the!sun!to!sugars.!this!is!called!! photosynthesis.!the!byproduct!of!those! Nucleus! sugars!is!our!oxygen.!

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1 Cytoplasm ANIMAL CELL Vacuoles Mitochondria Chromosomes GolgiApparatus Chloroplast+ TheChloroplastiswhatmakesthefood inthecell.they reonlyfoundinplant cellsandsomeprotists.everygreen plantyouseeisconvertingenergyfrom thesuntosugars.thisiscalled photosynthesis.thebyproductofthose Nucleus sugarsisouroxygen. Cell Membrane Golgi+Apparatus+ TheGolgiApparatusisfoundinmostcells.It s usedfor packing.thegolgiapparatuswas namedafteranitalianbiologistnamed CamilloGolgi.Itgatherssimplemoleculesand combinesthemtomakemorecomplex molecules.ittakesthosebigmoleculesand storesthemforlater. Cell+Membrane+ Thecellmembraneholdsallthecellpieces andfluidsinsidethecell,andkeepsallthe grossstuffout.proteinsandphospholipids makeupmostofthecellmembrane.most organelleshavecellmembranes,andsome evenhavetwo. Nucleus+ Thenucleusislikethecell s brain.it helpscontroleating,movement,and reproduction.thenucleusisnotalwaysin themiddleofthecell,althoughitmay seemlikeit.notallcellshaveanucleus, likeprokaryotes. Vacuoles+ Vacuolesarelikelittlestoragebubblesinthe cell.they refoundinplantandanimalcells,but aremuchlargerinplantcells.vacuolesstore foodandnutrientsneededforthecellsto survive.theyevenstorebadwastesotherest ofthecellisn tinfectedbyit. Tuesday, December 11, :31:14 PM Central Standard Time Cell+Wall+ Cellwallsareonlyfoundinplant cells.theyaremadeofcellulose. Celluloseisspecialized,tinysugars. Cellswallshelpaplantkeepits shape,aswellasprotectit.they allowplantstogetreallybig,too. Therearelittleholesinthecell walls,toletnutrients,waste,and ionspassthrough. CellWall Cytoplasm Chloroplast Mitochondria+ TheMitochondriaisconsideredthe powerhouse ofthecell.itactslikeyour digestivesystem.ittakesyournutrients, breaksitdown,andcreatesenergyforthe cell.thisiscalledcellularrespiration.the Mitochondriaisaverysmallorganelle. Somecellshavethousandsof Mitochondria;itjustdependsonwhatthe cell s job is. Plant CELL CellMembrane Mitochondria Chromosomes Nucleus Vacuole By:KatieandAli

2 Chemical Formula: C6H > CO2 + H20 + Energy Needs: Oxygen (O2) Sugar (glucose) Cellular Respiration The process of the cell taking in nutrients and turning it into energy Facts: ~There are two types of respiration. One of them includes us breathing in and out. The other can happen in plants, animals, and people cells. ~Respiration occurs in individual cells. ~Photosynthesis and Respiration are opposites. ~In cellular respiration, the sugars that are made in photosynthesis are broken down with oxygen to release energy. ~ Fermentation happens in cellular respiration ~ Fermentation is the process where no additional ATP is made. The organism only has two ATP molecules to every glucose molecule. Makes: Energy (ATP) Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Water (H20) Where it occurs: Animal The Mitochondria *Known as the powerhouse of the cell *Takes in nutrients and creates energy for the cell Plant Cell: By: KathleenElofsonand RyleighThibodeaux Tuesday, December 11, :32:58 PM Central Standard Time

3 B Y : H A R S H I & A L E X the Cell Cycle Cells go through a cycle of growth, division, and development called the Cell Cycle I nterphase Growth 1: Growth and regular cell functions Synthesis: Growth and DNA replication Growth 2: Growth and regular functions Organelle Replication P rophase First Stage of Mitosis: Copied DNA condenses into chromosomes Nuclear membrane breaks down Spindle fibers begin to form M etaphase Second Stage of Mitosis: Chromosomes line up in the middle of cell Spindle fibers position chromosomes A naphase Third Stage of Mitosis: Sister chromatids separate Spindle fibers shorten Cell lengthens T elophase Last Stage of Mitosis: Nuclear membrane forms around chromatin Spindle fibers break down Two nuclei form Chromosomes unwind Cytokinesis Begins Tuesday, December 11, :29:55 PM Central Standard Time B Y : H A R S H I & A L E X

4 Prokaryote: A microscopic single-celled organism, including bacteria and cyanobacteria; does not have a nucleus with a membrane or other specialized organelles. Eukaryote: Cell belonging to the domain Eukarya; has membrane enclosed nucleus and organelles. Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells By: Lily Erwin and Anna Claire Saffell There are 2 kinds of cells, Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic: -Prokaryotic Cells: *Prokaryotic cells do not have membranebound structures. *There is no nucleus. *They are simple cells. *They do not have organelles. *Usually smaller than eukaryotic cells *DNA floats around in the cell -Eukaryotic Cells: *There is a nucleus. *They are complex cells. *They contain organelles. *Store their DNA in the nucleus *These cells are more specialized than prokaryotic cells. FUN FACT Prokaryotic cells may have a cell wall, but it is not made of cellulose. This is a picture of a prokaryotic cell. It does not have a nucleus and the DNA floats around in the cell. This is a eukaryotic cell. It has a nucleus and the DNA floats around in the nucleus. FUN FACT The word eukaryote comes from the Greek words eu and karyon. This translates to true nucleus. (eukaryotic cells Tuesday, December 11, :28:49 PM Central Standard Time Lily Erwin and Anna Claire Saffell

5 PHOTOSYNTHESIS Photosynthesis is the process in which plants make their own food in order to survive. The Photosynthesi chemical equation for Sunlight photosynthesis is Carbon Dioxide H20+CO2=C6H2O6+O2 which is what the chart to the right shows. Water Respiration is the opposite of = photosynthesis. It needs Sugar what photosynthesis makes, and makes what Oxygen photosynthesis needs. (O2) Photosynthesis is very important to carry on life on Earth. Outer Membrane Respiration Stroma Chloroplast Thylakoid Inner Membrane Tuesday, December 11, :17:38 PM Central Standard Time Photosynthesis occurs in chloroplast (refer to the picture to the left). Chloroplast is found only in plants. Some organisms such as algae are not classified as plants, but they still make their food through photosynthesis. The main difference between plants and animals is chloroplast; plants have chloroplast, animals do not. Thylakoids store energy from the sunlight by chlorophyll in the thylakoid membrane. the stroma surrounds the thylakoid. Chlorophyll is what makes leaves green and it helps to capture solar energy. By: Madelyn Redmond & Camille Thorla

6 Blue:Dominant Orange: Recessive APedigree:A familytreeused forgenetic analysis tt TT Tt Tt Tt Tt tt TTorTt Genotype is a combination of alleles that an individual has for a certain gene. Phenotype is a way to describe traits you can see. The genotype helps decide the phenotype. You can tell if a trait is is dominant or recessive by the phenotype. As long as you know what the phenotype is supposed to be for a dominant or recessive trait. If you do not know what the phenotype is supposed to be, you can figure it out by running through the different possibilities using a punnet square. A Punnet square is a square with four boxes inside that square. For example you cannot get a child with a dominant phenotype from two recessive phenotype parents. Wednesday, December 12, :26:27 AM Central Standard Time By:SamuelBreauxandNoahFair

7 Exam Review CHARACTERISTICS OF LIFE As you see, Gloria the Gorilla, Lily the Lion, and Tim the Toucan are all living and have many things in common, while they may seem very different Animals, plants, fish, and insects are all living As stated in the cell theory all living things are made up of cells. Characteristics of All Living Things: Need energy to carry out life processes. -Plants: make their own food Tim eats berries for his energy. -Animals: eat other animals and animals -Fungi: get their energy from decomposing plants and animals Are composed of one or more cells. -Stated in the cell theory Respond to their environment -Changes in light, heat, sound, chemicals, and touch Lily and Leo had babies Grow and reproduce -Reproduction is necessary for survival. Maintain a stable internal environment (homeostasis) -Think of trying to stay cool on a hot summer day Key terms: Cell: the smallest unit of life Embryo: An animal or plant while it is being developed before birth or hatching. Homeostasis: maintaining a stable internal environment regardless of what is happening in the environment Organism: any living thing BY: ALYSSA SHARBAUGH AND COURTNEY PATTERSON Wednesday, December 12, :28:05 AM Central Standard Time

8 Punnett Squares T T t TT Tt To create a punnett square, you combine one allele from the top with one from the left. Co-dominance-The traits from both alleles are expressed equally; Equal dominance. t Tt tt Punnett Square Incomplete Dominance- Traits from both of the alleles are combined. This forms a combined phenotype. Punnett Squares can be used to predict the genotype and phenotype of an offspring. They use dominant and recessive traits to predict the offsprings physical and genetic characteristics. These traits are combined to form gene pairs. In a punnett squares, the dominant trait is always going to overpower the recessive trait. This is not always the case in real life. Sometime the recessive trait will show up instead of the dominant trait. Recessive Trait- An inherited trait that is rarely expressed in the organism s phenotype. Dominant Trait- An inherited trait that is commonly expressed in the organism s phenotype. Heterozygous- A gene pair with a dominant and recessive allele. Homozygous- When the gene pair has two identical alleles. Tuesday, December 11, :14:15 PM Central Standard Time By: Gary, Christopher, and Thomas

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