Fair Lawn. Public Schools. Biology CP & Academic. Science Department. Fair Lawn, NJ. August. Biology Ac & CP 1

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1 1 Fair Lawn Public Schools Fair Lawn, NJ Biology CP & Academic August 2015 Updated August 2015 Developed July 2011 is a high school science class developed by the Fair Lawn Schools high school science faculty and aligned to the 2009 NJCCCS and correlated to the Common Core State Standards for Literacy & Math. Science Department

2 2 Fair Lawn School District Committee Credits Written By Kathryn Straubel & Kristen Macchio With Input from M. Archille, D. Brodowski, A. Coesfeld K. Meneghin, I. McCrone, K. Panaytof T. Desiderio, L. Trocchia Ronald Durso, Science Supervisor August 2015 Updated to Reflect New Curriculum Requirements Revised 2014 Revised 2012 Revised 2011

3 3 I. Course Synopsis Biology Biology is the study of the living world and the interactions that occur within it. This course will focus on the following units of study: the Process and Definition of Life Science, Continuity of Life, Evolution and Diversity, Interdependence of Life, Diversity of Life and Disease. In addition, the following 8 uniting themes of biological science will be emphasized throughout the course: Science as a Process, Science, Technology & Society, Relationships of Structure and Function, Energy Transfer, Interdependence of Nature, Regulation, Evolution, and Continuity and Change. A deeper description of each theme appears in the appendix of this curriculum. An academic level will meet for a total of 5 classes per week. This course will focus on the basic concepts of each topic. Students will participate in laboratory experiments to enhance their understanding of these topics. A college preparatory level will meet for a total of 5 classes per week. Students at this level will be exposed to the same content as the honors level however they will be assessed in a more vigorous manner. Laboratory experiments will also be performed to meet the needs of the course. The honors level is an accelerated course that includes an additional lab period for a total of 6 classes per week. Students at this level will engage in higher order thinking skills, in-depth coverage of material and frequent laboratory experiments. Students in honors biology will be exposed to additional content as is indicated in this document by an asterisk (*). Biology laboratory experiments will be inquiry and analysis based. The State of NJ defines laboratory science as a practice not a place. This biology curriculum will support students conducting laboratory practices which focus on the development of 21 st Century skills and which conform to the NJDOE definition of a lab science which includes:

4 4 Direct interaction with the natural and designed world using tools, data-collection techniques, models and theories of science Active participation in scientific investigations and the use of cognitive and manipulative skills associated with the formulation of scientific explanations Use of evidence, application of logic and construction of arguments for their proposed explanations Students opportunities to engage in laboratory activities may include any of the following opportunities which conform to the NJDOE definition of lab science : Physical manipulation of authentic substances or systems: This may include such activities as chemistry experiments, plant and animal observations, and investigations of force and motion. Interaction with simulations: In 21st century laboratory science courses, students can work with computerized models, or simulations, that represent aspects of natural phenomena that cannot be observed directly because they are very large, very small, very slow, very fast, or very complex. Students may also model the interaction of molecules in chemistry or manipulate models of cells, animal or plant systems, wave motion, weather patterns, or geological formations using simulations. Interaction with authentic data: Students may interact with authentic data that are obtained and represented in a variety of forms. For example, they may study photographs to examine characteristics of the moon or other heavenly bodies or analyze emission and absorption spectra in the light from stars. Data may be incorporated in films, DVDs, computer programs, or other formats. Access to large databases: In many fields of science, researchers have arranged for empirical data to be normalized and aggregated for example, genome databases, astronomy image collections, databases of climatic events over long time periods, biological field observations. Some students may be able to access authentic and timely scientific data using the Internet and can also manipulate and analyze authentic data in new forms of laboratory experiences (Bell, 2005). Remote access to scientific instruments and observations: When available, laboratory experiences enabled by the Internet can link students to remote instruments, such as the environmental scanning electron microscope (Thakkar et al., 2000), or allow them to control automated telescopes (Gould, II. Philosophy & Rationale The study of biology can enable students to understand more completely the complex living world around them and how they influence this world. This course will focus on building critical thinking skills and application of knowledge. Upon completion of this course, students will become aware of how discoveries and advances in biology are relevant to their lives. This philosophy and rational is in line with the NJDOE High School Lab Science: Biology Core Content document available at and the

5 5 NJDOE High School Lab Science: Biology Core Content Mapping Template available at Both were used as references while developing this curriculum.

6 6 III. Scope & Sequence Unit 1 : The Interdependence of Life (7 weeks~ September - October) Key Themes: Science as a Process, Interdependence and Nature, & Energy Transfer Experimental Design Characteristics of life. The 8 Themes of Biology Human environmental impact Cycles of life (carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, water) Energy pyramids and food webs Abiotic and biotic factors Interrelationships between resources and organisms Energy flow through the biosphere Photosynthesis vs. Cellular Respiration Succession Textbook Correlation Biology Cycles of Life Biology (Glencoe) (Publisher- AGS) Honors* Chapters 2-5 and 8 CP Chapters 2-5 and 8 Academic Chapters 7, 8, 17, 18 Unit 2: Diversity of Life (4 weeks ~ October- December) Key Themes: Science as a Process, Relationship of Structure and Function, & Evolution Levels of Organization Classification and taxonomy. Viruses vs. Bacteria Types of Bacteria Basic characteristics of protists Basic characteristics of fungi Basic characteristics of plants Invertebrates vs. Vertebrates Textbook Correlation Biology Cycles of Life Biology (Glencoe) (Publisher- AGS) Honors* Chapters 17, 21, 24 Survey Units 5-8 CP Chapters 17, 21, 24 Survey Units 5-8 Academic Chapter 15

7 7 Unit 3: Evolution & Diversity ( 4 weeks~ December - January) Key Themes: Science as a Process, Interdependence and Nature, Evolution, & Continuity and Change Contributing scientists Natural selection Evidence of evolution Evolutionary relationship of organisms Speciation. Natural selection via genetics Hardy Weinberg equilibrium* Textbook Correlation Biology Cycles of Life Biology (Glencoe) (Publisher- AGS) Honors* Chapters 14 & 15 CP Chapters 14 & 15 Academic Chapters 13 and 14 Unit 4: The Continuity of Life (13 weeks~ February April) Key Themes: Science as a Process, Relationship of Structure and Function, Regulation, Continuity and Change, & Science, Technology, and Society Homeostasis. Cell structure and function Enzymes. Plant vs. Animal cell and Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic. Cell Transport. Structure of nucleic acids & function of protein synthesis. Mitosis vs. Meiosis. Mendelian & non-mendelian genetics. Mutations Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology* Textbook Correlation Biology Cycles of Life Biology (Glencoe) (Publisher- AGS) Honors* Chapters 7, 9-13 CP Chapters 7, 9-13 Academic Chapters 4, 5, 9, 10, 11

8 8 Unit 5: The Chemical Basis of Life (2 Weeks - April) Key Themes: Science as a Process, Relationship of Structure and Function, Energy Transfer, Regulation, & Evolution Introduction to Chemistry Macromolecules Textbook Correlation Biology Cycles of Life Biology (Glencoe) (Publisher- AGS) Honors Chapters 1 and 6 CP Chapters 1 and 6 Academic Chapters 1-3 Unit 6: Disease (4 weeks~ May - June) Key Themes: Science as a Process, Science, Technology and Society, & Regulation Ability to maintain homeostasis Cause of disease Infectious and noninfectious diseases Cancer Biology Cycles of Life Biology (Glencoe) (Publisher- AGS) Honors* Chapters 17 and 37 CP Chapters 17 and 37 Academic Chapter 12 and 15

9 9 IV. Unit Descriptions IV. Unit Descriptions Unit 1: The Interdependence of Life (8 weeks) Enduring Understanding The process of science is used to address many issues in the world. Evidence is used for building, refining, and/or critiquing scientific explanations. All organisms transfer matter and convert energy from one form to another. Both are necessary to build and maintain organized structures within the organism. This organization expands beyond the organism to the ecosystem. Any change in this organization can affect other organisms which depend on each other. The survival of organisms is affected by interactions with each other and their environment. It can be altered by human manipulation Essential Question(s) 1. How is scientific inquiry used as a tool to understand the world? 2. How are living things related within the biosphere? 3. How does human interaction and impact affect an ecosystem? 4. How is energy transformed and transferred through an ecosystem? Learning Objectives 1. Summarize the 8 themes of biology. # ^ 2. Collect, interpret and analyze data through proper implementation of the scientific method. # 3. Differentiate between controls and variables. # 4. Describe and give examples of the characteristics of life. 5. Identify the result of intentional and unintentional human impact on the environment. (ex. Pollution, deforestation, etc.) 6. Describe how habitat destruction by humans affects ecosystems stability. 7. Predicting how direct harvesting, pollution, atmospheric changes, natural disasters and other factors will affect population dynamics based on data and accepted mathematical models. 8. Describe how limiting factors (light, water, space, food, etc.) affect interdependence of life and the stability of an ecosystem. Be able to describe examples. 9. Summarize each nutrient cycle and explain its role in the environment. (water, carbon, 1. nitrogen, phosphorus) 10. Be able to relate the conservation of mass to each nutrient cycle.

10 Interpret energy pyramids and food webs. Be able to trace energy and mass from one trophic level to the next using data. 12. Recognize the importance of the input of the sun s energy in keeping ecosystems functioning. 13. Identify interrelationships between organisms (symbiosis, predator/prey, etc.) 14. Trace how energy flows and changes form from the sun through an ecosystem. Identify the importance of the input of energy in order to maintain the organization of the system. 15. Describe photosynthesis and cellular respiration in terms of reactants, products, organelles they take place in and examples of organisms that carry out these processes. 16. Outline the generalized steps of photosynthesis (light vs. dark reaction) and cellular respiration (aerobic vs. anaerobic). * 17. Explain how a glucose molecule made from plants is then consumed by an animal in order for them to release energy in the form of ATP. 18. Compare and contrast the evolutionary benefits of aerobic cellular respiration vs. anaerobic respiration.* 19. Predict the effects of variables (ph and temperature) on photosynthesis by designing an experiment. 20. Discriminate between primary and secondary succession. # This objectives should be introduced briefly during this unit, and revisited throughout this entire lab science class. ^ This objective will be modified to address the NGSS themes if they are adopted by the NJDOE. * This objective applies to honors biology only. Suggested Activities 1. Acid Rain Lab 2. Chromatography Lab 3. Yeast Fermentation Lab 4. Biome Project 5. Photosynthesis Lab (Elodea) 6. Three organisms and CO 2 lab (Elodea, yeast, bacteria) New Jersey Core Curriculum Content Standards A B C D B C F G.1-7

11 11 Unit 2: Diversity of Life (4 weeks) Enduring Understanding Living organisms show relatedness, but also great diversity in their structure and function due to evolution. This great diversity is essential to maintaining balance on Earth. Essential Question(s) 1. Why is the process of classification important? 2. How does the diversity between kingdoms impact the ecosystem? Learning Objectives 1. List, describe and compare the levels of organization (ie: Biome, Ecosystem, Etc.) 2. Describe how organisms are classified and the use of binomial nomenclature.^^ 3. Distinguish different types of bacteria based on shape and habitat. ^^ 4. Outline basic characteristics of protists, fungi, plants and animals. ^^ 5. Briefly compare invertebrates to vertebrates. ^^ ^^ These objectives are to be addressed in a survey model in order to fit into the given time frame. Instruction should focus on the themes involving comparing and contrasting and structure and function. Suggested Activities 1. Dichotomous key activity 2. Bacteria identification activity (microscope) 3. Classification card activity New Jersey Core Curriculum Content Standards D A E.3

12 12 Unit 3: Evolution and Diversity ( 4 weeks) Enduring Understanding The diversity and changing of life forms over many generations is the result of natural selection, in which organisms with advantageous traits survive, reproduce, and pass those traits to offspring. Essential Question(s) 1. How have changes in the environment resulted in changes in organisms over time? Learning Objectives 1. Briefly describe the impact of scientists on the understanding of evolution. 2. Summarize and apply the theory of Natural Selection to provide a scientific explanation for the fossil record and the molecular similarities among diverse species. 3. Identify and explain the types of evidence of evolution and how they support the theory (fossil record, geographic distribution, homologous/analogous structures, vestigial structures, biochemical, and embryological) 4. Demonstrate how technology can be used to show evolutionary relationships among species. (gel electrophoresis, DNA/Amino acid sequences 5. Analyze diagrams that show relationships between organisms (ex. Cladograms) 6. Distinguish the different types of speciation and how they occur (reproductive vs. geographic) 7. Explain how the gene pool of a population, not an individual organism, changes (genetic recombination/mutation) based on natural selection. (Survival of the fittest) 8. Discuss how environmental pressure, genetic drift, mutation, and competition of resources influence the evolutionary process. 9. Compare and contrast the different types of natural selection and their impact on a population and how certain traits will allow organisms to survive while others may lead to extinction. 10. Analyze the graphs of natural selection curves (directional, stabilizing, disruptive) 11. Apply Hardy-Weinberg calculations to the process of evolution* Suggested Activities 1. Human Hand Lab 2. Beak Lab 3. Hardy-Weinberg Rabbit Lab* 4. Evidence of Evolution Poster 5. Hardy-Weinberg group problem solving* 6. Evolution of Dog Video New Jersey Core Curriculum Content Standards A B C D E B.1-3

13 13 Unit 4: The Continuity of Life (13 weeks) Enduring Understanding Living systems at the level of the organism and at the cellular level have a complex nature through which structure relates to function. Predictable patterns of inheritance, and the variation that exists within a species is related to its mode of reproduction. Essential Question(s) 1. How do the structure, function, and modes of transport in cells help maintain homeostasis? 2. Why is cell division essential for life? 3. How can the knowledge of DNA/RNA and genes help us understand the variation found within organisms and the inheritance of traits? 4. How does DNA technology impact individuals and society today? Learning Objectives 1. Define and explain the importance of homeostasis. 2. Generalize the function of a cell and its organelles and how they work together to maintain homeostasis. 3. Compare and contrast plant and animal cells. 4. Distinguish differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. 5. Explain how the semi-permeability of the cell membrane allows it to regulate the transport of material into and out of the cell 6. Predict transport across cell membranes and determine if energy is required. 7. Briefly summarize the events that led to the discovery of DNA and its structure. 8. Compare and contrast the structure and function of DNA and RNA. 9. Summarize the process of transcription and translation. 10. Identify the purpose of protein synthesis and infer the result of mutations. 11. Diagram the cell cycle in terms of how long the cell is in each phase (interphase, mitosis, cytokinesis). 12. Explain how cells are differentiated from one another in terms of their function in an organism, even though they have the same genetic make up. (ex. Nerve cells vs. muscle cell) 13. Review the progression of the organization of life. Atoms Molecules Cells Tissue Organ Organ System Organism. 14. Analyze the progression of cell differentiation going from a single celled zygote to an embryo to a fetus and the evidence that supports this. 15. Recognize that a cell s genes can be turned on or off based on internal and external environmental conditions: Such as chemicals, pathogens, and radiation. (related to differentiation and cancer) 16. Compare and contrast meiosis and mitosis in terms of chromosome number and movement. 17. Describe the influence of meiosis on variation in the offspring and how they are different from their parents and from each other. (Independent Assortment, Segregation, recombination, crossing over)

14 Recognize that gene mutations in germ cells may or may not be harmful in producing variation. 19. Identify that hereditary information is contained in genes, located in the chromosomes of each cell, and each gene codes for a single trait. 20. Give examples of conditions that result from genetic mutations in a variety of different organisms. 21. Predict the inheritance of traits via Mendelian and non-mendelian genetics (Sex-linkage, codominance, incomplete dominance, polygenic) 22. Analyze karyotypes and pedigrees. 23. Recognize the different applications of genetic engineering and biotechnology. 24. Identify biotechnology that is useful in preventing and treating disease and commercial applications (livestock and crops), such as: DNA analysis, human genome project, gene therapy, and gene splicing/cloning. Suggested Activities 1. Cell Lab- Plant vs. Animal cell/microscope 2. Diffusion Lab (Dialysis tube or Egg) 3. Onion Mitosis Lab (Microscope slides or online) 4. Genetics Baby Lab 5. DNA model building/puzzle 6. Genetic Disorder Presentation 7. Online karotype lab 8. Online mutation lab (Glencoe) 9. Biotechnology web investigation 10. Gattaca Movie New Jersey Core Curriculum Content Standards A B C D A D E.1

15 15 Unit 5: The Chemical Basis of Life Enduring Understanding 1. The structure of chemical compounds directly relate to the structures and functions of the living organism. 2. The function of chemical compounds directly relate to the structure and functions of the living organism. 3. Homeostasis is essential for the survival of living things. Various environmental changes may affect homeostasis. The organism must respond to these changes in order to survive. Essential Question(s) 1. How does the structure and function of chemical compounds and molecules relate to the structure of living organisms? 2. How do environmental changes affect homeostasis of an organism? How do the organisms respond? Learning Objectives 1. Illustrate the different parts of an atom and their location (proton, neutron, and electron) 2. Describe the formation of water, sodium chloride, and carbon-carbon bonds in organic molecules 3. Identify the basic structure of macromolecules and relate it to their basic function. (carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids nucleic acids) 4. Explain how each organic molecule is essential to life 5. Identify the 6 elements most common to living organisms. (C, H, O, N, P, S) Explain the chemical reactions that cells go through in order to carry out photosynthesis, cellular respiration, ATP/ADP cycle, and the building up or breaking down of polymers by the addition/subtraction of water. 11. Identify that enzymes are proteins that catalyze chemical reactions and can be affected by temperature, ph, and salt content. 12. Apply the ph scale in terms of ideal living conditions for organisms and how slight changes in ph can affect homeostasis. Suggested Activities 1. Bean Lab (Sci. Method and Experimental design) 1. Macromolecule Identification Food Lab 2. Acid Rain Lab (Sci. Method) 3. Buffering Ability of Water (Vernier)* 1. 4.Characteristics of Life Poster 4. Properties of water lab 5. Enzyme Lab (Liver, potato, etc.)

16 16 New Jersey Core Curriculum Content Standards A A.1, B C D A.1, 3, 4, B.1, 2 Unit 6: Disease (3 weeks) Enduring Understanding An organism is in a constant state of homeostasis within its environment and within its own body. Upsetting this state of balance results in a disease. Essential Question(s) 1. How does disease cause disruption in homeostasis? Learning Objectives 1. Describe how disease represents a malfunction of the body s ability to maintain homeostasis. 2. Explain how different types of diseases are caused. (viral, bacterial, parasitic, etc.) 3. Compare and contrast infectious and noninfectious disease. 4. Compare the reproduction of viruses and bacteria Suggested Activities 1. Virus station activity 2. Patient zero activity 3. Disease presentation 4. Online cancer activity (mutations) 5. Outbreak Movie New Jersey Core Curriculum Content Standards A C D A A.6

17 17 V. Lab Curriculum The application of biology can enable students to understand more completely the complex living world around them and how they influence this world. Performing laboratory experiments will focus on building critical thinking skills and application of knowledge. These criteria should be incorporated throughout the instruction of the course in order for students to become proficient in science. Lab Practice 1: Understand Scientific Explanation Enduring Understanding Measurement and observation tools are use to categorize, represent, and interpret the natural world. Essential Question 1. How do we build and refine models that describe and explain the natural and designed world? Learning Objectives 1. Using the relationships among facts, concepts, principles, theories, and models to understand and interpret phenomena in the natural world. 2. Constructing and refining explanations, arguments, or models of the natural world through the use of quantitative and qualitative evidence and data. 3. Evaluating and critiquing scientific arguments by considering the selected experimental design and method of data analysis. Lab Practice 2: Generate Scientific Evidence Through Active Investigations Enduring Understanding Evidence is used for building, refining, and/or critiquing scientific explanations. Essential Question 1. What constitutes useful scientific evidence? Lesson Objectives 1. Develop questions to formulate a hypothesis. 2. Determine appropriate data collection methods. 3. Interpret and evaluate the data using a variety of mathematical analysis techniques (formulas, percentages, line graphs, bar graphs, box plots, etc.). 4. Using results to determine causal/correlation relationships and trends.

18 18 Lab Practice 3: Reflect on Scientific Knowledge Enduring Understanding Scientific knowledge builds upon itself over time. Essential Question 1. How is scientific knowledge constructed? Lesson Objectives 1. Reflecting on one s own thinking and learning. 2. Understanding that scientific knowledge can be revised as new evidence emerges. 3. Using data and evidence to modify and extend investigations. 4. Being able to evaluate evidence and explanations to consider whether another interpretation is plausible with respect to existing scientific evidence. Lab Practice 4: Participate Productively in Science Enduring Understanding The growth of scientific knowledge involves critique and communication-social practices that are governed by a core set of values and norms. Essential Question 1. How does scientific knowledge benefit-deepen and broaden-from scientists sharing and debating ideas and information with peers? Lesson Objectives 1. Interacting with others to test new ideas, soliciting and providing feedback, articulating and evaluating emerging explanations, developing shared representations and models, and reaching consensus. 2. Constructing, presenting, and defending a scientific argument using literal representations such as graphs, data, equations, diagrams, and verbal explanations. 3. Demonstrate and practice appropriate and safe procedures for conducting science investigations within the classroom and in cyberspace. VI. Course Materials 1. Texts Biology (2007). Glencoe Science. ISBN#: (ACADEMIC) Biology Cycles of Life (2006). AGS Publishing. ISBN#: Teacher Textbook supplementary materials (Glencoe, AGS Publishing) 3. Videos/United Streaming 4. Laboratory supplies and equipment 5. Computer simulations, book websites, and reinforcement applications 6. Technology: Computers, Videoscope, SmartBoard, PowerPoint program

19 19 The following websites from the NJDOE are available for science curriculum reference. Suggested Activities & Suggested Modifications for Special Education Students, ELL Students, Students at Risk, and Gifted Students: 1. Students with special needs and ELL learners may be provided with key vocabulary terms prior to the unit beginning. In particular, the amount of key vocabulary terms should be reduced for ELL students. 2. ELL students may be provided with additional visual aids. For additional modifications, refer to Classroom Instruction that Works for ELL Learners or the SIOP protocol. 3. Gifted students may be challenged by asking them to form additional connections between biology, chemistry, and physics. VII. Assessments Each unit will have a variety of tests, quizzes, labs, projects, written homework assignments, presentations and class activities. These assessments will be geared toward the main learning objectives for each unit. In addition there will be a Midterm exam, Final exam, and Final project. VIII. Cross Curricular Aspects Biology teachers will work with Algebra 1 teachers to enhance student understanding of graphing, equation calculations, and basic statistical analysis. CCCS Literacy: Click on the link to the High School Evidence Statements to see expectations related to literacy for this unit. In addition, a focus of the course will be on the development of the LAL standards for science & technical subjects. CCCS Math: Students will be expected to perform measurement, modeling, apply algebra, and geometry and statistics. Interdisciplinary Connections and Alignment to Technology standards Science classes in the Fair Lawn Public schools promote career-readiness skills related to Personal Financial Literacy (9.1) and Career Awareness, Exploration, and Presentation (9.2). Some course concepts from the Career and Technical Education Standards (9.3), but these are not directly correlated since our district is not a CTE program.

20 1 The Fair Lawn Public Schools District fosters an environment that promotes career-readiness skills in all content areas. Whereas Career Ready Practices are explored consistently, specific alignment to Personal Finance Literacy (9.1) and Career Awareness, Exploration, and Presentation Standards (9.2) are included in the district level document (below). When appropriate, the Career and Technical Education Standards (9.3) have been reviewed and aligned as well. Examples: 9.2B: Career exploration in each unit of study. In addition, every effort is made to integrate technology and engineering into our science classes. Educational Technology (8.1) and Technology Education, Engineering, Design, and Computational Thinking Programming (8.2) standards are cross connected throughout our science programs. Examples: 8.1A: Use spreadsheets to analyze & interpret data from laboratories, Use the internet to increase productivity and efficiency, B,C: Use data to solve real-world problems, Use online platforms to collaborate & address global issues, F: Collect and analyze data using internet and data simulations, A: Become aware of the invention process, B: Become aware of the global impacts on technology, C: Apply the design process to pushes & pulls, K D: Use tools to reduce work, K-2. For additional detail on how these standards are integrated throughout the Fair Lawn Schools curriculum, review the Fair Lawn Public Schools District Alignment to Technology & Career Readiness & 21st Century Skills Standards Curriculum Appendix.

21 2 IX. Appendix: The 8 Themes of Biology (The College Board) 1. Science As A Process Science is a way of knowing. It can involve a discovery process using inductive reasoning or it can be a process of hypothesis testing. 2. Science, Technology & Society Living systems at the level of the organism and at the cellular level, have a complex nature through which structure relates to function. 3. Relationships of Structure and Function The structural levels from molecules to organisms ensure successful functioning in all organisms and living system. 4. Energy Transfer Energy is the ability to do work. All living things are active (alive) because of their abilities to link energy reactions to the biochemical reactions that take place within their cells. 5. Interdependence in Nature Living organisms rarely exist independently in nature. 6. Regulation Everything from cells to organisms to ecosystems is in a state of dynamic equilibrium (balance) that must be controlled by positive or negative feedback mechanisms. 7. Evolution Evolution is the biological change of organisms that occurs over time an is driven by the process of natural selection. Evolution accounts for the diversity of life on earth. 8. Continuity & Change All species tend to maintain themselves from generation to generation using the same genetic code. However, there are genetic mechanisms that lead to change over time, or evolution.

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