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1 Name: 1) Which series is arranged in correct order according to decreasing size of structures? A) DNA, nucleus, chromosome, nucleotide, nitrogenous base B) chromosome, nucleus, nitrogenous base, nucleotide, DNA C) nucleus, chromosome, DNA, nucleotide, nitrogenous base D) nucleotide, chromosome, nitrogenous base, nucleus, DNA 2) For the given phrase, choose the type of molecule that is contains the hereditary information passed on from generation to generation in humans A) messenger and transfer RNA, only B) messenger RNA, only C) transfer RNA, only D) DNA, only Questions 3 through 5 refer to the following: The diagram below represents part of an organic molecule. 3) The diagram represents a molecule of A) RNA B) DNA C) FSH D) ATP 4) Which two scientists proposed the double helix arrangement of this molecule? A) Watson and Crick B) Mendel and De Vries C) Hardy and Weinberg D) Darwin and Lamarck 5) Which statement describes the substance represented in the diagram? A) It is a double lipid layer molecule with connecting proteins. B) It is an energy-releasing molecule located in the cytoplasm. C) It is a small molecule found in ribosomes. D) It is a polymer found in chromosomes. 6) Which is the sugar component of a DNA nucleotide? A) phosphate B) deoxyribose C) glucose D) adenine 7) DNA and RNA molecules are similar in that they both contain A) thymine B) deoxyribose sugars C) a double helix D) nucleotides 8) Examples of polymers which contain repeating units known as nucleotides are A) fats and oils B) hemoglobin and maltase C) DNA and RNA D) starch and glycogen 9) Which substances are components of a DNA nucleotide? A) ribose, phosphate, and uracil B) phosphate, ribose, and adenine C) thymine, deoxyribose, and phosphate D) phosphate, deoxyribose, and uracil 10) The building blocks of both DNA and RNA molecules are known as A) amino acids B) nucleotides Questions 11 through 13 refer to the following: The diagrams below represent nucleotides. C) polysaccharides D) hydrocarbons 11) Which pair of nucleotides can be held together by weak hydrogen bonds? A) 4 and 2 B) 2 and 3 C) 1 and 3 D) 3 and Page 1 12) Which structure pairs with the adenine nucleotide during the formation of messenger RNA?

2 13) Which nucleotide contains a nitrogenous base that pairs with thymine in double-stranded DNA? 14) Which is the correct identification of the parts of the DNA nucleotide in the diagram below? A) A = phosphate, B = deoxyribose, C = thymine B) A = phosphate, B = ribose, C = uracil C) A = uracil, B = deoxyribose, C = thymine D) A = thymine, B = ribose, C = uracil 15) Which molecule is composed of two complementary chains of nucleotides? A) ATP B) DNA C) RNA D) ADP 16) The individuality of an organism is determined by the organism's A) amino acids B) DNA nucleotide sequence C) nitrogenous bases D) transfer RNA molecules Questions 17 through 20 refer to the following: The diagram below represents parts of two nucleic acid molecules. 20) At which location does the DNA molecule "unzip" during replication? 21) Which two principal actions of genes insure homeostatic control of life processes and continuity of hereditary material? A) oxygen transport and cyclosis B) oxidation and hydrolysis C) enzyme synthesis and replication D) pinocytosis and dehydration synthesis 22) For the given phrase, choose the type of nucleic acid which is best described by the phrase. contains thymine instead of uracil A) transfer RNA B) messenger RNA C) DNA 23) The coded information in a DNA molecule directly determines the formation of A) monosaccharides B) polypeptides 24) Two types of RNA molecules are A) transfer RNA and translocation RNA B) cytosine and thymine C) uracil and adenine D) messenger RNA and transfer RNA C) lipids D) polysaccharides 25) The function of transfer RNA molecules is to A) provide a template for the synthesis of messenger RNA B) transport amino acids to messenger RNA C) synthesize more transfer RNA molecules D) transport amino acids to DNA in the nucleus Questions 26 through 30 refer to the following: Page 2 The diagram below represents a portion of a messenger RNA molecule associated with a ribosome. 17) What is the normal nitrogenous base sequence in the segment of strand Y shown in the diagram? A) T-A-A-C B) T-G-U-C C) T-G-A-C D) U-G-A-C 18) Molecules represented by strand Z move from the nucleus of a cell to the cytoplasmic organelles known as A) centrioles B) vacuoles C) mitochondria D) ribosomes 19) If strand X serves as a template for the synthesis of strand Z, the base sequence of that fragment of strand Z shown is A) U-G-A-C B) A-C-T-G C) T-G-A-C D) A-C-U-G 26) The presence of which nitrogen base indicates that the molecule associated with the ribosome is RNA? A) adenine B) uracil C) cytosine D) guanine

3 27) The sequence of nucleotides on the RNA molecule was determined by the A) base sequence of the original messenger RNA molecule that served as a template B) sequence of amino acids that will be linked together to form a polypeptide chain C) sequence of nucleotides on transfer RNA molecules D) base sequence of the original DNA molecule that served as the template 28) The messenger RNA genetic codes for 3 different amino acids are: U-U-U = phenylalanine G-C-U = alanine G-G-U = glycine Using this information, the strip of messenger RNA shown in the illustration would result in an amino acid sequence consisting of A) alanine glycine phenylalanine B) alanine glycine glycine C) phenylalanine alanine glycine D) alanine phenylalanine glycine 29) The association between the ribosome and the messenger RNA molecule occurs in the A) nucleus B) nucleolus C) cytoplasm D) centrosome 30) The substance being synthesized in the cell is most likely a A) carbohydrate B) polypeptide Questions 31 and 32 refer to the following: C) vitamin D) fat A researcher prepared artificial messenger RNA molecules containing only uracil nucleotides, and then added to these molecules a mixture of amino acids, ATP, ribosomes, and transfer RNA's. The polypeptide that was produced contained only one kind of amino acid, phenylalanine. 31) The ribosomes were added to the system to A) add nucleotides to the chemical solution B) react chemically with the amino acids C) provide ATP for the chemical reaction D) provide a place for the messenger RNA to attach 32) The ATP was most likely added to the solution to provide A) enzymes B) nucleotides C) more amino acids D) energy 33) For the given phrase, choose the type of molecule that is carries a specific code from the nucleus to the site of protein synthesis A) DNA, only B) messenger RNA, only C) messenger and transfer RNA, only D) transfer RNA, only 34) For the given phrase, choose the type of molecule that is carries amino acids to the site of protein synthesis A) DNA, only B) messenger and transfer RNA, only C) transfer RNA, only D) messenger RNA, only 35) For the given phrase, choose the type of nucleic acid which is best described by the phrase. carries amino acid molecules to the ribosomes A) transfer RNA B) messenger RNA C) DNA 36) The genetic code for one amino acid molecule consists of A) three nucleotides B) four hydrogen bonds C) five sugar molecules D) two phosphates Page 3

4 Questions 55 through 57 refer to the following: Page 4 The diagram below represents a chemical process that occurs within cells. 37) Structure X represents a A) dipeptide B) polysaccharide C) disaccharide D) fat 38) The process represented in the diagram occurs on the cell organelle known as a A) mitochondrion B) chloroplast C) vacuole D) ribosome 39) The process represented in the diagram is A) protein hydrolysis B) cell respiration C) lipid digestion D) protein synthesis 40) According to the table below, which amino acid sequence would most likely be determined by a section of a DNA molecule with the base sequence A-A-G-G-A-T-C-C-G? A) glycine leucine arginine B) phenylalanine leucine glycine C) glycine arginine leucine D) phenylalanine arginine glycine 41) Which term refers to all the activities required to sustain life? A) synthesis B) excretion C) metabolism D) homeostasis 42) Which structure includes all of the others? A) nucleolus B) genes C) nucleus D) chromosomes 43) According to the cell theory, which statement is correct? A) Mitochondria are found only in plant cells. B) Cells come from preexisting cells. C) Cells are basically unlike in structure. D) Viruses are true cells. 44) Which type of organism is an exception to the cell theory? A) plant B) protozoan C) virus D) bacterium 45) Centrioles are cell structures involved primarily in A) storage of fats B) cellular respiration C) cell division D) enzyme production 46) Which organelle is present in the cells of a mouse but not present in the cells of a bean plant? A) cell membrane B) centriole C) chloroplast D) cell wall 47) Microscopic examination of an animal cell reveals the presence of a plasma membrane but no cell wall. Which additional structures would normally be present within this cell? A) starch grains B) large vacuoles C) centrioles D) chloroplasts 48) Which cell organelles are the sites of aerobic cellular respiration in both plant and animal cells? A) nuclei B) chloroplasts C) centrosomes 49) Most cellular respiration in plants takes place in organelles known as A) ribosomes B) stomates C) chloroplasts

5 50) A student observed a green plant cell under the low-power objective of her microscope and noted the movement of organelles as shown in diagram A. She then added three drops of a 10% salt solution to the slide, waited a few minutes, and observed the cell as shown in diagram B Page 5 55) Which cellular organelle is represented by the diagram below? The organelles observed were most likely A) centrosomes B) ribosomes C) chloroplasts 51) Enzyme synthesis in a living cell occurs at which cytoplasmic organelles? A) ribosomes B) chromosomes C) centrioles D) vacuoles 52) Which structures are found in every living cell? A) centrioles and chromosomes B) a cell wall and nucleus C) chloroplasts and mitochondria D) a plasma membrane and cytoplasm 53) Which statement best describes the plasma membrane of a living plant cell? A) It is composed of proteins and carbohydrates only. B) It is a double protein layer with floating lipid molecules. C) It selectively regulates the passage of substances into and out of the cell. D) It has the same permeability to all substances found inside or outside the cell. 54) Most cell membranes are composed principally of A) DNA and ATP B) nucleotides and amino acids C) proteins and lipids D) chitin and starch A) cell wall B) centriole C) plasma membrane D) ribosome 56) Four pieces of laboratory equipment are shown below. Which piece of equipment should be used to obtain the most accurate measure of the volume of a liquid? A) B) 57) Which group of measurement units is correctly arranged in order of increasing size? C) D) A) micrometer, centimeter, millimeter, meter B) meter, micrometer, centimeter, millimeter C) micrometer, millimeter, centimeter, meter D) millimeter, micrometer, centimeter, meter

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