2013 Course Technology, Cengage Learning

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2 This is an eectronic version of the print textbook. Due to eectronic rights restrictions, some third party content may be suppressed. Editoria review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materiay affect the overa earning experience. The pubisher reserves the right to remove content from this tite at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. For vauabe information on pricing, previous editions, changes to current editions, and aternate formats, pease visit to search by ISBN#, author, tite, or keyword for materias in your areas of interest. Copyright 2012 Cengage Learning. A Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or dupicated, in whoe or in part. Due to eectronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the ebook and/or echapter(s). Editoria review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materiay affect the overa earning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additiona content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

3 A Guide to Computer User Support for Hep Desk & Support Speciaists, Fifth Edition Fred Beisse Executive Editor: Marie Lee Acquisitions Editor: Brandi Shaier Senior Product Manager: Ayssa Pratt Deveopmenta Editor: Mary Pat Shaffer Senior Content Project Manager: Cathie DiMassa Associate Product Manager: Stephanie Lorenz Associate Marketing Manager: Shanna Sheton Art Director: Faith Brosnan Cover Designer: Cabbage Design Company Cover Image: istockphoto.com/diane39 Senior Print Buyer: Juio Esperas Copyeditor: Michae Beckett Proofreader: John Bosco Indexer: Sharon Higenberg Compositor: Integra Software Services 2013 Course Technoogy, Cengage Learning ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. No part of this work covered by the copyright herein may be reproduced, transmitted, stored, or used in any form or by any means graphic, eectronic, or mechanica, incuding but not imited to photocopying, recording, scanning, digitizing, taping, Web distribution, information networks, or information storage and retrieva systems, except as permitted under Section 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without the prior written permission of the pubisher. For product information and technoogy assistance, contact us at Cengage Learning Customer & Saes Support, For permission to use materia from this text or product, submit a requests onine at Further permissions questions can be emaied to Library of Congress Contro Number: ISBN-13: ISBN-10: X Course Technoogy 20 Channe Center Street Boston, MA USA Cengage Learning is a eading provider of customized earning soutions with office ocations around the gobe, incuding Singapore, the United Kingdom, Austraia, Mexico, Brazi, and Japan. Locate your oca office at Cengage Learning products are represented in Canada by Neson Education, Ltd. To earn more about Course Technoogy, visit Purchase any of our products at your oca coege store or at our preferred onine store: Some of the product names and company names used in this book have been used for identification purposes ony and may be trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective manufacturers and seers. Course Technoogy, a part of Cengage Learning, reserves the right to revise this pubication and make changes from time to time in its content without notice. Photo credits: p. 56, Figure 2-1(a) Pau Matthew Photography/Shutterstock.com; p. 56, Figure 2-1(b) vgstudio/shutterstock.com; p. 80, Figure , Tech Support Forum; p. 155, Figure Microsoft; p. 157, Figure 4-7 Monkey Business Images /Shutterstock.com; p. 167, Figure 4-9 Christina Richards/ Shutterstock.com; p. 190, Figure 5-2 Chris Heyar/Shutterstock.com; p. 194, Figure 5-3 Courtesy of Fred Beisse; p. 205, Figure Googe; p. 256, Figure Hep Desk Technoogy Internationa Corporation; p. 257, Figure Hep Desk Technoogy Internationa Corporation; p. 258, Figure Hep Desk Technoogy Internationa Corporation; p. 259, Figure Hep Desk Technoogy Internationa Corporation; p. 260, Figure Hep Desk Technoogy Internationa Corporation; p. 269, Figure 6-10 C. Kurt Hoter/Shutterstock.com; p. 302, Figure Hep Desk Technoogy Internationa Corporation; p. 331, Figure 8-2 Monkey Business Images/Shutterstock.com; p. 347, Figure 8-4 Reprinted by permission of Honouu Community Coege; p. 351, Figure 8-5 Reprinted by permission of Honouu Community Coege; p. 350, Figure 8-6 Reprinted by permission of Honouu Community Coege; p. 445, Figure 10-5 Nataia Siverina/Shutterstock.com; p. 540, Figure Comodo Security Soutions, Inc. A rights reserved; p. 603, Figure B Hep Desk Technoogy Internationa Corporation; p. 607, Figure B Hep Desk Technoogy Internationa Corporation; p. 610, Figure B Hep Desk Technoogy Internationa Corporation; p. 611, Figure B Hep Desk Technoogy Internationa Corporation; p. 612, Figure B Hep Desk Technoogy Internationa Corporation; p. 614, Figure B Hep Desk Technoogy Internationa Corporation; p. 615, Figure B Hep Desk Technoogy Internationa Corporation; p. 617, Figure B Hep Desk Technoogy Internationa Corporation; p. 618, Figure B Hep Desk Technoogy Internationa Corporation Printed in the United States of America Copyright 2012 Cengage Learning. A Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or dupicated, in whoe or in part. Due to eectronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the ebook and/or echapter(s). Editoria review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materiay affect the overa earning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additiona content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

4 CHAPTER 1 Introduction to Computer User Support In this chapter, you wi earn about: How changes in computer technoogy over time have affected computer use Ways to cassify end users Resources computer users need and major categories of end-user software Common probems encountered by users Job market demand for user support workers Common ways to organize and provide support services Typica position descriptions for user support staff Knowedge, skis, and abiities required for an entry-eve support position Career paths for user support workers Copyright 2012 Cengage Learning. A Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or dupicated, in whoe or in part. Due to eectronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the ebook and/or echapter(s). Editoria review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materiay affect the overa earning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additiona content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

5 CHAPTER 1 Introduction to Computer User Support 2 The computer industry has been changing continuousy since it began over 60 years ago, and it wi undoubtedy continue to change in the future. One resut of this ongoing transformation is that computer industry professionas rarey work with the same hardware, software, networks, operationa procedures, and job descriptions they earned about in schoo or training courses. To prepare for future positions in the computer industry, students today must earn more than just the current technoogy. They aso need to earn how to keep up with constant change and how to make earning new technoogies a part of their day-to-day work routine. The purpose of this book is to hep you earn about and prepare for information technoogy jobs, with a focus on the probems that your coworkers or cients wi encounter when they attempt to make effective use of computer technoogy. The book incudes information on what you need to know and what you need to be abe to do in order to work in the fied of computer user support. Chapter 1 gives you an overview of information technoogy from two perspectives. We wi ook at computer use from the perspective of end users your coworkers and cients who use computers for work or persona activities. We wi aso introduce computer user support as a career fied, and discuss how you may prepare for work as a computer support professiona. To hep you understand the context of end-user computing within the computer industry and the need for computer user support workers, we wi begin with a brief overview of the past 70 years of deveopment of computer technoogy. Historica Changes in Computer Use End-user computing refers to the use of computers for both business and persona use. At every eve within organizations, workers today use persona computers (PCs) to accompish their work. Furthermore, most peope aso have computers in their homes or use computers in pubic paces such as ibraries, schoos, and government offices. However, when computers were first used in business, most workers did not have computers on their desks nor did they use computers themseves at east not directy. The highights of changes in computer technoogy and the deveopments that ed to end-user computing and user support are summarized in Tabe 1-1. Copyright 2012 Cengage Learning. A Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or dupicated, in whoe or in part. Due to eectronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the ebook and/or echapter(s). Editoria review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materiay affect the overa earning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additiona content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

6 Historica Changes in Computer Use Decade Primary Types and Uses of Computer Systems 1940s Invention of centra processing units and periphera devices 1950s Eary use of computers in arge corporations 1960s Widespread use of arge-scae computers Eary use of smaer, workgroup computers 1970s Widespread use of workgroup computers Termina access by workers to arge-scae and workgroup computers 3 Eary use of persona computers 1980s Widespread use of home and business persona computers Avaiabiity of mass-market appication software and GUI persona computer operating systems Eary use of data communications and networks to connect persona computers to each other and PCs to arger systems 1990s Widespread use of data communications and oca area and wide area computer networks Growth of distributed computing Rapid growth of the Internet as a goba network 2000s Increased use of the Internet for eectronic business and business-tobusiness transactions Avaiabiity of very ow-cost PCs Deveopment of wireess communication technoogies 2010s Integration of computer technoogy into a variety of business and persona devices Deveopment of coud computing Tabe 1-1 Miestones in the adoption of computer technoogy Copyright 2012 Cengage Learning. A Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or dupicated, in whoe or in part. Due to eectronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the ebook and/or echapter(s). Editoria review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materiay affect the overa earning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additiona content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

7 CHAPTER 1 Introduction to Computer User Support 4 ON THE WEB A detaied time ine of events in the history of computers is avaiabe at The History of Computing Project Web site (www.thocp.net). For a history of the Internet, view a side show (www.isoc.org/internet/history/2002_0918_internet_history_and_growth.ppt); requires Microsoft PowerPoint, or a viewer. Or, view a short video on the history of the Internet at v=9hiqjrmhtv4. Instead of entering the engthy Web site addresses in the On the Web features in this book, use the book s companion Web site (www.cus5e.com) to ink to the address of each resource described in the book. The 1950s and 1960s: Eary Computers In the 1950s and 1960s, computer systems in business and government were highy centraized. Eary computer systems were very arge and very expensive to buy and operate. Because of this, they were instaed in secure centra ocations. These systems were programmed and operated not by end users, but by computer professionas. The primary goa of eary computer use was to increase business productivity by automating manua tasks. Empoyees used these eary, arge-scae systems by transporting trays of punched cards that recorded business transactions to a centra site for processing. The 1970s: The First Steps Toward Decentraized Computing During the 1970s, computer use in many organizations graduay became decentraized. Two trends in computing encouraged the transition: The deveopment of terminas (keyboards and dispay screens) that were ocated on workers desks and coud be connected directy to arge computer systems. The deveopment of smaer, ess expensive computer systems that reduced the cost of ownership to businesses and government agencies. These systems were used by smaer businesses and by departments or workgroups in arger organizations. The 1980s and 1990s: The Growth of Decentraized Computing It was not unti the 1980s and 1990s that arge numbers of workers in many companies began to use computers directy on a daiy basis a trend that ushered in the era of end-user computing. Severa trends converged in the 1980s to make the widespread transition to decentraized end-user computing possibe. These trends are summarized in Figure 1-1. Copyright 2012 Cengage Learning. A Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or dupicated, in whoe or in part. Due to eectronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the ebook and/or echapter(s). Editoria review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materiay affect the overa earning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additiona content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

8 Historica Changes in Computer Use The backog of requests for new computer appications An increase in the number of knowedge workers The avaiabiity of inexpensive persona computers The avaiabiity of inexpensive productivity software 5 The deveopment of user-friendy graphica user interfaces Figure 1-1 Major reasons for the growth of decentraized computing Appications Backog The appications deveopment backog refers to the excess demand for new computer appications that coud not be met by the suppy of computer professionas avaiabe to deveop them. The widespread backog probem was we known during this period and was a source of frustration for professiona data-processing staffs and business departments that demanded new appications. More Knowedge Workers A knowedge worker is an empoyee whose primary job is to coect, prepare, process, and distribute information. The growth in the number of knowedge workers has corresponded with shifts in the U.S. economy from agricutura and industria to automated work tasks that rey on computer technoogy. ON THE WEB The demand for knowedge workers continues today. An examination of the number and types of positions isted on Internet job search sites and in Sunday newspapers attests to the unmet demand for knowedge workers in many industries, even during chaenging economic times. To earn more about knowedge workers, read the artice The Age of Socia Transformation by Peter Drucker (who invented the term in 1959) on the Atantic Monthy Web site (www.theatantic.com/past/docs/issues/ 95dec/chiearn/drucker.htm). Copyright 2012 Cengage Learning. A Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or dupicated, in whoe or in part. Due to eectronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the ebook and/or echapter(s). Editoria review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materiay affect the overa earning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additiona content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

9 CHAPTER 1 Introduction to Computer User Support 6 Decining Persona Computer Costs Another reason for the rapid growth of end-user computing during the 1980s and 1990s was a dramatic drop in the cost of providing computer technoogy to workers. As computer costs were decreasing, technoogy capabiities (especiay semiconductor power and capacity) were doubing every 18 to 24 months due to advances in microcomputer technoogy. A microcomputer is a compete computer (often caed a persona computer, or PC) buit on a smaer scae than arge-scae or workgroup systems, with a microprocessor as the centra processing unit (CPU). During the 1980s, the first microcomputers in an organization were often acquired by individua workers who made unauthorized purchases, despite warnings by computer professionas that money shoud not be wasted on these toy computers. ON THE WEB Moore s Law is a popuar rue of thumb in the computer industry. Inte co-founder Gordon Moore predicted in 1975 that the capabiities of the technoogy (CPU speed, for exampe) woud doube every two years. Read a 2005 interview with Gordon Moore at news.cnet.com/moore on 40 years of his dictum/ _ htm. Inexpensive Productivity Software Whie eary computer hardware was expensive, deveoping appications software was even more costy. Many organizations reported that they actuay spent more on programming custom software appications than on hardware. The deveopment of inexpensive massmarket appications software (such as WordStar, VisiCac, Lotus 1-2-3, and dbase) meant that many organizations, and sometimes even individua workers, coud afford not ony persona computer hardware but aso the software that woud make workers more productive computer users. As a consequence, many end users were no onger dependent on computer professionas (and the reated appications deveopment backog) to automate their work tasks. User-Friendy Graphica User Interfaces Users of eary computer systems communicated with a computer s operating system by typing commands at a termina keyboard. During the 1980s and 1990s, many of the programs written for persona computers incorporated menus and graphica user interfaces (GUIs), or screen images that enabe users to access program features and functions intuitivey. GUIs and point-and-cick devices made programs much easier to use than command-oriented software. Copyright 2012 Cengage Learning. A Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or dupicated, in whoe or in part. Due to eectronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the ebook and/or echapter(s). Editoria review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materiay affect the overa earning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additiona content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

10 Historica Changes in Computer Use ON THE WEB For more information about the deveopment of the graphica user interface, incuding a time ine of deveopment highights, see toastytech.com/guis/guitimeine.htm. 7 The Late 1990s and 2000s: The Era of Distributed and Network Computing Innovations in the way computers were used continued to deveop during the ate 1990s and into the 2000s. Large-scae and workgroup computers were not repaced by end-user persona computers in many organizations; rather, the two were joined through the technoogy of computer networks. Distributed computing, a term that describes an environment in which the needs of an organization and its workers determine the ocation of its computer resources, became common during this time. Organizations frequenty require arge-scae and workgroup computers, acting as network servers, to perform enterprise-wide transaction processing and information storage, as we as desktop toos to increase persona productivity at each workstation. Distributed computing reies on server, wired, wireess, and Internet network technoogy to ink workers and cients in a sma business or throughout an entire enterprise. The 2010s and Beyond: Coud Computing In the eary years of the 2010s, a new era of integrated and converging technoogies is beginning. Computer technoogy is now embedded in a variety of business and persona technoogies and devices, incuding ce phones, tabet PCs, music and video payers, gaming systems, Goba Positioning System (GPS) devices, teevisions, digita cameras, eectronic book readers, text and video messaging, and home security systems. Because computer technoogy now permits very sma devices to store and process arge amounts of information, and because wireess communication permits these devices to communicate with each other as we as to access the Internet, these devices are often referred to as smart technoogies. In addition, the trend of the 1980s and 1990s toward decentraization of computing has begun to swing back to a more centraized infrastructure caed coud computing. In coud computing, powerfu servers store and process data remotey deivering information, communication toos, and powerfu software appications (aso caed apps) on demand via the Internet. Computer users today may connect to the coud from a variety of smart devices. Coud computing wi have significant impacts on the deivery of end-user support services, as we wi see in Chapter 6. Changes in computer technoogy over the past 70 years have been accompanied by organizationa changes. What was formery known as the Data Processing (DP) Department in the 1960s and 70s has been renamed Information Systems or Information Services (IS), or Information Technoogy (IT). The name change refects a broader roe for technoogy in Copyright 2012 Cengage Learning. A Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or dupicated, in whoe or in part. Due to eectronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the ebook and/or echapter(s). Editoria review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materiay affect the overa earning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additiona content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

11 CHAPTER 1 Introduction to Computer User Support organizations and an increased emphasis on providing services to knowedge workers. The IS or IT Department now operates distributed corporate networks that can incude arge-scae workgroup, desktop, aptop, tabet, and wireess systems as we as individua communications devices, such as ceuar technoogy. 8 Cassifying End Users To understand the variety of environments and situations in which organizations provide technica support to their knowedge workers, it is hepfu to recognize the different types of end users. Who are end users? Where are they ocated? Do they use computers in a business or home environment? How do they use computers? End users can be cassified in many ways; Figure 1-2 ists some common cassifications. Environment: Persona (home) user or work (corporate, organizationa, enterprise) user Ski eve: Novice, semiskied, or expert Frequency of use: Occasiona, frequent, or extensive Software use: Word processing, emai, accounting, or others (see End-User Appications Software in this chapter) Features used: Basic, intermediate, or advanced (power users) Reationship: Interna user (coworker) or externa user (cient) Figure 1-2 Common categories of end users Environment It can be hepfu to distinguish between peope whose primary use of computers occurs at home with nonbusiness-reated appications and those whose primary use occurs at work with business-reated appications. Of course, many users fa into both groups at different times. Ski Leve End users span a range from novice users (who have itte or no computer experience, difficuty with basic computer vocabuary, and many questions) to highy skied users who may be argey sef-sufficient. However, users who are highy skied in one appication program may be novices in another appication. Copyright 2012 Cengage Learning. A Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or dupicated, in whoe or in part. Due to eectronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the ebook and/or echapter(s). Editoria review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materiay affect the overa earning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additiona content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

12 Cassifying End Users Frequency of Use Some peope use computers ony occasionay; they may not use a computer every day or even every week. Other users make frequent, often daiy, use of a computer. Some users make amost continua use of a computer. Software Used Users can be cassified by which software appications they use. For exampe, home users may primariy work with word-processing and emai programs, and pay computer games for entertainment. Business users often work with spreadsheet and database appications or software designed for a specific business function, such as a speciaized heathcare accounting system. 9 Features Used Some peope may use ony basic software features. They may ony know how to perform a imited set of simpe tasks using common features of a program. Others may use more features, incuding some that are intermediate in their power and compexity. Users who are comfortabe with advanced software features have earned to use the fu power of the software in order to be very productive; they are sometimes caed power users. Reationship Another way to cassify end users is by their reationship to the support provider. Some are interna users who work within the overa organization that provides support services. They are sometimes caed in-house cients from a support perspective. In this context, a coworker who teecommutes from home is an interna end user. Others are externa users who are cients or customers ocated outside of an organization. One exampe of an externa user is an individua who purchases hardware, software, or technica services from a retai vendor. Another exampe is enterprise users, such as peope who work for a company that purchases hardware, software, or services from a vendor. As you wi earn, interna and externa users can have very different demands for support services. Any user may, of course, fa into severa of these categories. For exampe, a specific end user may be a semiskied, interna user in the accounting department who makes frequent use of intermediate features of QuickBooks accounting software. No matter how they are categorized, a end users need some common resources to make their use of computer technoogy as effective as possibe. Copyright 2012 Cengage Learning. A Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or dupicated, in whoe or in part. Due to eectronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the ebook and/or echapter(s). Editoria review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materiay affect the overa earning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additiona content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

13 CHAPTER 1 Introduction to Computer User Support 10 Resources End Users Need Peope who want to use computers at home, on the job, or in schoo often purchase their first computer on the basis of media advertising. Ads for computers may tout compete systems for ess than $500. These are usabe, but fairy basic, hardware configurations that may or may not incude the fu range of hardware a user needs to be productive at a specific task. Firsttime purchasers are sometimes surprised that the fu cost of owning a persona computer system is often much more than the purchase price of the initia hardware. What kinds of resources do end users need, and what costs are they ikey to encounter? Basic Hardware Hardware refers to the eectrica and mechanica components that are part of a computer system. Users who want to perform even basic tasks, such as word processing or reading and sending emai, need a system with a centra processing unit (CPU) as we as memory, storage space, a keyboard and a mouse, a monitor, and usuay a printer. The cost of the hardware is ony a starting point in the cost of a compete system. Add-on Peripheras In addition to basic hardware, users frequenty need periphera devices, or hardware add-ons that pug into the computer s system unit, either internay (inside the case) or externay. For exampe, anyone who wants to connect to the Internet needs a dia-up or broadband modem or a wired or wireess connection to a oca area network. Users who work with graphic images usuay purchase a scanner or a digita camera, or both. Anyone who wants to make convenient media backups might invest in a removabe disk. The ist of avaiabe periphera devices is ong and can add considerabe expense to a basic system. Hardware Maintenance and Upgrades Most PCs are sod with a basic warranty and perhaps some technica assistance to cover initia instaation or operationa probems. Warranties of 90 days to a year are common. During a warranty period, hardware probems are repaired or repaced without charge. A few companies aso offer next-day, on-site repair services. Other companies offer a warranty that specifies that the user must pay shipping to return a defective device to the manufacturer or to a repair depot. Some companies offer extended warranties on hardware components. Because most computer components that fai do so eary, during the standard warranty period, the cost of extended warranties is often very high reative to their vaue. In any case, computer purchasers shoud know the features of the warranty that comes with a new PC and whether technica assistance is avaiabe ocay or via a ong-distance phone ca. Even after the initia purchase of a system and peripheras, additiona costs may arise. During the two- to four-year ife of a typica computer system, users might need to upgrade the amount of memory, the CPU speed, the size of the hard disk drive, the speed of a periphera Copyright 2012 Cengage Learning. A Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or dupicated, in whoe or in part. Due to eectronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the ebook and/or echapter(s). Editoria review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materiay affect the overa earning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additiona content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

14 Resources End Users Need (such as a modem or a printer), or other system components. As technoogica improvements are introduced, users may want to take advantage of new devices such as an improved graphics or sound system, a removabe hard drive, or a Web-cam. Hardware upgrades hep keep systems fuy functiona as more compex software packages with arger memory and disk space requirements become avaiabe and as hardware devices with more capabiities are deveoped. Athough the hardware components in most PCs are generay reiabe, hardware service organizations stay busy diagnosing and repairing a mutitude of mafunctions. Most organizations and even individua users with a sizabe investment in computer equipment shoud budget for occasiona hardware repairs or repacement. Athough individua home users may beat the odds and never need hardware repairs, the probabiity is that at some point, a user wi experience a burned-out power suppy or a crashed hard drive, and wi have to pay the cost of a repacement. 11 Software and Software Upgrades Most hardware packages are bunded (sod) with a preconfigured operating system. However, some users need an aternate operating system, such as Linux, instead of or in addition to Windows. For these users, the aternate operating system often represents an added cost. Users shoud anticipate their appication software needs and budget accordingy, especiay if they need to purchase one or more specia-purpose packages. Exampes of speciaized software incude a computer-aided design (CAD) program and a software package taiored to a specific business, such as a patient-biing system. Athough mass-market software is often fairy inexpensive, speciaized software can add thousands of doars to the cost of a system. The significant cost of software is a reason users are attracted to open source software, which is often distributed free of charge. Besides the initia purchase of an operating system and appications software, users need to budget for software upgrades. Athough some software upgrades are free when downoaded from the Internet, many upgrades must be purchased. Common exampes incude annua fees for many virus-protection programs and annua updates to a tax-preparation program. Suppies When estimating the tota cost of a computer system, users shoud be sure to incude consumabes, such as printer paper, maiing abes, ink-jet or aser printer cartridges, ceaning suppies, media (recordabe CDs and DVDs or tape cartridges), cabes, and other suppies they wi need to operate their system. Data and Information End users who need to communicate with other users or obtain information from outside sources can incur costs for information services. The monthy cost of an Internet service Copyright 2012 Cengage Learning. A Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or dupicated, in whoe or in part. Due to eectronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the ebook and/or echapter(s). Editoria review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materiay affect the overa earning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additiona content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

15 CHAPTER 1 Introduction to Computer User Support provider fas into this category, as do the costs of downoading stock market, financia, or economic data from an onine service. Athough many information vendors initiay offer free access to data to attract customers, providers of speciaized or proprietary information and expert knowedge typicay charge for access after an introductory period. 12 Technica Support As end users buy and earn new programs and discover additiona uses for programs they aready own, they often need technica support. Support costs can incude instaation assistance, training courses, books, and magazines. Users may want to contract with a vendor to perform the initia system instaation tasks, or they may need to contact a hep desk to sove an instaation or operationa probem. When they do, they may have to pay for ongdistance teephone charges in addition to the cost of the support ca itsef. Some computer vendors se instaation assistance and user support by the hour or for a fixed fee. In a arge organization, computer support for empoyees is a major budget item. Training is a good exampe of a technica support service that can add substantiay to the cost of a computer system. Training for end users is avaiabe in a variety of formats, as described in Chapter 11. Some users try to avoid the cost of training by using a tria-and-error earning approach, which may appear to be free. However, when you factor in the cost of reduced productivity and the errors made by a poory trained user, the hidden costs of this approach to training are significant. Whie the purchase of a $40 tutoria, book, or onine course for a software product may seem inexpensive, a worker s time away from task must be incuded as a hidden cost. Faciities, Administration, and Overhead Both home users and businesses shoud budget for the cost of the faciities needed to house and operate a computer system. Faciities incude furniture, ergonomic devices (such as keyboard wrist rests and antigare screens), eectricity, air conditioning, power conditioners, space, and other workpace components that are necessary to operate a computer system. In many organizations, overhead and supervisory costs are reated to the management of enduser computing systems. These costs incude acquisition assistance, purchase-order processing, shipping, inventory contro, insurance, security, and reated costs of doing business. The cost of end-user computing must incude a proportiona share of overhead costs. Tota Cost of Ownership The ist of cost categories for an end-user computing system is ong. Of course, not a costs appy to each user or to every system. But what costs shoud be anticipated, bottom ine? The tota cost of ownership (TCO), or the tota expenditures necessary to purchase, maintain, upgrade, and support an end user s persona computer over its expected usefu ifetime, Copyright 2012 Cengage Learning. A Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or dupicated, in whoe or in part. Due to eectronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the ebook and/or echapter(s). Editoria review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materiay affect the overa earning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additiona content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

16 End-User Appication Software provides this figure. Gartner, a technoogy consuting company that researches trends in the computer industry, estimates that the tota cost of ownership to an organization for a persona computer system over a four-year period averages over $23,000, or approximatey $5800 per year. Hardware costs accounted for ony about 20 percent of the tota cost of ownership; software, maintenance, and support made up the remainder. As you can see from this overview, end users need many types of resources to make their computers true productivity toos. End users who are attracted to an ad for a $500 computer shoud be aware that other ownership costs must be incuded in the tota package. 13 ON THE WEB To earn more about tota cost of ownership and the factors that users shoud consider in a computer budget, see resources/docs/costofown.pdf. End-User Appication Software Among the computer resources needed by end users, appication software has a significant impact on user productivity. Tasks that formery required considerabe manua effort, such as preparing a budget report or maintaining a maiing ist, can be done quicky and more accuratey with a we-designed appication software program. End users run a variety of software appications, which are grouped into severa broad categories: Eectronic mai and instant messaging Eectronic mai (emai) enabes users to communicate with other users, and it is a the most common use of computers today for both home and business users. A popuar feature of emai is the abiity to send attachments to a message (an attachment is a separate fie transmitted with the emai message that contains a document, worksheet, graphic image, video cip, or other output from an appication program). Instant messaging (or chat ) is communication between two or more users who are onine (connected to the Internet or to a server) at the same time. Web browser A Web browser is a software too that enabes users to find and dispay information on the Internet and to perform tasks such as banking and shopping from a home computer. Pages of information in a format caed Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) are stored and transmitted via Internet servers. A Web browser retrieves each page and dispays it on a user s PC. Word processing Word-processing software enabes users to prepare and change text and to easiy integrate graphics, numeric data, and footnotes into a document that can be printed or emaied as an attachment. Word processors are usuay part of an office suite of software toos. Copyright 2012 Cengage Learning. A Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or dupicated, in whoe or in part. Due to eectronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the ebook and/or echapter(s). Editoria review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materiay affect the overa earning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additiona content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

17 CHAPTER 1 Introduction to Computer User Support 14 Spreadsheets Because office workers frequenty prepare reports with numeric data vaues in addition to narrative text, eectronic spreadsheets are cose to the top of many users software shopping ists. Spreadsheets are used to prepare budgets, saes reports and forecasts, financia statements, and management anayses. Spreadsheet software is aso commony incuded in packages of business software toos (aso caed office suites). Database management End users frequenty need to track information that reates to business activities and projects. Database management software is used to maintain cient ists, maiing ists, personne records, office suppy inventories, and cass rosters. Database software runs the gamut from easy-to-use packages that are often incuded in office suites to sophisticated enterprise-wide database management systems. Graphics Users often need to summarize and present information in the form of pictures, charts, maps, or drawings. Graphics software ets a user create iustrations and charts that anayze trends, show reationships, summarize arge amounts of data, and hep peope visuaize information. Many office suites incude some graphics capabiities. Panning and scheduing Office workers spend a considerabe amount of time panning and scheduing their individua tasks as we as coaborating on team projects. Software packages for panning and scheduing incude persona information managers, which hep business or home users maintain an eectronic caendar, a to-do ist, and an eectronic address book. For coaborative projects, scheduing and caendar software can hep users arrange meetings at an avaiabe time for a team members. In addition, project management programs aow managers to pan, schedue, and monitor the status of tasks for a project team, as you wi see in Chapter 7. Desktop pubishing Desktop pubishing software combines the features of a word processor and a graphics program. Desktop pubishing software enabes users to design, ay out, and prepare at a reativey ow cost high-quaity brochures, newsetters, posters, manuas, and other printed materia that woud otherwise need to be designed and typeset by a printing professiona. Web site deveopment Web site deveopment software is popuar with professiona and home users who design and maintain a business or persona Web site. Web site deveopment software enabe users to create, maintain, and update Web pages that incude a mixture of text and graphics and incorporate features such as emai inks, bogs, chat rooms, Fie Transfer Protoco (FTP), and restricted access for security. Educationa and entertainment software Educationa software provides earners with hands-on experience to suppement an instructor s ectures or course materias. Educationa software can simuate rea-word activities, test earner understanding, and provide feedback on a earner s progress. Computer games are, of course, a significant portion of the onine entertainment industry. Enterprise appications Corporations and business enterprises continue to run many of the same appications on their arge-scae systems as they did decades ago, incuding payro, accounting, inventory and asset contro, manufacturing, and human resource management. Popuar categories of appications software for arge-scae systems incude customer reationship management (CRM) and enterprise resource panning (ERP). Copyright 2012 Cengage Learning. A Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or dupicated, in whoe or in part. Due to eectronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the ebook and/or echapter(s). Editoria review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materiay affect the overa earning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additiona content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

18 Probems End Users Experience Industry-specific appications In addition to the genera categories of appications software isted earier, many businesses and professionas use computer appications that are specific to their speciaized fieds. Exampes incude: u u u u Patient care and biing software used in medica, denta, optometric, veterinary, and other heathcare occupations for patient histories and biing Geographic Information Systems (GIS) software used by governmenta, urban panning, and engineering organizations to anayze geographic data and prepare maps Brokerage transaction systems that aow financia institutions and individua investors to submit buy and se orders for stocks and commodities directy to a stock exchange Automated design software used by engineering and construction firms to pan structura stee and concrete bridges and buidings and to manage the detais of infrastructure construction projects These software categories describe some common persona computer appications and incude many of the primary appications workers use in business, government, education, nonprofit, and other organizations. New categories of appications continue to emerge as needs deveop. 15 Chapter 10 ists some of the popuar packages in each category. Whether for home or business use, amost a software appications are designed to increase users productivity. In fact, most organizations justify their computer purchases on the basis that they hep make workers more efficient in their jobs. Computers can either increase the amount of output (product or service) a worker can produce based on a given amount of input (effort), or reduce the amount of input required to produce a given amount of output. In genera, end-user computing has accompished this ambitious goa, but not without probems aong the way. ON THE WEB For some exampes of how knowedge worker productivity is measured and improved, read an industry white paper prepared by the Austraian company, Enabing, a provider of business management appications, at enabing.net/downoad/whitepapers/ Enabing.Productivity.Whitepaper1.pdf. Probems End Users Experience The productivity gains from end-user computing are often accompanied by a new set of probems that organizations must address. Athough not necessariy unique to end-user Copyright 2012 Cengage Learning. A Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or dupicated, in whoe or in part. Due to eectronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the ebook and/or echapter(s). Editoria review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materiay affect the overa earning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additiona content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

19 CHAPTER 1 Introduction to Computer User Support computing, the probems isted in Figure 1-3 can resut from an environment in which powerfu hardware and software toos are used (and can be easiy misused) by a arge number of workers. 16 Waste of resources Theft of resources Computer viruses User mistakes Invasion of privacy Heath probems Computer crime Abusive users Figure 1-3 Common probems reated to end-user computing Every end user wi ikey encounter or even cause one or more of these probems in the course of their work or home computing experience. Waste of Resources Waste occurs when money, time, or other resources are spent in ways that do not contribute directy to increased user productivity, or that resut in ower productivity. Exampes incude: A user who makes purchasing decisions about hardware, peripheras, software, and networks without the necessary expertise and experience to make cost-effective seections. For exampe, an inexperienced end user might purchase software that is incompatibe with existing hardware. A user who spends excessive time trying to sove a probem with hardware or software that coud be soved quicky with a phone ca to a support person. A worker who spends time searching for information on the Internet or reading and sending emai messages that are not directy job reated. User Mistakes Users who are careess or not propery trained can easiy make mistakes as they use sophisticated software. Exampes incude: A user who inadvertenty enters the wrong formua or data for critica cacuations whie creating a spreadsheet to estimate a project s cost. A user who deetes or uninstas important software whie ceaning up disk space because he or she does not understand the software s purpose. A user who fais to make a backup copy of important information and oses the data due to a hardware faiure. Copyright 2012 Cengage Learning. A Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or dupicated, in whoe or in part. Due to eectronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the ebook and/or echapter(s). Editoria review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materiay affect the overa earning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additiona content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

20 Probems End Users Experience Computer Crime Computers are aso sometimes used to commit intentiona crimes. Exampes incude: A worker who has access to sensitive company information that woud be potentiay vauabe to a competitor tries to profit from the sae of the information. A user who reveas confidentia bank account information via emai in response to a frauduent request for information and becomes a victim of identity theft. 17 Theft of Resources Another form of computer crime is theft of computer equipment, software, or services. Exampes incude: A user who iegay copies, distributes, or uses computer programs or information (proprietary data, videos, or music) a practice commony caed software piracy. A worker who uses the Internet at work (contrary to company poicy) to se items onine. A user who finds a removabe USB drive in a schoo s teaching ab and pockets the device instead of turning it in to ost and found. A worker who removes a software instaation CD from his/her pace of empoyment and takes it home to insta on a home computer. (This woud ony be ega if the empoyer s poicies and the software vendor s icense agreement permit home use.) Invasion of Privacy Another form of computer crime is invasion of privacy, when unauthorized parties expoit persona information. Exampes incude: A user who has access to confidentia medica information at work searches the fies of friends and reatives. A user who is unaware of the risks of spyware inadvertenty downoads software that secrety records information about purchases made on Web sites. The spyware periodicay sends a history of the user s purchases to a company that reses profies of users. Abusive Users Worker abuse of company resources is not unique to the information age; however, workers who use computer technoogy in an abusive way present difficut chaenges to managers. Exampes incude: A user who continues to send unwanted, persona emai messages to a coworker despite repeated requests to stop. Copyright 2012 Cengage Learning. A Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or dupicated, in whoe or in part. Due to eectronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the ebook and/or echapter(s). Editoria review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materiay affect the overa earning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additiona content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

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