Chapter 3: e-business Integration Patterns

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1 Chapter 3: e-business Integration Patterns Page 1 of 9 Chapter 3: e-business Integration Patterns "Consistency is the ast refuge of the unimaginative." Oscar Wide In This Chapter What Are Integration Patterns? Database Repication Singe-Step Appication Integration Muti-Step Appication Integration Brokering Appication Appication-to-Appication B2Bi Data Exchange B2Bi B2B Process Integration e-business Integration occurs in as many forms as there are e-businesses. At first gance, integration probems and the corresponding soutions are sedom identica. Yet, upon coser examination, you discover that integration soutions can actuay be cassified into common categories. Each of these categories describes both a "type" of integration probem as we as a soution method. These categories are caed integration patterns. Integration patterns hep you understand the different methods avaiabe to you for a given type of integration probem. They aow you to take a step back and understand the differences in the various scenarios and appreciate the different approaches to integration. Finay, they aow you to view "integration in the big picture." You can earn to break down what may be a compex integration into conceptua categories and understand which technoogies to appy. What Are Integration Patterns? A pattern is commony defined as a reiabe sampe of traits, acts, tendencies, or other observabe characteristics. In software deveopment, you may be famiiar with the idea of design patterns or process patterns. Design patterns systematicay describe object designs that can be empoyed for a common set of probems. Simiary, process patterns describe proven methods and processes used in software deveopment. In practice, patterns are simpy a ogica cassification of commony recurring actions, techniques, designs, or organizations. What are integration patterns? Integration patterns emerge from cassification of standard soutions for integration scenarios. They are not patterns of design or code. Nor are they patterns of operationa processes for an integration project. Instead, each integration pattern defines a type of integration fie://j:\macmiancomputerpubishing\chapters\in226.htm 3/22/01

2 Chapter 3: e-business Integration Patterns Page 2 of 9 probem, a soution technique, as we as parameters appied for e-business Integration. I have identified seven common e-business Integration patterns. They are not meant to be comprehensive, but they cover most of the common integration scenarios impemented today. They encompass both EAI scenarios as we as B2Bi scenarios: EAI (intra-enterprise) Patterns Database Repication Singe-Step Appication Integration Muti-Step Appication Integration Brokering Appication B2Bi (inter-enterprise) Patterns Appication-to-Appication B2Bi Data Exchange B2Bi B2B Process Integration The EAI Patterns represent patterns commony appied within a corporate enterprise, whereas the B2Bi Patterns represent the different methods in conducting integrated B2B transactions. The foowing sections provide a coser ook at each of these patterns and discuss some of the detais. Database Repication The Database Repication pattern may be the most prevaent pattern of EAI integration today. Database repication invoves managing copies of data over two or more databases, resuting in redundant data. Companies engage in database repication for numerous reasons. One reason is that many organizations are becoming more distributed in their operations, requiring mutipe copies of the same data over severa physica ocations. Repication is aso a means of data recovery. In many organizations, an active secondary database is maintained for data recovery purposes. In the event that the production database needs to be recovered, the secondary repicated database can be used. This aso appies for "high avaiabiity" systems. In these situations, a redundant copy of "ive" data is maintained to ensure that if the first system is not avaiabe, the redundant database system is activated. The two genera categories for database repication are synchronous and asynchronous repication. Synchronous Repication Synchronous repication invoves maintaining absoute consistency between source and target databases. The primary objective is to ensure rea-time data consistency between the databases. This is what is known as achieving zero atency between the data resources. In practice, this cas for the fie://j:\macmiancomputerpubishing\chapters\in226.htm 3/22/01

3 Chapter 3: e-business Integration Patterns Page 3 of 9 use of transaction processing technoogy in order to ensure absoute data consistency. Figure 3.1 depicts the use of transaction processing monitor in repication. Figure 3.1 Synchronous repication with transaction processing. Transactions must conform to what is commony known as the ACID properties. This means that transaction operations must be Atomic, Consistent, Isoated, and Durabe: Description of the ACID properties Atomic A transaction is atomic when the system treats each transaction discretey as a singe ca that either succeeds or fais. Consistent This attribute means that the transaction component or object is changed from one vaid state to another. Isoated The operation of a transaction is isoated from other transactions. Durabe Transactions that are committed are permanent even if the system fais. Using the transactiona protoco means that the brokering of data across the databases must be accompished as a singe unit of work. Discrete data changes to Database A are simutaneousy made to Database B. If the data changes are successfu for Database A but not successfu for Database B, the changes for Database A are "roed back" and both systems are returned to the previousy consistent state. As mentioned previousy, this kind of transaction processing between both systems is achieved through the use of a transaction processing monitor (TPM) such as CICS (IBM) or Tuxedo (BEA). Asynchronous Repication Asynchronous repication has a much ooser atency requirement. The time required for a systems to be "in sync" or consistent is an observabe measure of time. This doesn t mean that the need to maintain transactiona integrity is diminished in any way. It is sti necessary to ensure that discrete data eements are moved as a singe unit of work. Asynchronous message queuing products such as MQ Series are often used to preserve transactiona semantics as part of the repication process. They do so through the use of transactiona queues. Transactiona queues guarantee that the data deivery process is not competed unti the data packet inserted into the queue by the source database is dequeued and committed to the target data resource. Singe-Step Appication Integration The Singe-Step Appication Integration (SSAI) pattern extends the asynchronous database repication pattern. Instead of focusing on data consistency between two databases, the SSAI pattern integrates data between appications, moving data from one context to another. It does so by transating data syntax of the source message and reformatting data eements into a new target fie://j:\macmiancomputerpubishing\chapters\in226.htm 3/22/01

4 Chapter 3: e-business Integration Patterns Page 4 of 9 message. It is "singe step" because it requires an intermediary broker to map source messages to target messages. Typicay, it is an extension of the asynchronous repication technoogy, in that it utiizes Message Queuing Middeware such as MQ Series. It is just as ikey to be impemented with the ess sophisticated FTP in a batch mode. In either case, the point is that it does more than simpy move data from point A to point B for consistency s sake. Whereas, in the repication pattern both the source and target data modes are ikey simiar, if not identica at times, this is not necessariy the case for the SSAI pattern. The objective here is not data consistency, but appication data integration. Figure 3.2 iustrates an exampe of SSAI where message A is directy transformed to message B. Figure 3.2 Singe-Step Appication Integration. SSAI brokers perform a singe-step transformation invoving the transation, reformatting, and appication of rues to inteigenty map data from one point to another. However, the entire "transaction" is sti point-to-point in nature. Athough integration of mutipe enterprisewide appications can be treated as a series of point-to-point integration instances, doing so has imitations and necessitates a more fexibe and compex pattern. Muti-Step Appication Integration The Muti-Step Appication Integration (MSAI) pattern is an extension of the SSAI pattern. MSAI enabes the integration of n (source) to m (target) appications. It addresses many-to-many integration, which SSAI cannot, by providing what is known as sequentia ogica processing. In other words, steps in this pattern are processed sequentiay, and rues appied are Booean ogica in nature. Like the singe-step pattern, MSAI requires an intermediary to broker the transaction of data between appications. It is often buit around an asynchronous event-based system and typicay is impemented through the use of Message Queuing Middeware as we. The asynchronous eventbased approach creates oose couping. Athough each system is physicay independent, they are ogicay dependent. In other words, interdependencies exist between the appication events that can be expressed in terms of transformations and data integration rues. Data eements from one appication can drive the retrieva or processing of messages in another appication. The simpest muti-step exampe in Figure 3.3 invoves three appications in which a message from appication A is combined with a message from appication B that is reformatted for a target appication C. It is common for a data eement from appication A to act as a key to drive the request for information from appication B. Figure 3.3 Muti-Step Appication Integration. In Figure 3.3, the account_id data eement from the Customer_Order message is used as the key for a request for a Customer_Biing message from the appication. Data eements from both messages are combined and transformed according to the appicabe data conversion rues to deiver a Shipping_Order message to the Shipping & Distribution System. Even in a trivia exampe ike this, you can see how the Customer_Biing message has ogica dependency on the Customer_Order message. The fina Shipping_Order message depends on eements of both the Customer_Order and Customer_Biing messages. You can, of course, see many more compex variations of the muti-step processing in the exampe. fie://j:\macmiancomputerpubishing\chapters\in226.htm 3/22/01

5 Chapter 3: e-business Integration Patterns Page 5 of 9 For instance, instead of just getting the customer biing information, what if the Customer_Order message provided the product codes to aow a check of the inventory system? Each product on the Customer_Order message woud be checked for product avaiabiity. For n number of order items, this woud generate n number of ook-ups to the inventory system. Depending on the outcome, mutipe output messages coud be generated, such as a customer notification emai or an entry to the vendors database to generate a reorder of inventory. In this more compex exampe, mutipe outputs can occur. The MSAI pattern is an extensive and fexibe pattern aowing for compex appication integration to occur. Brokering Appication As you earned in Chapter 2, "e-business Concepts and Architecture," at times integrating two appications is not principay a matter of integrating data, but integrating business ogic. The Brokering Appication pattern addresses the use of intermediary appication ogic to ink together two or more appications. In pain terms, it means that custom appication code is written containing ogic to broker interactions between the disparate appications. This custom brokering appication sits in the midde as an intermediary for processing requests from different appications, as shown in Figure 3.4. Figure 3.4 Brokering Appication. The use of this soution pattern is particuary appicabe in the scenarios presented in the foowing sections. Appications Need to Reuse Logic The Brokering Appication pattern may often be used effectivey when two or more appications need to share or reuse common business ogic. For instance, if appication A contains business ogic for a specific cacuation and other appications can use such cacuation ogic, you can write intermediary custom code to access the ogic from appication A. In this case, the intermediary brokering appication acts as a proxy to appication A. Appications Linked by Compex Logic At times, the ogic needed to bind appications together is not of the type that can be addressed even by the previousy described muti-step MSAI pattern. As you earned in the previous section, MSAI can ink appications by means of sequentia ogica processing, but it cannot provide a means for compex ogic such as a routing agorithm for deivery trucks that might be utiized by appications in a trucking company. This scenario requires that the custom ogic is avaiabe as a service that other appications can participate in or be directed by. Appications Unified Through User Interface Athough most of the integration discussed here occurs through writing intermediate code for serverto-server integration, it is certainy not restricted to that scenario specificay. Figure 3.5 depicts how two or more appications can be integrated via a common user interface. This is essentiay the use of a cient-side brokering appication. The user interface does not need to be a graphica user interface fie://j:\macmiancomputerpubishing\chapters\in226.htm 3/22/01

6 Chapter 3: e-business Integration Patterns Page 6 of 9 (GUI) athough more often than not, it is. Figure 3.5 User interface driven integration. The use of this pattern is commony appied in IT infrastructure as two-tiered cient/server impementations. Impemented in this form, the unifying cient-side appication is a fat cient accessing mutipe databases or appications. The Brokering Appication pattern is used extensivey even though it entais the writing of custom ogic in part because there remains a cass of probems that wi ony be soved by this pattern. This necessitates the use of technoogies such as Appication Servers, which wi be described in greater detai in Chapter 5, "Appication Servers." Appication-to-Appication B2Bi Now you're ready to move beyond EAI to earn about Appication-to-Appication B2Bi, extending integration beyond the corporate enterprise. I wi describe four additiona patterns reated specificay to B2B integration, beginning first with the Appication-to-Appication B2Bi pattern. The Appication-to-Appication pattern is the ogica extension of what occurs in EAI. When EAI vendors tout their products as being B2Bi, this specific pattern is what they have in mind. However, as you wi discover, this is not the ony pattern and very ikey not even the primary pattern for B2Bi. Appication-to-Appication B2Bi, which is often referred to as inter-enterprise integration, invoves corporate entities inking their appications directy to the appications of their partners or customers, as shown in Figure 3.6. In practice, this type of integration is often impemented as part of a suppy chain of goods and services to the customer. Figure 3.6 Appication-to-Appication B2Bi. This picture does not impy that each appication is entirey exposed. Ony a subset of appication data is externaized. The externaized appication messages are the ones that are reevant to the partners or customers as part of the suppy chain. How is this pattern fundamentay different from appication integration within the enterprise? As in enterprise integration, patterns such as the Muti-Step Appication Integration pattern or the Brokering Appication pattern may be appied. However, this pattern differs essentiay from EAI in that it invoves integration with externa business entities, not simpy appications. In this pattern, the appications are a direct point of entry into the business entity. This pattern wi aso ikey require the use of a pubic network such as the Internet or a third-party network. This extension for interenterprise integration means that a number of additiona issues need to be accounted for. Security The use of externa networks and coaboration between externa parties require a focus on security. Trust eves have to be estabished between participants. This means security measures have to be impemented for authentication, authorization, nonrepudiation, and secured data transport. fie://j:\macmiancomputerpubishing\chapters\in226.htm 3/22/01

7 Chapter 3: e-business Integration Patterns Page 7 of 9 Federated Contro The issue of federated contro means that each entity needs to be abe to contro eements of its own integration environment independenty. However, it needs to be abe to effectivey participate in the common integration environment. Systems Management Finay, the management of the entire integration system needs to be addressed as we. Estabishing the service-eve agreements between the participants is essentia for ong-term success. This means that each participant signs up to ensure appication avaiabiity and performance eves. Data Exchange B2Bi The imitation of the Appication-to-Appication B2Bi pattern is that it can be more demanding to impement. It necessitates that each participant handes and externaizes appication native data directy. This makes it difficut to scae the B2B interaction mode rapidy when such a demand is paced on the participants. The optima soution is to provide a rapidy scaabe B2Bi mode in which participants can exchange data freey with minima expectation on their infrastructure. The Data Exchange B2Bi pattern enabes B2B transactions predicated on a common data exchange format. It is the most widey appied pattern for B2B commerce today. Data Exchange B2Bi is effective because it is simpe in concept and has been in use since the days of Eectronic Data Interchange (EDI), the forerunner to today s B2B over the Internet. Athough there is a significant incumbency of egacy EDI transactions, the XML-based B2B wi utimatey dispace EDI as the primary mechanism for e-business transactions. As Figure 3.7 iustrates, XML-based data packets are transmitted between two business entities through the use of a data exchange gateway service on both ends. One of the primary responsibiities of the gateway service is to prepare the data packets by pacing them within a security enveope. The B2B gateway service supports security standards such as MIME, X.509, and S/Key. It is aso responsibe for routing data through a standard transport. Most B2B gateway services provide numerous transport options incuding HTTPS, FTP, and TCP/IP Sockets. However, upon examination, you wi find that most B2Bi transactions sti deiver XML documents over an HTTPS pipe. Figure 3.7 Data Exchange B2Bi. A point to note with this pattern is that the interactions are sti primariy point-to-point. Furthermore, the semantics of interaction (that is, the business processes) between the e-business entities are static. Many trading standards have emerged to define both the content of document exchange as we as the common business processes. One such standard is promoted by an independent, nonprofit organization caed RosettaNet. RosettaNet is committed to deveoping standard e-business interfaces that cover, among other things, e-business processes for standard business transactions. These process definitions are captured in what is known as Partner Interface Processes. B2B Process Integration fie://j:\macmiancomputerpubishing\chapters\in226.htm 3/22/01

8 Chapter 3: e-business Integration Patterns Page 8 of 9 Even with industrywide initiatives such as RosettaNet, a point-to-point data exchange that manages static interactions has some imitations. If Corporation A wants to purchase office suppies from Depot X, it must agree ahead of time on the content of the documents exchanged and buying process. This is, of course, to be expected. However, what if the situation invoves managing mutipe suppiers or if the interactions become more compex? For instance, a scenario in which suppiers openy bid to compete on pricing wi increase the dimensions of process interactions. In that case, managing the B2B transaction is no onger an activity of managing a singe point-to-point interaction. Instead, it becomes a chaenge of managing business processes that are dynamic rather than static. The B2B Process Integration pattern takes the imitations raised by the Data Exchange pattern and addresses them by providing Business Process Integration (BPI) services. Just as the Data Exchange pattern aows participants to manage data exchanges dynamicay through XML-based documents, the B2B Process Integration pattern aows the participants to manage processes in the same way. Therefore, richer, more compex reationships can occur between trading partners. B2B Process Integration pattern can be impemented as one of two variations: Cosed Process B2Bi or Open Process B2Bi. You might argue that each of these variations constitutes an individua pattern, but because they share the common attribute of being process focused, I have decided to treat them as variations to the B2B Process Integration pattern. Cosed Process B2Bi Cosed Process B2Bi occurs when an organization manages processes internay and externaizes key process activities ony through the data exchange gateway. Each organization through BPI is abe to monitor the status of business process activities within the enterprise. Reevant business events are pubished to its partners through the data exchange gateway. In Figure 3.8, Corporation A and Corporation B have both impemented BPI within the enterprise but have chosen not to directy expose these processes externay. Therefore, processes between the organizations are not managed. Instead, what exist are two sets of managed business processes inked together by a common gateway of pubished business events. The intra-enterprise impementation is at both the data and process eve, whereas the inter-enterprise integration is purey at the data exchange eve. Figure 3.8 Cosed Process B2Bi. Open Process B2Bi Open Process B2Bi creates the potentia for sharing processes between mutipe B2B corporate entities. Processes between companies are actuay managed by both companies. This requires BPI products impemented by both corporate entities. Processes within the corporate was can sti be managed as private processes, imiting their visibiity to within the corporate body. However, externa B2B processes shared by both corporations are managed as pubic processes. The resuting picture shoud ook something ike Figure 3.9. Figure 3.9 Open Process B2Bi fie://j:\macmiancomputerpubishing\chapters\in226.htm 3/22/01

9 Chapter 3: e-business Integration Patterns Page 9 of 9 The Open Process B2Bi requires a BPI soution that aows for the segmenting of the management of pubic and private processes. Chapter 6, "Understanding Business Process Integration," discusses BPI in more detai. Summary This chapter introduced the concept of integration patterns. It aso provided an integration pattern taxonomy, appied for both EAI as we as B2Bi. I covered the detais behind seven primary integration patterns commony appied today. Chapter 4, "Integration Brokers," wi introduce the first of the strategic e-business Integration technoogies: the integration broker. Integration brokers address the data integration ayer and are used primariy, athough not excusivey, within the enterprise. The chapter wi discuss the fundamenta attributes of the integration broker and expore how these attributes are critica to data integration. Chapter 4 wi aso provide a basis of evauating integration brokers and assess some of the eading integration brokers on the market today. Copyright Pearson Education. A rights reserved. fie://j:\macmiancomputerpubishing\chapters\in226.htm 3/22/01

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