Incident management system for the oil and gas industry. Good practice guidelines for incident management and emergency response personnel

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1 Incident management system for the oi and gas industry Good practice guideines for incident management and emergency response personne

2 The goba oi and gas industry association for environmenta and socia issues 5th Foor, Backfriars Road, London SE1 8NL, United Kingdom Teephone: +44 (0) Facsimie: +44 (0) E-mai: Internet: Internationa Association of Oi & Gas Producers London office 5th Foor, Backfriars Road, London SE1 8NL, United Kingdom Teephone: +44 (0) Facsimie: +44 (0) E-mai: Internet: Brusses office Bouevard du Souverain 165, 4th Foor, B-1160 Brusses, Begium Teephone: +32 (0) Facsimie: +32 (0) E-mai: Internet: OGP Report Number 517 Date of pubication: August 2014 IPIECA-OGP 2014 A rights reserved. No part of this pubication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieva system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, eectronic, mechanica, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior consent of IPIECA. Discaimer Whist every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of the information contained in this pubication, neither IPIECA, OGP nor any of their members past, present or future warrants its accuracy or wi, regardess of its or their negigence, assume iabiity for any foreseeabe or unforeseeabe use made of this pubication. Consequenty, such use is at the recipient s own risk on the basis that any use by the recipient constitutes agreement to the terms of this discaimer. The information contained in this pubication does not purport to constitute professiona advice from the various content contributors and neither IPIECA, OGP nor its members accept any responsibiity whatsoever for the consequences of the use or misuse of such documentation. This document may provide guidance suppementa to the requirements of oca egisation. However, nothing herein is intended to repace, amend, supersede or otherwise depart from such requirements. In the event of any confict or contradiction between the provisions of this document and oca egisation, appicabe aws sha prevai.

3 Incident management system for the oi and gas industry Good practice guideines for incident management and emergency response personne Cover photographs are reproduced courtesy of the foowing (eft to right): Tasha Tuy; Luke Pinneo; Connie Terre

4 IPIECA OGP Preface This pubication is part of the IPIECA-OGP Good Practice Guide Series which summarizes current views on good practice for a range of oi spi preparedness and response topics. The series aims to hep aign industry practices and activities, inform stakehoders, and serve as a communication too to promote awareness and education. The series updates and repaces the we-estabished IPIECA Oi Spi Report Series pubished between 1990 and It covers topics that are broady appicabe both to exporation and production, as we as shipping and transportation activities. The revisions are being undertaken by the OGP-IPIECA Oi Spi Response Joint Industry Project (JIP). The JIP was estabished in 2011 to impement earning opportunities in respect of oi spi preparedness and response foowing the Apri 2010 we contro incident in the Guf of Mexico. The origina IPIECA Report Series wi be progressivey withdrawn upon pubication of the various tites in this new Good Practice Guide Series during Note on good practice Good practice in the context of the JIP is a statement of internationay-recognized guideines, practices and procedures that wi enabe the oi and gas industry to deiver acceptabe heath, safety and environmenta performance. Good practice for a particuar subject wi change over time in the ight of advances in technoogy, practica experience and scientific understanding, as we as changes in the poitica and socia environment. 2

5 INCIDENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FOR THE OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY Contents Preface 2 Contents 3 About this guide 4 Overview 5 Background 5 Organizationa principes 7 Management principes 8 Organizationa structure 10 Functiona structure 10 The Command function 11 Operations Section 14 Other Sections 17 Managing an incident response using an IMS 24 Notification and activation 24 Estabishing the IMS organization 25 Initia assessment and response 26 Initia incident briefing 26 Impementing the response sma to medium or simpe incidents 28 Impementing the response major and compex incidents 31 Appication of an IMS in varying response frameworks 38 Singe Command 38 Coordinated Command 39 Unified Command 40 Adapting the IMS to meet response chaenges 41 Optiona response considerations 41 Geographic considerations 41 Obtaining resources through mutua aid agreements 42 IMS competency and preparedness 43 Competency 43 Preparedness 44 References and further reading 46 Gossary 47 Acknowedgements 51 3

6 IPIECA OGP About this guide This guidance document addresses incident response management and is intended to suppement the Internationa Maritime Organization s Guidance Document on the Impementation of an Incident Management System (IMO, 2012) which provides a high-eve overview of the subject. It is aso designed to be fuy compatibe with Oi Spi Response Limited s Incident Management Handbook (OSRL, 2012) and other equivaent incident management handbooks which provide detaied materia and toos for the appication of the Incident Management System (IMS). Whie the emphasis of this document is on incident management, it is important to acknowedge the broader concept of crisis management which focuses on the impact of externa infuences on incident management. For further reading on crisis management as it pertains to this guidance, see BSI Standard Number 11200:2014, Crisis Management. Guidance and good practice (BSI, 2014). This document is based on the Incident Command System (ICS), a version of IMS that is widey used by industry, response contractors and professiona emergency services organizations. An IMS incudes a set of proven organizationa and management principes incuding common organizationa eements (e.g. sections, branches, divisions, etc.), management structure, terminoogy and operating procedures. Sma incidents can usuay be managed effectivey with a simpified IMS approach to both the organizationa structure and the panning process. Experience has shown that management of a major response, which may invove hundreds or even thousands of responders, requires the use of a more structured IMS and a defined, schedued panning process that produces a coordinated, written incident action pan. The adoption of a common approach to incident management by industry, governments, response organizations, contractors and experts wi aow for the integration of the incident management team participants under a singe IMS, together with the coordinated, efficient use of resources critica to an effective response. In certain ocations, industry and other response organizations must adapt to, and foow, the incident management system used in that country. An IMS can be used effectivey by an industry operator: in singe command, to directy manage an incident; in coordinated command where response actions are undertaken in parae with government actions; and in unified command where the operator and government work together as a singe response organization. Emergency incidents require timey action and prudent over-response to ensure the protection of peope and the environment, and to prevent unnecessary escaation of the incident. An IMS enabes response organizations to rapidy estabish command and contro, integrate resources, and pan coordinated response actions to achieve objectives. The successfu introduction of an IMS into a response organization requires a commitment by senior eaders to a sustained competency-based training and exercise programme. This shoud incude ongoing basic and roe-specific IMS training to acquire the necessary process and technica skis, and periodic simuations or exercises to provide robust experientia earning and competency deveopment. 4

7 INCIDENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FOR THE OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY Overview Effective incident management requires the abiity to estabish command and contro i.e. to move the management of the response from the initia reactive mode to one where the scope of the incident is understood, appropriate response actions are being taken in aignment with response strategies, and where the outcome of the incident is being driven by a cear set of objectives to protect peope and the environment. Experience has shown that the use of a structured IMS is critica to estabishing command and contro in response to a major incident. An IMS faciitates command and contro of an incident by organizing eaders, functions, response teams and other resources through a scaabe, fit-for-purpose organizationa structure with pre-identified roes, responsibiities, reporting reationships and authorities necessary to manage an incident. An IMS aso faciitates impementation of the panning process necessary to ensure a direct ink between the incident management objectives and response actions being taken in the fied. The vast majority of incidents are sma, and the IMS process used to manage the response is typicay simpified and objective driven, and uses an iterative process to assess the progress of the incident and the response. Industry experience has shown that major incidents, where hundreds or even thousands of responders may be invoved, requires a robust and structured panning process and a coordinated, written incident action pan to manage the response. Source: David Weydert This document introduces the common eements of an IMS to stakehoders who may be caed upon to work together to provide specific expertise, assistance or response resources during an emergency incident. These stakehoders can incude the industry operator, response organizations and government entities. Each stakehoder and group needs to have a cear understanding of its function under an estabished IMS to ensure an effective, timey and coordinated response. Background Incidents typicay happen with itte or no advance warning, and require an immediate response by the industry operator and supporting response organizations. Major incidents, which are rare, may require a response invoving many organizations, incuding governmenta entities across mutipe jurisdictions and experts from many discipines. Such incidents may aso invove numerous parae activities such as search and rescue, ensuring the safety of the pubic and responders, source contro, fire suppression, protecting the environment, securing property and infrastructure from damage, and providing timey communications. Whie the vast majority of incidents are sma, and the IMS process is typicay simpified and objective driven, an IMS is a scaabe, systematic approach that can be easiy adapted regardess of the size of an incident. A wide range of response organizations and contractors, governmenta entities and resources may be caed on to respond to incidents, and their missions and procedures may vary. The coordination of, and coaboration between, these organizations is critica to an effective response operation. These groups and individuas must be abe to work together at short notice, and may 5

8 IPIECA OGP have itte or no prior experience of coaborating with each other to manage stressfu, dangerous and evoving probems in what may be a hazardous working environment. Responders wi need to cutivate a working trust with one another, have cear roes, responsibiities and authorities, and ensure that sufficient on-scene resources are avaiabe at a times. Incident responders face many other potentia chaenges in responding effectivey to major incidents. Factors such as weather, site access, resource constraints, poor coordination, ack of preapprovas for response strategies, or poor communications can deay response times or hinder incident response efficiency. A deayed or ineffective response can resut in unnecessary impacts which may present risks to peope, the environment and property. An IMS is an essentia too for overcoming many of these chaenges; it provides carity in command and contro, improves resource coordination and communications, and faciitates the cooperation and integration of responding organizations. An IMS is a scaabe, systematic method for coordinating and controing the wide variety of important activities, resources and response organizations from a centra command post. The size and compexity of every incident is different and wi vary as the incident response progresses. An IMS provides the organizationa structure for response teams to expand or contract to meet the needs of the required response. It defines responders roes and responsibiities, requires the use of common tites and terminoogy, and can be used to estabish a cear decisionmaking process, regardess of the size of the response organization. An IMS can be integrated into any propery trained responding organization, and minimizes redundancy, thereby optimizing the depoyment of resources. An IMS aso provides effective two-way communication, faciitating improved coordination between responding organizations whie reducing the overa communications oad associated with a response. Experience has shown that the use of a structured IMS is critica to estabishing effective command and contro in response to a major incident. Source: Casey Ware 6

9 INCIDENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FOR THE OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY Organizationa principes The principes of IMS organization were deveoped in the 1970s by the fire services as a management method for carifying command reationships and making effective use of mutua aid for arge-scae incidents invoving mutipe authorities. Athough originay deveoped to address fires, the IMS concept is now appied to many other types of emergency events or incidents, incuding oi spi response. Experience has demonstrated the vaue of integrating incident response functions and resources into a singe operationa organization, managed and supported by one command structure and supporting processes. Experience has aso shown that the incident response organization is most successfu when the foowing key organizationa concepts and principes are appied: Use of a singe, integrated organization to manage the response. Organization by function, i.e. Command, Operations, Panning, Logistics, Finance. Estabishment of cear, hierarchica reporting reationships. Maintaining a moduar and scaabe organization, and ensuring that it is appropriatey sized to achieve the response objectives. Command structure An IMS requires that one or more individuas maintain authority over a incident activities. This position is known as the Command function. For sma incidents a singe person, caed the Incident Commander, can typicay perform the Command function. For arge incidents, the positions of Deputy Incident Commander and Command Staff Officers may be assigned to support the Incident Commander. Once command has been estabished, the IMS provides cear rues for the transfer of command to another individua or individuas. The IMS organization is characterized by an ordery ine of authority, termed the chain of command. The IMS is aso characterized by the concept of unity of command which means that every individua has one and ony one designated supervisor to whom that individua reports at the incident scene. These principes carify reporting reationships and eiminate the confusion that might otherwise be caused by mutipe, conficting directives. Scaabiity A key feature of an IMS is its moduar organization. Organizationa eements (termed Sections, Branches, Divisions, Groups, Units, etc.) are added to the IMS structure as additiona personne and new functions and capabiities are brought into the incident response and assigned to the various organizationa eements. A moduar approach aows the response organization to be structured in a way that is appropriate for the size and compexity of the incident. It aso aows the organization to expand as the compexity of the incident increases, and as functiona responsibiities are deegated throughout the organization by the Incident Commander. The IMS structure aways begins with estabishing the Command function. For the management of major incidents, four functiona sections are estabished under the Incident Commander as appropriate, i.e. Operations, Panning, Logistics, and Finance/Administration. Span-of-contro 7

10 IPIECA OGP recommendations are foowed cosey as the response organization expands or contracts, so that the organizationa structure is never arger than required. Management principes IMS management principes provide Command with guideines to coordinate the efforts of the organization so that response objectives and priorities can be accompished through the efficient and effective use of the avaiabe resources. Management incudes operationa panning and organization, staffing, and eading, directing and controing the organization. An IMS is based on the foowing management principes: Ensuring an objectives-driven response. Formuation of an Incident Action Pan. Use of common and consistent terminoogy. Maintaining a manageabe span of contro. Coordination of equipment, personne resources and communication. Objectives-driven response An effective and successfu response requires a cear set of objectives. These objectives are estabished by the centraized Command and cascaded throughout the organization. The objectives drive the deveopment of response strategies, which are then impemented through the tactica decisions and actions taken in the fied. The objectives, strategies and tactics evove as the response progresses. Objectives are succinct statements of Command s overa goas and intents for the response. The objectives describe the intended outcomes and shoud encompass the totaity of the response. For exampe, an objective may be: Minimize impacts on environmentay sensitive areas. Objectives shoud be based on the SMART principe, i.e. they shoud be: Specific; Measurabe; Action oriented; Reaistic; and Timey. Strategies describe the response methodoogies to be empoyed to achieve the objectives of the response. Each objective shoud be matched with at east one specific strategy. An exampe strategy may be: Prevent oi from reaching Pristine Bay. Tactics are specific actions and activities required to impement the response strategies. Work assignments are deveoped for the various tactics, and are assigned to individuas or teams. An exampe tactic may be: Offshore Mechanica Recovery Group to use vesse Cean Responder to set 500 m of ocean boom between and points A and B at 0600 GMT. 8

11 INCIDENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FOR THE OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY Incident action pan An Incident Action Pan (IAP) controing a response activities for a specified period of time ensures that a responders and response organizations work in coordination and towards the same goa. Sma, short-duration incidents may be managed with a simpified IAP and direction may be given oray by the Incident Commander. Major or compex incidents require the use of a written IAP. An Incident Action Pan describes the overa objectives and strategies for managing the response, as we as response tactics, for a set ength of time known as the operationa period. A written IAP incudes the identification of operationa resources, and provides a documented record of work assignments, priorities, safety and environmenta considerations and other important management information. Common and consistent terminoogy An IMS empoys common terminoogy used to prevent misunderstandings when responding to an event. Common terms aow diverse organizations to work together effectivey, and to communicate ceary with each other on essentia components such as: Organizationa functions: a major functions and functiona organizationa eements are named and defined. The terminoogy used for each organizationa eement is standard and consistent. Resource descriptions: major resources (personne, equipment and suppy items) are given common names and are isted according to capabiities. Incident faciities: faciities used during the response are named according to common terminoogy. Position tites: a IMS managers and supervisors are referred to by standardized tites, such as Officer, Chief, Director, Supervisor or Leader. Manageabe span of contro Span of contro refers to the number of individuas or resources than can be effectivey managed by a supervisor during an incident. A recommended span of contro shoud range from three to seven individuas, with five representing the optima eve. There may be exceptions to this range, e.g. in cases of ower-risk assignments, assignments where resources work in proximity to each other, or assignments requiring minima direct supervision. Coordination of equipment, personne resources and communications Comprehensive and centraized resource coordination heps to maintain an accurate and up-todate picture of the personne, teams, equipment, suppies and faciities in use, avaiabe or potentiay avaiabe for assignment. Integrated communications requires the use of a common pan to coordinate the communications processes of the responding organizations. This approach strengthens the inks between the operationa and support personne within the various parties invoved in the response, and heps to maintain communications, coordination and discipine. 9

12 IPIECA OGP Organizationa structure This section provides an overview of the organizationa structure of an IMS, and its major positions and organizationa eements throughout the ife cyce of an incident. It describes the organizationa eves of the IMS, focusing on their functiona definition, distinguishing characteristics and reationship to other eements in the structure. For more detais about the roes, responsibiities and functiona eements within the IMS structure see OSRL, Functiona structure The organizationa structure of an IMS incudes four major sections under the Command function: Operations, Panning, Logistics and Finance/Administration (Figure 1). Figure 1 Organizationa structure of an IMS The responsibiities of each section can be summarized as foows: Command: provides overa management and authority. Operations: directs the tactica operations throughout the incident. Panning: prepares the Incident Action Pan and maintains information on the status of resources and the overa status of the incident. Logistics: provides resources, services and support required by the incident. Finance/Administration: responsibe for financia contros, contracting and caims management. The compexity of the incident wi infuence the number of sections estabished and the organizationa structure within each section. Command represents the first organizationa eement estabished for any incident. The size of the IMS organization that deveops under the Command function depends on the number, type and scope of operations being conducted, and the types of support functions required. The vast majority of incidents require ony a sma IMS organization, often consisting of an Incident Commander supervising a few resources. For sma incidents, a simpified IMS structure is typicay used, without estabishing sections. Fu depoyment of the IMS functiona structure is rare and generay reserved for arge, compex incidents that require a arge IMS organization to meet spanof-contro guideines. 10

13 INCIDENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FOR THE OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY The IMS organizationa structure can be expanded as needed in a moduar fashion. Command initiay has fu responsibiity for managing the incident, incuding safety of the responders and the pubic, and aso performs the duties normay carried out by the various Sections uness or unti those Sections are formed. As additiona organizationa eements are added, the newy appointed Chiefs or Directors are assigned management responsibiities by Command. In a major or compex incident being managed under a arge IMS organization, Deputies or Assistants may be appointed to support key eadership roes. Deputies generay have the same quaifications as the eaders they support. The various organizationa eements and the tites used for the eaders of those eements are shown in Tabe 1. Tabe 1 Organizationa eements and corresponding eadership tites Organizationa eement Command Command Staff Genera Staff (Section) Branch Division/Group Unit Strike Team/Task Force Leadership tite Incident Commander (and Deputy) Officer (and Assistant) Chief (and Deputy) Director (and Deputy) Supervisor Leader Leader The Command function Command represents a function, not a person. The Command function is carried out by an Incident Commander who performs the duties excusive to the Incident Command. The Incident Commander is granted fu authority to manage the response by the industry operator or the government agency with appropriate authority. For arge-scae incidents, the Incident Commander is supported by Command Staff. Command Staff positions may incude a Pubic Information Officer, Safety Officer and Liaison Officer. If required, the Incident Commander wi add the IMS Sections, which are ed by Chiefs. A Section staff, incuding the Officers and Chiefs, report directy to the Incident Commander and are known coectivey as the Command and Genera Staff. Command foows the principe of prudenty over-responding to ensure that the response can be safey and effectivey managed. Throughout an incident, Command determines the size of the IMS organization needed to respond to, and mitigate, the impacts of the incident. Command wi consider the foowing three major priorities when identifying the required resources and structuring the IMS organization: Safety: protecting emergency responders, incident victims and the pubic. Incident contro: minimizing the impacts of the incident on the area surrounding the scene, and maximizing the response effort whie using resources efficienty. Protecting the environment and property: minimizing damage to the environment and property whie achieving the objectives estabished for the incident. 11

14 IPIECA OGP Near right: the Incident Commander has fu authority to manage the response, and, in the case of a arge-scae incident, wi be supported by the Command Staff. Far right: a briefing on oi spi response operations under way at an Incident Command post. Source: Shutterstock.com Source: Seth Johnson The Incident Commander shoud maintain a strategic perspective, or command awareness, to determine the potentia impacts that may resut from the incident, and shoud estabish the overa incident strategy and provide cear direction for the response. Command estabishes the objectives of the response, and ensures that a functiona areas work to accompish these objectives through the Incident Action Pan. In some instances, the Incident Commander may designate a Deputy Incident Commander to perform tasks assigned by the Incident Commander, to provide reief for the Incident Commander (working in shifts), or to represent an organization providing significant assistance in the response. Personne considered for the position of Deputy Incident Commander shoud have quaifications equivaent to those of the Incident Commander, and shoud be ready to assume the position of Incident Commander at any time. Box 1 provides an exampe of the typica responsibiities of the Incident Commander. Box 1 Typica responsibiities of the Incident Commander Assume and announce Command Possess cear authority to manage the response Ensure incident safety Estabish an Incident Command Post Estabish incident response objectives and strategies to be foowed Estabish immediate priorities Initiate, maintain and contro the communications process within the IMS organization Estabish the size of the IMS organization needed and monitor the its effectiveness Assess the status of the response Approve, impement, and evauate the Incident Action Pan Coordinate activity for a Command and Genera Staff Approve requests for additiona resources or for the reease of resources Approve the use of vounteer and auxiiary personne Authorize the reease of information through the Pubic Information Officer Order demobiization of the incident when appropriate Ensure competion of incident after-action reports 12

15 INCIDENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FOR THE OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY Command Staff The Command Staff perform or support the duties and responsibiities of the Command function. In ess compex incidents, the Incident Commander may have sufficient time to singe-handedy carry out tasks such as information dissemination, safety monitoring, coordination of participating organizations, and resource monitoring. However, as the compexity of an incident increases, the roe of the Incident Commander evoves from hands-on activities to overa incident management and command. As a resut, the Incident Commander may designate one or more Command Staff positions to perform various management activities; such positions may incude the Pubic Information Officer, Safety Officer and Liaison Officer. Depending on the nature and compexity of the incident, the Incident Commander may aso assign positions such as the Lega Officer, Inteigence/Security Officer and Human Resources Officer. Figure 2 An exampe of Command Staff organization * Optiona positions that may be assigned by the Incident Commander depending on the nature and compexity of the incident. Safety Officer Safety is the first priority for a members of the response organization, and a members are accountabe for conducting their work in a safe manner. The Safety Officer has overa responsibiity for monitoring on-scene safety conditions and deveoping measures to ensure the safety of a response personne. The Safety Officer aso anticipates hazardous and unsafe situations and has the authority to ater activities in an emergency in order to stop or prevent unsafe acts or conditions. The Safety Officer is responsibe for the deveopment of the Safety Pan and the review of the Medica Pan. The Safety Officer reviews the Incident Action Pan for safety impications, and can recommend changes to the Incident Commander as necessary. There is ony one Safety Officer in the IMS organization, but the Safety Officer may designate assistants as needed. 13

16 IPIECA OGP Pubic Information Officer The Pubic Information Officer is responsibe for a interaction between Command, the news media and the pubic, and deveops and coordinates the reease of information on the situation and response efforts. Whie this function wi mosty invove interaction with the news media, the Pubic Information Officer may aso provide information to governmenta agencies and other organizations if the Liaison Officer position is not activated. Commony requested information incudes: key instructions for the pubic, incuding safety warnings; geographic ocation of the incident; estimated duration of the response; and description of specific incident characteristics (e.g. injuries/fataities, personne unaccounted for, spi voume, oi type, organizations invoved in the response, current situation, environmenta impacts and widife impacts). There is ony one Pubic Information Officer in the IMS organization. However, a Pubic Information Officer can designate assistants who may represent other assisting organizations or stakehoders. Liaison Officer The Liaison Officer is the primary contact person for representatives of stakehoder organizations, typicay government or community representatives. The Liaison Officer assists in estabishing and coordinating inter-organizationa contacts, and maintains a ist of assisting organizations and corresponding representatives. There is ony one Liaison Officer in the IMS organization, but the Liaison Officer may designate assistants as needed. Operations Section The Operations Section performs a tactica response operations to achieve key priorities such as safety, source contro, oi spi response, fire containment and the protection of the environment and property. Figure 3 provides an exampe of an organizationa structure within the Operations Section hierarchy. The Section can be divided into Branches, Divisions and Groups which are coectivey known as Areas of Operation. Branches can be geographic and have distinct operationa boundaries, or functiona (as shown in Figure 3) and abe to operate anywhere. The Branches can be further divided into Divisions (geographica) or Groups (functiona) such as an Aeria Surveiance Group. Resources are assigned to each Branch, Division or Group to impement the response activities. For very arge incidents, mutipe Divisions/Groups can be organized under mutipe Branches (see Figure 4). The Operations Section and its organizationa eements deveop as required to accompish the response objectives. Incident compexity and span-of-contro considerations guide whether the Incident Commander: 1. directy manages Divisions/Groups or Resources; 2. estabishes Branches to consoidate Divisions and/or Groups for sub-management when span-ofcontro imits are exceeded; or 3. estabishes an Operations Section and deegates an Operations Section Chief (see Box 2) who, in turn, estabishes organizationa eements within the section when the number of resources exceed the span of contro of the Chief. 14

17 INCIDENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FOR THE OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY Figure 3 Exampe of Operations Section organization Box 2 Responsibiities of the Operations Section Chief Manage tactica operations Ensure safety of Operations Section personne Assist in deveoping the operations response strategies and tactics of the Incident Action Pan Supervise the execution of the operations portion of the Incident Action Pan Maintain cose contact with subordinate positions Request resources to support tactica operations through the Logistics Section Coordination of simutaneous operations (SimOps) Approve reease of resources from active assignments Make or approve expedient changes to the Incident Action Pan as necessary Ensure the Operations Section operates effectivey and within span-of-contro imits Assess progress of the response Provide the Incident Commander with situation and resource status reports within the Operations Section Divisions and Groups Divisions and Groups are organizationa eements that divide the response organization into geographic areas and functiona areas of operation, respectivey. As iustrated in Figure 4, Divisions organize response activities geographicay, whie Groups organize response activities based on major operations functions performed by a Group s coective resources, such as search and rescue. An Incident Commander, Operations Section Chief or Branch Director may supervise any combination of Divisions and Groups as these organizationa eements coexist on the same eve within the IMS chain of command. A singe Division or Group Supervisor must be assigned to manage each estabished division or group, and each supervisor reports directy to the next higher eve supervisor in the organizationa chain of command of the IMS. 15

18 IPIECA OGP Key responsibiities of a Division or Group Supervisor incude: impementing the portion of the Incident Action Pan appicabe to the Division or Group; assigning resources within the division or group; and monitoring the progress of operationa activities and resource status within the Division or Group. Divisions and Groups are appropriate organizationa eements that perform specific tasks or work in specific areas at an incident. A Division manages response activities within a we-defined geographica area, for exampe to cean up oi that has arrived ashore on a beach. Mutipe Divisions might exist to support cean-up efforts where a arge shoreine has been impacted. Aternativey, a speciaized service, such as the appication of dispersants, can be consoidated under a singe Group within the IMS structure. Figure 4 Exampe of Operations Section organization incuding Divisions and Groups Branches The Incident Commander or Operations Section Chief may estabish Branches when the number of Divisions and Groups exceeds the span-of-contro imit. The Chief or Incident Commander might aso estabish Branches as a response to an increasingy compex incident (e.g. changing incident strategies) to faciitate efficient management of resources required for mutipe operations activities. Branches are commony organized according to geography or function, and are managed by a designated Director responsibe for impementing the portion of the Incident Action Pan 16

19 INCIDENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FOR THE OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY appicabe to the Branch. An exampe of a situation that commony warrants the use of IMS Branches is an incident with concurrent response activities in two or more distinct types of operations. Resources Resources incude personne and equipment assigned to perform tactica operations or response support functions (e.g. faciities, IT, consumabes, etc.). Equipment resources aso incude the personne required for equipment operation and maintenance. Resource tracking requires that each responding resource has an assigned status condition. Standard resource status conditions incude: assigned: performing active operationa function; avaiabe: ready for immediate assignment; and out of service: not ready for assigned or avaiabe status because of mechanica, personne rest, or other operationa issues Other Sections As many as three other sections can be estabished within the IMS organization: Panning, Logistics, and Finance/Administration. In many incidents, the responsibiities of these Sections may be combined under the Command function. Many sma and medium incidents don t expand beyond the creation of an Operations Section. Industry experience shows that response operations of onger duration often aso require estabishment of the Panning Section. Major incidents generay require the estabishment of a four IMS Sections. Panning Section The Panning Section functions to maintain resource status and situation status, address environmenta issues, assist in the deveopment of the Incident Action Pan (see Managing an incident response using an IMS on page 24 for detais) and provide technica speciaists. A centra function of the Panning Section invoves the coection and evauation of operationa information about the incident, incuding the current and forecasted situation and the status of assigned resources. This information is needed to understand the current situation, predict a probabe course of incident events, and prepare aternative strategies for mitigating incident effects. Beow: a weather briefing takes pace at a Unified Command centre prior to commencement of response activities. During an incident, the Panning Section maintains an ongoing assessment of situation status and factors that can affect the response, e.g. weather, oi spi trajectory, air quaity, ecoogica and socio-economic features at risk, and other factors. For major incidents, the Panning Section may estabish a common operating picture (COP) in the form of status boards or digita information dispays to provide current vaidated information on the response. Source: DVIDS 17

20 IPIECA OGP Box 3 Responsibiities of the Panning Section Chief Coect and evauate a operationa data about the incident Provide input to the Incident Commander and Operations Section Chief in preparing the Incident Action Pan Supervise preparation and documentation of the Incident Action Pan Conduct and faciitate panning meetings Assign avaiabe on-scene personne to IMS organizationa positions as necessary Evauate span of contro within the IMS organization Evauate the performance of the Incident Action Pan with the Incident Commander Estabish information requirements and reporting schedues for resources Determine the need for any speciaized resources in support of incident operations Provide the Resources Unit within the organizationa structure of the Panning Section to maintain status of a assigned resources Assembe information on aternative strategies Provide periodic assessments of incident potentia Report any significant changes in incident status Compie and disseminate incident status information Incorporate fire pans, oi spi pans, hurricane pans (etc.), medica pans, communications pans, waste management pans and other supporting materia into the Incident Action Pan Supervise the preparation of an incident demobiization pan The Panning Section organization may incude as many as five primary Units and various technica speciaists. Specificay, these organizationa eements are: Resources Unit: tracks a response resources incuding personne, teams, equipment, and faciities and maintains an accurate and up-to-date status of each to provide a compete picture for panning purposes. Situation Unit: coects and evauates situation information for the response. This incudes both current information on actions being taken, and forecasts of future incident management activities and information (weather, tides, oi trajectories, shoreine oiing reports, etc.). Environment Unit: assesses potentia environmenta impacts of the incident, estabishes environmenta priorities, identifies ecoogica and socio-economic features at risk, advises on oied widife management and samping activities, advises the SCAT (shoreine cean-up assessment technique) team eader, formuates appropriate protection and mitigation strategies and cean-up techniques, Net Environmenta Benefit Anaysis (NEBA) evauation, and deveopment of cean-up end points. Documentation Unit: manages the overa documentation for the response and deveops a compete overa administrative record, incuding ogs, fies, pans, maps and records for the response. Aso provides support to the Incident Command Post in generation and preservation of response documents. Demobiization Unit: provides panning for the demobiization of personne and response assets consistent with the needs of the overa response. Technica speciaists may provide support to response teams anywhere within the IMS organization depending on where their services are required. These speciaists provide technica 18

21 INCIDENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FOR THE OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY Figure 5 Exampe of Panning Section organization advice and support to address specific aspects of an incident response. Exampes of technica speciaists expertise incude safety, industria hygiene, air monitoring, response techniques such as dispersant use and in-situ burning, modeing and geospatia/geomatics information. Technica speciaists are typicay assigned to support the Unit reated to their area of speciaization. Aside from technica speciaists, each identified Unit has a Leader, and that person may supervise more than one Unit. Logistics Section The Logistics Section provides services and support to the incident response effort in the form of personne, faciities and materias. It serves as the support mechanism for the IMS organization. The Incident Commander may estabish a Logistics Section and deegate a Logistics Section Chief during compex, arge-scae incidents. In addition to managing a incident ogistics, the Logistics Section Chief might provide ogistics input to the Incident Action Pan. Box 4 on page 20 provides a ist of the major responsibiities typicay assigned to the Logistics Section Chief. The Logistics Section supports the IMS organization in a variety of ways, incuding assessing response needs and ensuring the suppy of appropriate resources. The Logistics Section organization can incude as many as six primary Units, typicay organized under a Service Branch and a Support Branch. Source: Michae Owens 19

22 IPIECA OGP Box 4 Responsibiities of the Logistics Section Chief Pan the organization of the Logistics Section Ensure the genera wefare and safety of the Logistics Section Participate in the deveopment of the Incident Action Pan Activate and supervise Branches and Units within the Logistics Section Assign and brief Logistics Branch Directors and Unit Leaders Assign work ocations and preiminary work tasks to Section personne Determine and suppy immediate incident resource and faciity needs Ensure that a record is maintained of a equipment, materias and suppies purchased, rented, borrowed or otherwise obtained during emergency response operations Work with the Staging Area Manager(s) to estabish and maintain the suppy network Deveop and advise a Sections of the resource approva and requesting process Coordinate and process requests for additiona resources Track resource effectiveness and make necessary adjustments Advise on current service and support capabiities Review tactics for the next operationa period to provide resources and ogistica support Identify ong-term service and support requirements Advise Command and other Section Chiefs on resource avaiabiity to support incident needs Provide input to and review the Communications Pan, Medica Pan and Traffic Pan. Identify resource needs for incident contingencies Recommend resources to be demobiized, and reease when appropriate Receive and impement appicabe portions of the incident Demobiization Pan Right: an operation to remove more than 1,700 gaons of oi and water from a grounded freighter required significant ogistica support, incuding the suppy of necessary equipment and resources such as containment booms, pumps, hazardous waste containers, transfer vesses, as we as cargo remova faciities. Source: DVIDS 20

23 INCIDENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FOR THE OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY Figure 6 Exampe of Logistics Section organization The Service Branch of the Logistics Section provides a service activities at the incident and contains the foowing organizationa eements: Communications Unit: deveops pans governing a communications protocos and equipment. Unit activities incude instaing, testing, distributing and maintaining communications equipment. Medica Unit: deveops the medica pan, and provides on-scene medica services and transportation to medica care for incident responders. Food Unit: suppies food and hydration to meet the needs of incident responders throughout the incident ife cyce. The Support Branch of the Logistics Section provides personne, equipment, faciities and suppies to support incident operations. This branch contains the foowing organizationa eements, each of which may be supported by assisting organizations: Suppy Unit: requests resources (personne, equipment and suppies) to support incident operations. Unit activities aso incude receiving, storing and distribution of incident suppies, maintaining a suppy inventory, and servicing suppies and equipment. Faciities Unit: identifies required faciities (e.g. equipment staging, food service, sanitation, seeping) and provides faciity management, incuding set-up, maintenance, security services and faciity demobiization. Ground Support Unit: impements the traffic pan, provides ground transportation in support of incident operations (e.g. transporting personne and suppies), and services a mobie vehices and tactica equipment. 21

24 IPIECA OGP Finance and Administration Section The Finance and Administration Section provides financia contros for the response, supports contracting and procurement, tracks incident costs, manages caims, and accounts for reimbursements. This Section provides tracking of a expenditures and recording of costs for response personne, equipment and assets. Incidents often invove caims for damage to property, business disruption or other issues such as heath or medica caims, which are a managed by this Section. Box 5 provides a ist of the major responsibiities typicay assigned to the Finance/Administration Section Chief. Box 5 Responsibiities of the Finance/Administration Section Chief Manage a financia aspects of an incident Pan the organization of the Finance and Administration Section Ensure the genera wefare and safety of the Finance/Administration Section Estabish proper financia contros for the incident Provide incident financia and cost anaysis information Ensure appropriate deegations of financia authority are in pace Participate in deveopment of the Incident Action Pan and briefings as required. Ensure that a personne time records are accuratey competed Review operationa pans and provide aternatives where financiay appropriate Oversee administration of vendor contracts, and service and equipment renta agreements Work with the Lega Officer on insurance coverage and excusions, caims management processing, and approach to settements Review a reevant insurance programmes and ensure notification of insurers and appointment of oss adjusters Provide financia input to demobiization panning The Finance/ Administration Section manages the financia aspects of an operation, participates in the deveopment of the Incident Action Pan, maintains personne and equipment records, and works with the Lega Officer to process insurance and caims matters. Source: Shutterstock.com Source: DVIDS 22

25 INCIDENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FOR THE OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY The Finance/Administration Section organization may incude as many as four primary Units (see Figure 7): Caims Unit: coects and evauates a caims associated with the incident. Procurement Unit: manages a financia matters reated to vendors, incuding contracts, eases and purchase agreements. Cost Unit: coects a cost data, performs cost-effectiveness anayses, and provides cost estimates and recommendations for reducing incident costs. Time Unit: ensures preparation of daiy personne and equipment time recording documents and compiance with the time poicy. Figure 7 Exampe of Finance/Administration Section organization 23

26 IPIECA OGP Managing an incident response using an IMS This section describes how to impement a response to an incident using an IMS for sma to medium incidents, and aso for major incidents. Regardess of the size of the incident, the response process begins with incident detection, notification and activation of response personne and other resources, and estabishment of the incident command. As the response deveops, the IMS organizationa structure and cycica panning process are estabished. The IMS panning cyce and organizationa structure may be reativey simpe for sma incidents. The simpified panning cyce may occur every hour, or even more frequenty, and the organizationa structure may ony incude an Incident Commander and tactica operations personne, for exampe a spi response team. For arger, more compex incidents, the response organization wi be more structured and the panning cyce more defined. The IMS drives arger incident response activities through a written Incident Action Pan which incudes tactics and resource assignments to accompish the response objectives estabished by the Incident Commander. The response is typicay divided into operationa periods, and the Incident Action Pan is reviewed and revised during each operationa period to refect current objectives, strategies and response tactics to meet evoving incident conditions. Figure 8 shows how an IMS is appied for major incidents, which are rare, and aso for more common, smaer incidents. Figure 8 Appication of an IMS to the response organization and panning cyce for both major and smaer incidents The organization and panning process are scaed appropriatey to match the size and compexity of the incident response. Notification and activation Notifying the appropriate organizations that an incident has occurred is the first step in the initia response for a incidents. Notification efforts shoud incude verification of the type of incident and its exact geographic ocation. Once notification has occurred, incident command is estabished by the first arriving responder, and the responding organizations activate and dispatch quaified personne to the response. Depending on the ocation of the incident, there may be country-specific notification requirements to inform governmenta entities and organizations of the occurrence of the incident. 24

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