are important to cells. Interactive Reader 152 Genes in Action

9 CHAPTER 14 3 Genome Interactions SECTION Genes in Action KEY IDEAS As you read this section, keep these questions in mind: What can we learn by comparing genomes? Can genetic material be stored and transferred by mechanisms other than chromosomes? What are the roles of genes in the development of multicellular organisms? What Can We Learn from Genomes? Remember that a genome is all the DNA that an organism or species has in one set of its chromosomes. Genomes can vary in size from about 400 genes in some microbes to more than 100,000 genes in some plants. Human genomes contain about 30,000 genes. By comparing the genomes of different organisms, scientists can learn how different species are related to one another. For example, scientists have learned that humans have about 81% of our genes in common with dogs, but only about 16% in common with slime molds. This indicates that humans and dogs are more closely related than humans and slime molds. Is All DNA Found in Chromosomes? Not all DNA in a cell is part of a gene, or even part of a chromosome. For example, mitochondria and chloroplasts contain DNA. Mobile genetic elements (MGEs) are units of DNA or RNA that can move among locations in a genome. They exist outside chromosomes. MGEs can transfer genetic material between individuals and species. The table below describes some examples of MGEs. Type of MGE Plasmid Transposon Virus Description small, circular piece of DNA; can be transferred between bacterial cells set of genes that move randomly between chromosomes; also called jumping genes small, nonliving particle consisting of DNA or RNA inside a protein coating READING TOOLBOX Summarize As you read this section, underline the main ideas. When you finish reading, write an outline of the section using the underlined ideas. Describe Which species do you think humans share the most genes with? Which species do you think we share the fewest genes with? Talk about your ideas with a small group. Then, use the resources in your library or on the World Wide Web to find out if you are correct. 1. Compare What is the difference between a plasmid and a transposon? Interactive Reader 153 Genes in Action

10 SECTION 3 Genome Interactions continued READING CHECK 2. Describe What produces the different structures and functions of different cells in multicellular eukaryotes? How Do Genes Affect Growth and Aging? In multicellular eukaryotes, different cells in different parts of the body have different functions. As the organism develops from a zygote, different genes are expressed in different cells. The genes that are expressed in a cell affect the structure and function of the cell. During the process of cell differentiation, new cells are modified and specialized as they multiply to form an organism. Homeotic genes regulate cell differentiation. Mutations in these genes can cause physical deformities. Genetic regulation of development is similar in all animals. For example, a set of homeotic genes called hox occurs in all animals with a head and a tail end. 3. Describe What do hox genes control? Hox genes are found in most animals that have a head and a tail end. These genes control the locations at which different body parts develop. Mutations in hox genes can cause physical deformities, such as a leg developing in place of an antenna. In multicellular organisms, two kinds of proteins regulate the cell cycle: CDK and cyclin. Without one or both of these proteins, cells may develop too slowly or too quickly. For example, errors in CDK or cyclin proteins can cause cancer. Most cells in multicellular organisms are genetically programmed to stop functioning and fall apart if they are damaged or get too old. This process of programmed cell death is called apoptosis. Interactive Reader 154 Genes in Action

11 Section 3 Review SECTION VOCABULARY apoptosis in multicellular organisms, a genetically controlled process that leads to the death of a cell; programmed cell death cell differentiation the process by which a cell becomes specialized for a specific structure or function during multicellular development genome the complete genetic material contained in an individual or species plasmid a genetic structure that can replicate independently of the main chromosome(s) of a cell; usually, a circular DNA molecule in bacteria (prokaryotes) transposon a genetic sequence that is randomly moved, in a functional unit, to new places in a genome 1. Compare What is the difference between a genome and a gene? 2. Infer A scientist is studying three different species. The scientist concludes that species A is more closely related to species B than to species C. How might the scientist have come to this conclusion? 3. Identify Give three examples of MGEs. 4. Describe What can happen to an organism if its hox genes are mutated? 5. Apply Concepts Most cells undergo apoptosis if their DNA is damaged. How can this be beneficial to an organism? 6. Identify Give two groups of proteins that help to regulate the cell cycle. Interactive Reader 155 Genes in Action

Gene expression is regulated by the cell, and mutations can affect this expression.

Gene expression is regulated by the cell, and mutations can affect this expression. Section 4: Gene expression is regulated by the cell, and mutations can affect this expression. K What I Know W What I Want to Find Out L What I Learned Vocabulary Review prokaryote New gene regulation

More information

Section 12 3 RNA and Protein Synthesis

Section 12 3 RNA and Protein Synthesis Name Class Date Section 12 3 RNA and Protein Synthesis (pages 300 306) Key Concepts What are the three main types of RNA? What is transcription? What is translation? The Structure of RNA (page 300) 1.

More information

Genetics fill in review

Genetics fill in review Genetics fill in review Completion Complete each sentence or statement. 1. A reproductive process in which fertilization occurs within a single plant is 2. The transferring of pollen between plants is

More information

Ch. 12: DNA and RNA 12.1 DNA Chromosomes and DNA Replication

Ch. 12: DNA and RNA 12.1 DNA Chromosomes and DNA Replication Ch. 12: DNA and RNA 12.1 DNA A. To understand genetics, biologists had to learn the chemical makeup of the gene Genes are made of DNA DNA stores and transmits the genetic information from one generation

More information

Name Class Date. Figure 13 1. 2. Which nucleotide in Figure 13 1 indicates the nucleic acid above is RNA? a. uracil c. cytosine b. guanine d.

Name Class Date. Figure 13 1. 2. Which nucleotide in Figure 13 1 indicates the nucleic acid above is RNA? a. uracil c. cytosine b. guanine d. 13 Multiple Choice RNA and Protein Synthesis Chapter Test A Write the letter that best answers the question or completes the statement on the line provided. 1. Which of the following are found in both

More information

PROTEIN SYNTHESIS TRANSCRIPTION AND TRANSLATION

PROTEIN SYNTHESIS TRANSCRIPTION AND TRANSLATION PROTEIN SYNTHESIS TRANSCRIPTION AND TRANSLATION DNA is the molecule that stores the genetic information in your cells. That information is coded in the four bases of DNA: C (cytosine), G (guanine), A (adenine),

More information

Summary 12 1 DNA RNA and Protein Synthesis Chromosomes and DNA Replication. Name Class Date

Summary 12 1 DNA RNA and Protein Synthesis Chromosomes and DNA Replication. Name Class Date Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Name Class Date Chapter 12 Summary DNA and RNA 12 1 DNA To understand genetics, biologists had to learn the chemical structure of the gene. Frederick Griffith

More information

Eukaryotic Gene Expression Practice Problems

Eukaryotic Gene Expression Practice Problems Eukaryotic Gene Expression Practice Problems 1. Explain the central dogma of cell biology. 2. What is gene expression? 3. Transcription is the process of copying a sequence of DNA into a complementary

More information

Name AP Biology RNA polymerase enzyme TATA box promoter sequence not DNA mrna primary transcript intron exon GTP cap poly-a tail START STOP

Name AP Biology RNA polymerase enzyme TATA box promoter sequence not DNA mrna primary transcript intron exon GTP cap poly-a tail START STOP Period Date LAB : PROTEIN SYNTHESIS TRANSCRIPTION AND TRANSLATION DNA is the molecule that stores the genetic information in your cells. That information is coded in the four bases of DNA: C (cytosine),

More information

LAB : PROTEIN SYNTHESIS TRANSCRIPTION AND TRANSLATION

LAB : PROTEIN SYNTHESIS TRANSCRIPTION AND TRANSLATION Period Date LAB : PROTEIN SYNTHESIS TRANSCRIPTION AND TRANSLATION DNA is the molecule that stores the genetic information in your cells. That information is coded in the four bases of DNA: C (cytosine),

More information

Name Class Date. KEY CONCEPT DNA was identified as the genetic material through a series of experiments.

Name Class Date. KEY CONCEPT DNA was identified as the genetic material through a series of experiments. Section 1: Identifying DNA as the Genetic Material KEY CONCEPT DNA was identified as the genetic material through a series of experiments. VOCABULARY bacteriophage MAIN IDEA: Griffith finds a transforming

More information

12.2 The Structure of DNA

12.2 The Structure of DNA Name Class Date 12.2 The Structure of DNA The Components of DNA For Questions 1 5, complete each statement by writing in the correct word or words. 1. The building blocks of DNA are. 2. Nucleotides in

More information

Genetics Module B, Anchor 3

Genetics Module B, Anchor 3 Genetics Module B, Anchor 3 Key Concepts: - An individual s characteristics are determines by factors that are passed from one parental generation to the next. - During gamete formation, the alleles for

More information

BioBoot Camp Genetics

BioBoot Camp Genetics BioBoot Camp Genetics BIO.B.1.2.1 Describe how the process of DNA replication results in the transmission and/or conservation of genetic information DNA Replication is the process of DNA being copied before

More information

DNA, RNA & Protein. Chapters 12 & 13

DNA, RNA & Protein. Chapters 12 & 13 DNA, RNA & Protein Synthesis Chapters 12 & 13 The Structure of DNA A little History Year Scientist(s) Discovery 1928 Frederick Griffith Bacteria transfer genetic material from cell to cell. 1944 Oswald

More information

BIO10 ch DNA Replication & Protein Synthesis 76. Chapter DNA Replication & Protein Synthesis

BIO10 ch DNA Replication & Protein Synthesis 76. Chapter DNA Replication & Protein Synthesis BIO10 ch11 12DNAReplication&ProteinSynthesis 76 Chapter 11-12 DNA Replication & Protein Synthesis Questions you should be able to answer after this lecture. 1. WHAT IS DNA? 2. Where in cell cycle does

More information

Chapter 13: RNA & Protein Synthesis. Section: 13 1 RNA

Chapter 13: RNA & Protein Synthesis. Section: 13 1 RNA Chapter 13: RNA & Protein Synthesis 12-3 RNA and Protein Synthesis Section: 13 1 RNA 1 of 39 12 3 RNA and Protein Synthesis 12 3 RNA and Protein Synthesis Genes contain coded DNA instructions that tell

More information

Chapter 7. Molecular Genetics: From DNA to Proteins Worksheets. 137

Chapter 7. Molecular Genetics: From DNA to Proteins Worksheets. 137 Chapter 7 Molecular Genetics: From DNA to Proteins Worksheets (Opening image copyright by 4designerart, 2010. Used under license from Shutterstock.com.) Lesson 7.1: DNA and RNA Lesson 7.2: Protein Synthesis

More information

Lecture 5 Mutation and Genetic Variation

Lecture 5 Mutation and Genetic Variation 1 Lecture 5 Mutation and Genetic Variation I. Review of DNA structure and function you should already know this. A. The Central Dogma DNA mrna Protein where the mistakes are made. 1. Some definitions based

More information

13.4 Gene Regulation and Expression

13.4 Gene Regulation and Expression 13.4 Gene Regulation and Expression Lesson Objectives Describe gene regulation in prokaryotes. Explain how most eukaryotic genes are regulated. Relate gene regulation to development in multicellular organisms.

More information

LEVEL TWO BIOLOGY: GENE EXPRESSION

LEVEL TWO BIOLOGY: GENE EXPRESSION LEVEL TWO BIOLOGY: GENE EXPRESSION Protein synthesis DNA structure and replication Polypeptide chains and amino acids Mutations Metabolic pathways Protein Synthesis: I can define a protein in terms of

More information

Chapter 7: Genes and Proteins Synthesis pg : Genetic Mutation pg

Chapter 7: Genes and Proteins Synthesis pg : Genetic Mutation pg UNIT 3: Molecular Genetics Chapter 7: Genes and Proteins Synthesis pg. 310-7.5: Genetic Mutation pg. 340-345 Small-Scale Mutations Point Mutation is a change in a single nucleotide within gene. Substitution

More information

DNA Replication & Protein Synthesis. This isn t a baaaaaaaddd chapter!!!

DNA Replication & Protein Synthesis. This isn t a baaaaaaaddd chapter!!! DNA Replication & Protein Synthesis This isn t a baaaaaaaddd chapter!!! The Discovery of DNA s Structure Watson and Crick s discovery of DNA s structure was based on almost fifty years of research by other

More information

Study Guide Chapter 12

Study Guide Chapter 12 Study Guide Chapter 12 1. Know ALL of your vocabulary words! 2. Name the following scientists with their contributions to Discovering DNA: a. Strains can be transformed (or changed) into other forms while

More information

Lesson Overview. Fermentation. Lesson Overview 13.1 RNA

Lesson Overview. Fermentation. Lesson Overview 13.1 RNA Lesson Overview 13.1 RNA Similarities between DNA & RNA They are both nucleic acids They both have: a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, a nitrogenous base. Comparing RNA and DNA There are three important

More information

Name Class Date. f. a change in the genetic material 11. codon

Name Class Date. f. a change in the genetic material 11. codon Chapter 12 DNA and RNA Chapter Vocabulary Review Labeling Diagrams On the lines provided, identify each kind of RNA. Ribosome Amino acid Uracil 1. 2. 3. Matching On the lines provided, write the letter

More information

4. Each amino acid in a protein is specified by a. multiple genes b. a promoter c. a codon d. a molecule of mrna

4. Each amino acid in a protein is specified by a. multiple genes b. a promoter c. a codon d. a molecule of mrna 1. The experiments with nutritional mutants in Neurospora by Beadle and Tatum provided evidence that a. bread mold can be grown in a lab on minimal media b. X-rays can damage DNA c. cells need enzymes

More information

CHAPTER 8: The Cellular Basis of Reproduction and Inheritance

CHAPTER 8: The Cellular Basis of Reproduction and Inheritance CHAPTER 8: The Cellular Basis of Reproduction and Inheritance Opening Essay Explain why cancer cells are dangerous, how cancer is treated, and why cells divide in organisms. Cell Division and Reproduction

More information

Gene mutation and molecular medicine Chapter 15

Gene mutation and molecular medicine Chapter 15 Gene mutation and molecular medicine Chapter 15 Lecture Objectives What Are Mutations? How Are DNA Molecules and Mutations Analyzed? How Do Defective Proteins Lead to Diseases? What DNA Changes Lead to

More information

The Genetic Code There are 20 amino acids, but there are only four nucleotide bases in DNA. How many nucleotides correspond to an amino acid?

The Genetic Code There are 20 amino acids, but there are only four nucleotide bases in DNA. How many nucleotides correspond to an amino acid? CH 17 Transcription & Translation Basic Principles of Transcription & Translation RNA is the bridge between genes and the proteins for which they code. Transcription is the synthesis of RNA under the direction

More information

Section 12 1 DNA (pages )

Section 12 1 DNA (pages ) Chapter 12 DNA and RNA Section 12 1 DNA (pages 287 294) Key Concepts What did scientists discover about the relationship between genes and DNA? What is the overall structure of the DNAmolecule? 9. Transformation

More information

Cell Cycle, Chromosomes, Mitosis & Meiosis Test Study Guide Key

Cell Cycle, Chromosomes, Mitosis & Meiosis Test Study Guide Key Cell Cycle, Chromosomes, Mitosis & Meiosis Test Study Guide Key DNA 1. a. What is DNA? - DNA stores and encodes all of the information in an organism, such as which proteins to make, and how to make them.

More information

Figure During transcription, RNA nucleotides base-pair one by one with DNA

Figure During transcription, RNA nucleotides base-pair one by one with DNA Objectives Describe the process of DNA transcription. Explain how an RNA message is edited. Describe how RNA is translated to a protein. Summarize protein synthesis. Key Terms messenger RNA (mrna) RNA

More information

How Genes Work. Chapter 9. Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display

How Genes Work. Chapter 9. Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display How Genes Work Chapter 9 DNA or Protein? Mendel s work left a key question unanswered: What is a gene? The work of Sutton and Morgan established that genes reside on chromosomes But chromosomes contain

More information

4. Which of the following is NOT a property of the genetic code: a) non-overlapping b) redundant c) almost universal d) four stop codons e) triplet

4. Which of the following is NOT a property of the genetic code: a) non-overlapping b) redundant c) almost universal d) four stop codons e) triplet Genetics 301 Sample Second Midterm Examination Solutions Spring 2002 100 Points Possible 10 Multiple Choice Questions-4 pts. Each. A. Choose the best answer. 1. Translation involves: a. mapping genes in

More information

12.1 Identifying the Substance of Genes

12.1 Identifying the Substance of Genes 12.1 Identifying the Substance of Genes Lesson Objectives Summarize the process of bacterial transformation. Describe the role of bacteriophages in identifying genetic material. Identify the role of DNA

More information

DNA and RNA. Griffith and Transformation (pages ) Avery and DNA (page 289) Chapter 12. Name Class Date

DNA and RNA. Griffith and Transformation (pages ) Avery and DNA (page 289) Chapter 12. Name Class Date Chapter 12 DNA and RNA Section 12 1 DNA (pages 287 294) This section tells about the experiments that helped scientists discover the relationship between genes and DNA. It also describes the chemical structure

More information

Ingenious Genes Curriculum Links for AQA AS (7401) and A-Level Biology (7402)

Ingenious Genes Curriculum Links for AQA AS (7401) and A-Level Biology (7402) Ingenious Genes Curriculum Links for AQA AS (7401) and A-Level Biology (7402) 3.1.1 Monomers and Polymers 3.1.4 Proteins 3.1.5 Nucleic acids are important information-carrying molecules 3.2.1 Cell structure

More information

mutagen Somatic mutation Germ cell mutation A change in the DNA of an organism. Mutation Inversion Translocation deletion Non-disjunction Monosomy

mutagen Somatic mutation Germ cell mutation A change in the DNA of an organism. Mutation Inversion Translocation deletion Non-disjunction Monosomy Any substance that causes changes in the DNA of an organism. mutagen A change in the DNA of an organism which affects the body cells and cannot be passed down to offspring. A change in the DNA of an organism

More information

Griffith s Experiment. Griffith & Transformation. Molecular Genetics DNA, RNA & Protein Synthesis. Avery. 1928, studying bacterium S.

Griffith s Experiment. Griffith & Transformation. Molecular Genetics DNA, RNA & Protein Synthesis. Avery. 1928, studying bacterium S. Molecular Genetics DNA, RNA & Protein Synthesis CP Biology CLE 3210.Inq.1; CLE 3210.T/E.3; CLE 3210.4.2; CLE 3210.4.1; CLE 3210.Inq.3; SPI 3210.Inq.7; SPI 3210.4.1; SPI 3210.Inq.3; SPI 3210.Inq.4; SPI

More information

BIOLOGY 100 Placement Test Guidelines

BIOLOGY 100 Placement Test Guidelines BIOLOGY 100 Placement Test Guidelines UNIT OBJECTIVES The student should prepare for lecture by reading the assigned chapters before coming to lecture. Students are encouraged to complete the questions

More information

NAME: Microbiology BI234 MUST be written and will not be accepted as a typed document.

NAME: Microbiology BI234 MUST be written and will not be accepted as a typed document. Chapter 8 Study Guide What is the study of genetics, and what topics does it focus on? What is a genome? NAME: Microbiology BI234 MUST be written and will not be accepted as a typed document. Describe

More information

Bio Molecular Genetics Review Name: Period: Date:

Bio Molecular Genetics Review Name: Period: Date: AP Bio Molecular Genetics Review Name: Period: Date: 1. Suppose that in studies of genes on the same chromosome you find the following recombination frequencies: In this case it would be proper to say

More information

BCOR 11, Exam 3. Multiple choice: Select the BEST possible answer.

BCOR 11, Exam 3. Multiple choice: Select the BEST possible answer. 1 BCOR 11, Exam 3 Name Date Multiple choice: Select the BEST possible answer. 1. The centromere is a region in which a. chromatids are attached to one another * b. metaphase chromosomes become aligned

More information

Mutations. Section 6.3

Mutations. Section 6.3 Section 6.3 Mutations Objectives Identify different changes to DNA within both genes and chromosomes Evaluate effects of changes to DNA on proteins produced and organisms overall survival New Vocabulary

More information

From DNA to Protein. Chapter 14

From DNA to Protein. Chapter 14 From DNA to Protein Chapter 14 Impacts, Issues: Ricin and your Ribosomes Ricin is toxic because it inactivates ribosomes, the organelles which assemble amino acids into proteins, critical to life processes

More information

Chapter 14 Protein Synthesis

Chapter 14 Protein Synthesis 1 Chapter 14 Protein Synthesis Go to: http://www.accessexcellence.org/ab/gg/#anchor-chromosomes-23240 Go through the various sites and review DNA synthesis Go to: http://www.accessexcellence.org/ab/gg/protein_synthesis.html

More information

MUTATION, DNA REPAIR AND CANCER

MUTATION, DNA REPAIR AND CANCER MUTATION, DNA REPAIR AND CANCER 1 Mutation A heritable change in the genetic material Essential to the continuity of life Source of variation for natural selection New mutations are more likely to be harmful

More information

14.1 Human Chromosomes

14.1 Human Chromosomes 14.1 Human Chromosomes Lesson Objectives Identify the types of human chromosomes in a karotype. Describe the patterns of the inheritance of human traits. Explain how pedigrees are used to study human traits.

More information

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) The ʺone gene-one polypeptideʺ theory states that A) the synthesis of each enzyme is catalyzed

More information

The sequence of bases on the mrna is a code that determines the sequence of amino acids in the polypeptide being synthesized:

The sequence of bases on the mrna is a code that determines the sequence of amino acids in the polypeptide being synthesized: Module 3F Protein Synthesis So far in this unit, we have examined: How genes are transmitted from one generation to the next Where genes are located What genes are made of How genes are replicated How

More information

Genetics. Chapter 9. Chromosome. Genes Three categories. Flow of Genetics/Information The Central Dogma. DNA RNA Protein

Genetics. Chapter 9. Chromosome. Genes Three categories. Flow of Genetics/Information The Central Dogma. DNA RNA Protein Chapter 9 Topics - Genetics - Flow of Genetics/Information - Regulation - Mutation - Recombination gene transfer Genetics Genome - the sum total of genetic information in a organism Genotype - the A's,

More information

Chapter 9 Gene Expression: From Genes to Proteins. Chapter 9 Human Heredity by Michael Cummings 2006 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning

Chapter 9 Gene Expression: From Genes to Proteins. Chapter 9 Human Heredity by Michael Cummings 2006 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning Chapter 9 Gene Expression: From Genes to Proteins DNA Codes for Protein The information required to produce proteins is encoded in the nucleotide sequence of DNA Relationship Between Genes, Proteins, and

More information

Structure and Function of DNA

Structure and Function of DNA Structure and Function of DNA DNA and RNA Structure DNA and RNA are nucleic acids. They consist of chemical units called nucleotides. The nucleotides are joined by a sugar-phosphate backbone. The four

More information

1. Do I know why cells cannot continue to grow larger and larger?

1. Do I know why cells cannot continue to grow larger and larger? Chapter 9 1. Do I know why cells cannot continue to grow larger and larger? 2. Do I know what phase cells spend most of their time in? 3. Mitosis is the division of the. 4. Interphase is divided into three

More information

Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Human Heredity Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. The X and Y chromosomes are called the a. extra chromosomes. b. phenotypes.

More information

Summary Human Heredity Human Chromosomes. Name Class Date

Summary Human Heredity Human Chromosomes. Name Class Date Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Name Class Date Chapter 14 Summary The Human Genome 14 1 Human Heredity Biologists can analyze human chromosomes by looking at a karyotype. A karyotype is a

More information

Unit 6 ~ Learning Guide

Unit 6 ~ Learning Guide Unit 6 ~ Learning Guide Name: INSTRUCTIONS Complete the following notes and questions as you work through the related lessons. You are required to have this package completed BEFORE you write your unit

More information

Bioinformatics: Network Analysis

Bioinformatics: Network Analysis Bioinformatics: Network Analysis Molecular Cell Biology: A Brief Review COMP 572 (BIOS 572 / BIOE 564) - Fall 2013 Luay Nakhleh, Rice University 1 The Tree of Life 2 Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cell Structure

More information

Gene Expression: From Gene to Protein

Gene Expression: From Gene to Protein What is a Gene? Beadle and Tatum Experiment (1941) Gene Expression: From Gene to Protein Neurospora crassa Strain Wild type (control) Mold growth arge mutant argf mutant No growth Growth on MM + Nothing

More information

Related Sadava s chapters: 1) From DNA to protein

Related Sadava s chapters: 1) From DNA to protein 8.0 Gene expression and mutation Related Sadava s chapters: 1) From DNA to protein 2) Gene mutation What Is the Evidence that Genes Code for Proteins? How Does Information Flow from Genes to Proteins?

More information

Week 5 EOC Review DNA, Mitosis, Meiosis, and Genetics

Week 5 EOC Review DNA, Mitosis, Meiosis, and Genetics Week 5 EOC Review DNA, Mitosis, Meiosis, and Genetics Benchmarks: SC.912.L.16.3 Describe the basic process of DNA replication and how it relates to the transmission and conservation of the genetic information

More information

GENE MUTATIONS. Name: Date: Period: Part One: DNA Error in Replication

GENE MUTATIONS. Name: Date: Period: Part One: DNA Error in Replication Part One: DNA Error in Replication In your Modern Biology textbook, turn to page 202. After reading this page, complete the following. 1. A mutation is a change in. 2. Since genes (sections of DNA) code

More information

E. coli RNA Polymerase Sequences of E. coli Promoters. Promoter sequences from 10 bacteriophage and bacterial genes

E. coli RNA Polymerase Sequences of E. coli Promoters. Promoter sequences from 10 bacteriophage and bacterial genes E. coli RNA Polymerase Sequences of E. coli Promoters Promoter sequences from 10 bacteriophage and bacterial genes Transcription by E. coli RNA Polymerase Transcription by E. coli RNA Polymerase Transcription

More information

Molecular Genetics II (cont.) Mutation

Molecular Genetics II (cont.) Mutation Molecular Genetics II (cont.) Mutation All genetic variation arises from change in the nucleotide sequences of DNA. 1 Alleles of a gene commonly differ by only a single nucleotide pair in DNA. The nucleotide

More information

Genetic information (DNA) determines structure of proteins DNA RNA proteins cell structure 3.11 3.15 enzymes control cell chemistry ( metabolism )

Genetic information (DNA) determines structure of proteins DNA RNA proteins cell structure 3.11 3.15 enzymes control cell chemistry ( metabolism ) Biology 1406 Exam 3 Notes Structure of DNA Ch. 10 Genetic information (DNA) determines structure of proteins DNA RNA proteins cell structure 3.11 3.15 enzymes control cell chemistry ( metabolism ) Proteins

More information

Cell Station. Cytoplasm DNA

Cell Station. Cytoplasm DNA Cell Station Part 1: Cell Types --Turn to pages 74 & 75 1. Create a double bubble comparing and contrasting eukaryotes and prokaryotes a. Must have three similarities and two differences No membranebound

More information

1. Which of the following correctly organizes genetic material from the broadest category to the most specific category?

1. Which of the following correctly organizes genetic material from the broadest category to the most specific category? DNA and Genetics 1. Which of the following correctly organizes genetic material from the broadest category to the most specific category? A. genome chromosome gene DNA molecule B. genome chromosome DNA

More information

BIOLOGY 12 MUTATIONS

BIOLOGY 12 MUTATIONS BIOLOGY 12 MUTATIONS What is a Mutation? A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of a gene. Mutations in a gene's DNA sequence can alter the amino acid sequence of the protein encoded by the

More information

UNIT 3: INTRODUCING BIOLOGY Chapter 8: From DNA to Proteins

UNIT 3: INTRODUCING BIOLOGY Chapter 8: From DNA to Proteins CORNELL NOTES Directions: You must create a minimum of 5 questions in this column per page (average). Use these to study your notes and prepare for tests and quizzes. Notes will be stamped after each assigned

More information

Cell Cycle, DNA Replication, Transcription & Translation Worksheet:

Cell Cycle, DNA Replication, Transcription & Translation Worksheet: Name Key Date Block Cell Cycle, DNA Replication, Transcription & Translation Worksheet: Chapter 10: The Cell Cycle 1. The process by which a cell spits into two daughter cells is called Mitosis 2. DNA

More information

Chapter 17: From Gene to Protein

Chapter 17: From Gene to Protein AP Biology Reading Guide Name Chapter 17: From Gene to Protein This is going to be a very long journey, but it is crucial to your understanding of biology. Work on this chapter a single concept at a time,

More information

Regents Biology LAB : HOW ARE PROTEINS MADE IN CELLS

Regents Biology LAB : HOW ARE PROTEINS MADE IN CELLS Period Date LAB : HOW ARE PROTEINS MADE IN CELLS DNA gets all the glory, but proteins do all the work! DNA is the molecule that stores the genetic information in your cells. That information is coded in

More information

Genetic Code genetic code codons

Genetic Code genetic code codons Genetic Code The genetic code is a sequence of amino acids in an mrna that determine the amino acid order for the protein, consists of sets of three bases (triplets) along the mrna called codons. has a

More information

CHAPTER 8 MICROBIAL GENETICS. What is genetics? Terminology

CHAPTER 8 MICROBIAL GENETICS. What is genetics? Terminology CHAPTER 8 MICROBIAL GENETICS What is genetics? The science of heredity; includes the study of genes, how they carry information, how they are replicated, how they are expressed Terminology Genetics: Study

More information

Each sequence of 3 nucleotide bases forms a chemical code word or codon, which codes for a particular amino acid. The order in which the code words

Each sequence of 3 nucleotide bases forms a chemical code word or codon, which codes for a particular amino acid. The order in which the code words PROTEIN SYNTHESIS Proteins are composed of amino acids which are the building blocks of all proteins. The genetic information encoded within the DNA molecule is the information necessary for the manufacture

More information

Unit 2 Lesson 6 DNA Structure and Function. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

Unit 2 Lesson 6 DNA Structure and Function. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Cracking the Code What is DNA? The genetic material in cells is contained in a molecule called deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA. Scientists describe DNA as containing a code. A code is a set of rules and

More information

Chargoff s Rule says. % of A = % of T and % of C = %of G (p345)

Chargoff s Rule says. % of A = % of T and % of C = %of G (p345) Unit 5 DNA, RNA, Protein Synthesis, & Genetic Engineering Structure and function of DNA & RNA Replication, Transcription, & Translation Genetic mutations Biotechnology EQ: What is the relationship between

More information

Guided Reading Activities

Guided Reading Activities Name Period Chapter 10: Molecular Biology of the Gene Guided Reading Activities Big idea: The structure of the genetic material Answer the following questions as you read modules 10.1 10.3: 1. The study

More information

ECO-1.1: I can describe the processes that move carbon and nitrogen through ecosystems.

ECO-1.1: I can describe the processes that move carbon and nitrogen through ecosystems. Cycles of Matter ECO-1.1: I can describe the processes that move carbon and nitrogen through ecosystems. ECO-1.2: I can explain how carbon and nitrogen are stored in ecosystems. ECO-1.3: I can describe

More information

Classification of mutations by their effects on the DNA molecule

Classification of mutations by their effects on the DNA molecule From my Lecture 4 (10/1): Today s lecture: Classification of mutations by their effects on the DNA molecule Types of mutations and their impact on protein function Substitution: base is replaced by one

More information

DNA structure and function

DNA structure and function DNA structure and function I. Introduction - DNA holds the genetic information of a cell -- heritable information II. DNA structure - a polymer of nucleotides -- two strands of nucleotides twisted around

More information

Protein Synthesis RNA and the Genetic Code

Protein Synthesis RNA and the Genetic Code Chapter 17 Protein Synthesis Nucleic Acids and 17.4 RNA and the Genetic Code 1 RNA RNA transmits information from DNA to make proteins. has several types Messenger RNA (mrna) carries genetic information

More information

Name Date Period. 2. When a molecule of double-stranded DNA undergoes replication, it results in

Name Date Period. 2. When a molecule of double-stranded DNA undergoes replication, it results in DNA, RNA, Protein Synthesis Keystone 1. During the process shown above, the two strands of one DNA molecule are unwound. Then, DNA polymerases add complementary nucleotides to each strand which results

More information

cell. 3. a transfer ofmaterial from the host cell. 4. the reduction of the host cell. 5. the transformation of the host cell. 2. reject the virus.

cell. 3. a transfer ofmaterial from the host cell. 4. the reduction of the host cell. 5. the transformation of the host cell. 2. reject the virus. Version 001 Bacterial/Viral Genetics mahon (26) 1 This print-out should have 28 questions. Multiple-choice questions may continue on the next column or page find all choices before answering. Holt Bio

More information

Student Answer Sheet

Student Answer Sheet Student Name VCE Biology 2007 Unit 4 Topic Test 1 Heredity Student Answer Sheet Answer each Multiple Choice question by circling the appropriate letter. Use a pencil. If you make a mistake erase and enter

More information

The Structure & Function of DNA

The Structure & Function of DNA Chapter 10 The Structure & Function of DNA California State Standards covered by this chapter: Name Date Period Cell Biology 1. The fundamental life processes of plants and animals depend on a variety

More information

It took a while for biologists to figure out that genetic information was carried on DNA.

It took a while for biologists to figure out that genetic information was carried on DNA. DNA Finally, we want to understand how all of the things we've talked about (genes, alleles, meiosis, etc.) come together at the molecular level. Ultimately, what is an allele? What is a gene? How does

More information

1. a. Below is a tiny excerpt of a gene. What sequence of amino acids corresponds to the gene? (2 pts) A T G C A G A G G T C G C C T

1. a. Below is a tiny excerpt of a gene. What sequence of amino acids corresponds to the gene? (2 pts) A T G C A G A G G T C G C C T Part I: / 25 Part II: / 75 Part I: Short answer (25 points) TOTAL: / 100 1. a. Below is a tiny excerpt of a gene. What sequence of amino acids corresponds to the gene? (2 pts) A T G C A G A G G T C G C

More information

Sample Questions for Exam 3

Sample Questions for Exam 3 Sample Questions for Exam 3 1. All of the following occur during prometaphase of mitosis in animal cells except a. the centrioles move toward opposite poles. b. the nucleolus can no longer be seen. c.

More information

Ch. 10 The Structure and Function of DNA Study Guide

Ch. 10 The Structure and Function of DNA Study Guide Ch. 10 The Structure and Function of DNA Study Guide Instructions: Circle the one best choice that answers the questions or completes the statement. For the true/false questions, circle True or False.

More information

Name Class Date. What are sex cells? How does meiosis help explain Mendel s results?

Name Class Date. What are sex cells? How does meiosis help explain Mendel s results? CHAPTER 3 3 Meiosis SECTION Heredity BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What are sex cells? How does meiosis help explain Mendel s results? National

More information

Genetic Mutations. What mistakes can occur when DNA is replicated? T A C G T A G T C C C T A A T G G A T C

Genetic Mutations. What mistakes can occur when DNA is replicated? T A C G T A G T C C C T A A T G G A T C Why? Genetic Mutations What mistakes can occur when DNA is replicated? The genes encoded in your DNA result in the production of proteins that perform specific functions within your cells. Various environmental

More information

BCOR 011, Exam 3. Multiple Choice: Select the best possible answer. Name KEY Section

BCOR 011, Exam 3. Multiple Choice: Select the best possible answer. Name KEY Section BCOR 011, Exam 3 Name KEY Section Multiple Choice: Select the best possible answer. 1. A parent cell divides to form two genetically identical daughter cells in the nuclear process of mitosis. For mitosis

More information

Before You Read Molecular Genetics After You Read James Watson and Francis Crick discovered that DNA was the genetic material.

Before You Read Molecular Genetics After You Read James Watson and Francis Crick discovered that DNA was the genetic material. Molecular Genetics Before You Read Before you read the chapter, respond to these statements. 1. Write an A if you agree with the statement. 2. Write a D if you disagree with the statement. Before You Read

More information

NUCLEOTIDE - The basic structural units of nucleic acid. Each unit is composed of a five carbon sugar, a phosphate, and nitrogen base.

NUCLEOTIDE - The basic structural units of nucleic acid. Each unit is composed of a five carbon sugar, a phosphate, and nitrogen base. PROTEINS Proteins are used by cells to build structures and are used in chemical activities. Enzymes are proteins that aid in chemical reactions such as digestion and cellular respiration. Proteins are

More information

Biology Ch 14 Human Genetics (14.1)

Biology Ch 14 Human Genetics (14.1) Biology Ch 14 Human Genetics (14.1) For Questions 1 7, write the letter of the correct answer on the line at the left. 1. The complete set of genetic information an organism carries in its DNA is its A.

More information

12.1 The Role of DNA in Heredity

12.1 The Role of DNA in Heredity 12.1 The Role of DNA in Heredity Only in the last 50 years have scientists understood the role of DNA in heredity. That understanding began with the discovery of DNA s structure. In 1952, Rosalind Franklin

More information

Controls Over Genes. Chapter 15

Controls Over Genes. Chapter 15 Controls Over Genes Chapter 15 Impacts, Issues: Between You and Eternity Mutations in some genes predispose individuals to develop certain kinds of cancer; mutations in BRAC genes cause breast cancer normal

More information