UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI SCHOOL OF COMPUTING & INFORMATICS IMPROVING APPLICATION OF KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS IN ORGANIZATIONS:

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1 UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI SCHOOL OF COMPUTING & INFORMATICS IMPROVING APPLICATION OF KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS IN ORGANIZATIONS: CASE OF NAIROBI CITY WATER AND SEWERAGE COMPANY By TABITHA MBETE NGEI P58/63441/2011 SUPERVISOR: DR. AGNES WAUSI A RESEARCH PROJECT SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT FOR THE AWARD OF MASTER OF SCIENCE IN IFORMATION SYSTEMS UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI

2 DECLARATION This Rsarch Projct is my own original work and has not bn prsntd for a Dgr Qualification or any othr award in anothr Univrsity or Institution of Highr Larning. SIGNED DATE. TABITHA MBETE NGEI P58/63441/2011 This Rsarch Projct has bn submittd for Examination with my approval as th Univrsity Suprvisor. SIGNED: DATE: DR. AGNES WAUSI School of Computing and Informatics Univrsity of Nairobi Pag 1 of 81

3 DEDICATION First and formost I thank th Almighty God who has graciously mad it possibl for m to complt this journy. To my husband Bnard for standing by my sid and ncouraging m to prss on vn whn things smd tough; to my childrn Joshua and Joy for bing vry undrstanding whn I had to spnd tim away from thm. To my parnts Mr. and Mrs. Ngi as wll as my brothrs and sistrs who hav ncouragd and assistd m in prayr and with words of wisdom, may God rward you. Finally, to my frinds and collagus who had to bar long hours without m as I pursud my ducation, thank you vry much for making my dram com tru. Pag 2 of 81

4 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would lik to sincrly apprciat and acknowldg vryon who contributd to th succss of this projct. First and formost, I thank th Almighty God who guids my ways in all that undrtak. I am highly indbtd to my projct suprvisor Dr. Agns Wausi, who has offrd hr tim and invaluabl advic during th projct priod and gav m such ncouragmnt. I thank my classmats for thir valuabl contributions, support and ncouragmnt. I am also vry apprciativ of my family for always bing thr for m. Your support has provd to b priclss. Thank you all. Pag 3 of 81

5 ABSTRACT Knowldg is an asst to any organization and has bcom a vital rsourc to organizations and hnc a growing nd for knowldg managmnt (KM). Knowldg is dscribd as information providd in contxt to produc an actionabl undrstanding; it is what maks an organization tak action or provids th ability to tak action. Knowldg is classifid as ithr tacit or xplicit. Tacit knowldg xists in th minds of popl and is vry difficult to manag whil xplicit knowldg is th documntd information, prsntd in th form of journals, books, policy manuals, and procsss among othrs. Rsarch has notd that capturing, storing and utilizing both tacit and xplicit knowldg is critical to an organization s succss in th fast changing markt plac. If organizations don t manag knowldg, w will los a lot in trms of productivity trying to rinvnt th whl whn thr ar changs. This rsarch dmonstrats how th dvlopmnt of a knowldg managmnt systm can b dvlopd and usd in organizations, using a cas organization. Th KM systm prototyp dvlopd and prsntd in this rsarch projct is for managing both tacit and xplicit knowldg. Th knowldg managmnt systm nabls capturing of tacit knowldg through th us of discussion forums and articls onto a databas which th mploys can sarch to rtriv stord posts. From th data collctd, th prototypd solution showd that if adoptd and dvlopd furthr, knowldg captur, storag, dissmination and sharing in organizations would b mor fficint and would incras th productivity of mploys. Kywords: Knowldg, Knowldg Managmnt, Knowldg Managmnt Systm, Intrant. Pag 4 of 81

6 Tabl of Contnts Ddication.. 2 Acknowldgmnt.. 3 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Abstract Background of Problm Problm Statmnt Objctivs of Study Rsarch Objctivs Significanc and Justification of study CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 2.0 Introduction Knowldg Managmnt Concpts Knowldg Managmnt Approachs Knowldg Managmnt Procsss Knowldg Managmnt Systm Tchnologis Tchnologis that support Knowldg Managmnt Knowldg Managmnt Lif Cycl Modls Wiig Modl Hirachical Spiral Modl 20 Pag 5 of 81

7 2.4.3 A Spiral Modl of Knowldg Managmnt Knowldg Managmnt Systm Rsarch Framworks Gnral Systms Framwork Knowldg Consulting Mthodology Knowldg Managmnt Procss Modl Dvlopmnts in Us of KMS for Dissmination of Knowldg and Information Cas Studis Concptual Framwork 32 CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.0 Introduction Rsarch Dsign Data Sourc Sampling and Sampling Tchniqu Data Collction Data Analysis Tchniqus Systms Analysis and Dsign Knowldg Cration and Snsing Knowldg Organizing and Captur Knowldg Sharing and Dissmination Th knowldg managmnt systm moduls 40 CHAPTER FOUR: IMPLEMENTATION Implmntation Tools Tsting.43 Pag 6 of 81

8 4.3 Discussion of Rsults Sampl Knowldg Managmnt Wb pags..48 CHAPTER FIVE : DISCUSSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 5.1 Discussions Limitations of Projct Contributions to body of knowldg Rcommndations for Futur Work..54 REFERENCES.55 APPENDICES A: Data Collction Qustionnair.59 B: Usr Tsting Qustionnair..67 C: List of Figurs and Tabls 72 D: Modul Structurs 73 E: Rqust lttr for Data Collction 75 F: Sampl cod..76 Pag 7 of 81

9 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background of th Problm As th knowldg-basd conomy grows xponntially, th knowldg assts bcom invaluabl to th organizations. Effctiv us of knowldg in organizations is a crucial survival tactic and succss in comptitiv global markts. Knowldg has a strong potntial to problms solving, dcision making, organizational prformanc nhancmnts and innovation. Th ffctiv us of knowldg can b rfrrd to as Knowldg Managmnt (KM). Knowldg Managmnt dfins a systmatic, xplicit and dlibratd building procsss rquird to manag knowldg, th purpos of which is to maximiz an ntrpris s knowldg-rlatd ffctivnss and crat valus, Bixlr & Stankosky, (2005). Th knowldg managmnt procsss includ collcting, organizing, clarifying, dissminating and rusing th information and knowldg throughout th organization. Knowldg can b dfind as tacit or xplicit. Explicit knowldg is articulatd in formal languag and transmittd among individuals whil tacit knowldg involvs mor intangibl factors and is prsonal knowldg mbddd in individual xprinc, Frappaolo (2002). Both tacit and xplicit knowldg must giv rturns in ordr to solv today s problms within organizations. Th mphasis of knowldg managmnt is to mastr crucial and up-to-dat knowldg for continuous organizational improvmnt. A succssful knowldg managmnt has dynamic, maturity and slf-growth attributs. A dynamic attribut mans th information and knowldg flow should sprad throughout th organization without hindrancs. Evryon should b abl to contribut to th knowldg assts. A maturity attribut mans knowldg managmnt should b strong nough to handl th turbulnc in prformanc yt flxibl nough to adapt to changs. Knowldg managmnt should also align with th organizational policy, stratgis, cultur and structur, and provid an nvironmnt with wll disciplind, valu-addd and rlvant knowldg to gnrat and introduc innovativ and challnging idas. A slf-growth attribut mans knowldg managmnt should sns potntially valuabl knowldg, capturing and storing it to incras organizational knowldg assts and crat nw knowldg basd on what an organization alrady has. Pag 8 of 81

10 Whn thr is no accss to organizational knowldg and crtain individual mploys ar xcludd, thr is a-disconnct btwn th managmnt and th mploys rgarding implmntation of stratgis that th organization is trying to achiv. Employs with no accss to information or who hav bn dprivd th platform to shar thir viws and opinions ar facd with th challng of only knowing what thy nd to dlivr but ar nvr in th light on what th organization is intnding to achiv and th rational bhind th dcisions mad. David Khoza (2008) nots that it is th goal of vry organization to adopt stratgis that build organization-wid customr orintation and knowldg managmnt to nsur that th organization producs products and srvics that bttr mt th customr xpctations and will hav a comptitiv dg in th markt. To ffctivly achiv and xcut ths stratgis, th organization nds to offr bttr mchanisms to gnrat, shar, manag and communicat information. Organizations also nd to find ways of mpowring thir mploys in a mannr that will nabl mploys to shar thir idas and opinions on various mattrs in th organization. Mphidi t al (2004), rports that th intrant has mrgd to b on of today s most ffctiv tool for knowldg managmnt. Thy ar mostly usd to communicat to th mploys and to post information spcific to an organization. Thy ar usd to shar intrnally various typs of information in th organizations, such as tlphon dirctoris, staff procdurs and quality manuals, staff bulltin or nwslttrs tc Boca t al (2006). Mullr (2002) rports that companis adopt intrants to improv intrnal communication, distribut information and nabl mor mploys to accss lgacy systms. Intrant plays a cntral rol in many companis, xpanding th advantag of knowldg in th organization, Ednius & Borgrson (2003). Thrfor, intrants as a knowldg managmnt systm ar ky tools that offr nw ways to manag, communicat dat, information, and knowldg in an organization, Guthr (2003). In this information and knowldg ra, organizations possss knowldg that nabls thm to improv thir prformanc. Diffrnt scholars hav masurd th contribution of th knowldg managmnt using various modls. Gold t al. (2001) xamind mpirically th issus of ffctiv knowldg managmnt from th prspctiv of organizational capabilitis. Thy discovrd that knowldg infrastructural capability and knowldg procss capability ar th drivrs of organizational ffctivnss. Pag 9 of 81

11 1.2 Problm Statmnt Many organizations ar xprincing th digital ag which is charactrizd by widsprad communication and collaboration through wbsits, blogs, mails, facbook, twittr and othr wb applications thir mploys ar xposd to. In th digital ag, information sharing is vry common and thr is littl or no rgard to protction and hoarding. Thrfor, it is ncssary for organizations to nsur that thr is a scur nvironmnt for dissminating knowldg amongst its mploys. Whn xprts lav an organization, thy lav with thir skills and xprtis which is a hug loss to th organization which has havily invstd in thm. Knowldg in organizations xists in both tacit and xplicit forms. Whil xplicit knowldg is found in writtn formats, tacit knowldg xists in th individuals had. This is knowldg gaind from xprincs and xposur to crtain skills. Thrfor, thr is th nd for organizations to find a way to harnss tacit knowldg from thir mploys by providing an nvironmnt that ncourags sharing and transfr of this knowldg. Tacit knowldg is difficult to captur and is largly ignord in traditional knowldg managmnt systms. Irick (2007) mphasizs that th intrplay of tacit and xplicit knowldg is a critical factor in an organization s knowldg managmnt. Effctiv knowldg managmnt will rquir th managmnt of not only th asy to undrstand and captur xplicit knowldg but also th hard to xplain, difficult to captur tacit knowldg. Th aim of this rsarch is to xplor how knowldg managmnt systms nhanc accss, sharing and dvlopmnt of tacit/xplicit knowldg in organizations and to dvlop a knowldg managmnt systm platform to illustrat ffctiv knowldg managmnt in Nairobi City Watr and Swrag Company. Pag 10 of 81

12 1.3 Objctivs of Study Th objctivs of this study ar: 1. Explor th application of Knowldg Managmnt Systms. 2. Explor how KMS nhancs accss and sharing of knowldg in organizations. 3. Dsign, build, and valuat a prototyp systm to nhanc knowldg managmnt at Nairobi City Watr and Swrag Company. 1.4 Rsarch Qustions What ar th main sourcs of knowldg for mploys? How do mploys shar knowldg amongst thmslvs? How dos KMS influnc knowldg capacity (xplicit and tacit) of th mploys? How has th us of th KMS prototyp affctd knowldg transfr and sharing? 1.5 Significanc and Justification of th Study Thr is a trnd in organizations to harnss knowldg from mploys using nw dvlopmnts on th intrant tchnology. Holtz (2008) rportd that Intl has stablishd a wiki calld Intlpdia modld on th Wb phnomnon Wikipdia- whr mploys contribut thir knowldg of all things in Intl. Othr issus that justify th dvlopmnt of a computr-basd communication platform includ: Advancmnts in wb tchnologis whr diffrnt platforms can b linkd using a common intrfac. A taking to social ntworks on th wb which lads to a dmand for information sharing Nd to harnss knowldg from th mploys to giv th organization comptitiv advantag. Thrfor, this rsarch study will hlp to dmonstrat that organizations can us intrants as on of th most simpl, cost ffctiv and robust tools in gathring, sharing and dissminating knowldg btwn mploys and othr stak holdrs within th organization, and dvlop knowldg managmnt systms. Th importanc of this rsarch study is to hlp organizations harnss both tacit and xplicit knowldg from its mploys. Pag 11 of 81

13 CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 2.0 Introduction This chaptr ntails a background of what othr rsarchrs hav don in rgards to knowldg managmnt systms. This will hlp in filling in th gaps that arlir studis had missd or wr probably unabl to stablish. Concpts of knowldg and knowldg managmnt ar not vry familiar as compard to data and information, yt both data and information ar vry vital componnts in an organization. Data can b dfind as th raw facts, masurmnts and statistics whil information is organizd or procssd data that ar timly and accurat, Hoffr t al (2002); Watson(2001). Knowldg is information that is contxtual, rlvant and actionabl. Knowldg nabls th usr of th information to mak a sound dcision or larn from th prsntd information. Having knowldg mans that it can b xrcisd to solv a problm, whras having information may not hav th sam ability to us th information to th sam dgr. Whil data, information and knowldg may all b viwd as assts to an organization, knowldg provids a highr lvl of maning about data and information. For any organization to provid srvics, knowldg managmnt is critical. Information as a rsourc is not always valuabl, knowldg as a rsourc is valuabl bcaus it focuss on what is important, Hoffr, Prscott and McFaddn (2002). Pag 12 of 81

14 2.1 Knowldg Managmnt Concpts Information is bcoming vr mor important in our conomy now, and most businsss tak that knowldg can confr comptitiv advantag. Knowldg is a function of data, information and xprinc, whil knowldg managmnt is th procss usd to manag organizational knowldg that is rlvant to th mploys within th organization to conduct businss activitis. According to Hrschl t al (2005), knowldg managmnt is dscribd as a systmatic procss of finding, slcting, organizing, distilling and prsnting information in a way that improvs an mploy s comprhnsion in a spcific ara of intrst. It also hlps an organization to gain insight undrstanding from its own xprinc. Knowldg managmnt is also dfind as systmatically capturing, sharing, using and crating knowldg to add valu to th organization, Balcomb (1999); Mphidi & Snyman (2004). Shanhong (2002) also dfins knowldg managmnt as ffctivly idntifying, acquiring, dvloping, rsolving, using, storing and sharing knowldg to crat an approach for transforming tacit knowldg to xplicit knowldg. Boca t al (2006) dfins knowldg managmnt as tchniqus and tools for collcting and dissminating knowldg within an organization, whil all of th abov dscription or dfinitions of knowldg managmnt ar consistnt, and hav th objctivity of sharing knowldg within an organization to hlp th organization and its mmbrs to gain insight undrstanding from knowldg that is capturd or dvlopd within an organization to crat valu. For th purposs of this rsarch study, knowldg managmnt is dscribd as a systmatic procss of capturing, sharing, using and crating knowldg to add valu to th organization. Gold, Malhotra, and Sgars (2001) xamins th issu of ffctiv knowldg managmnt from th prspctiv of organizational capabilitis. This prspctiv suggsts that a knowldg infrastructur consisting of tchnology, structur, and cultur along with knowldg procss architctur of acquisition, convrsion, application, and protction ar ssntial organizational capabilitis or prconditions for ffctiv knowldg managmnt. Th rsults provid a basis for undrstanding th comptitiv advantag of a firm as it ntrs a program of knowldg managmnt. Pag 13 of 81

15 Cui t al. (2005) also mntion that knowldg managmnt capabilitis consist of thr intrrlatd procsss: knowldg acquisition, knowldg convrsion, and knowldg application ( Gold, Malhotra, & Sgars, 2001). Knowldg is not only an important rsourc for a firm, but also it srvs as a basic sourc of comptitiv advantag (Gold, Malhotra, and Sgars 2001). Thrfor, knowldg managmnt capabilitis rfr to th knowldg managmnt procsss in an organization that dvlop and us knowldg within th firm Knowldg Managmnt Approachs According to Byounggu Choi t al (2002), thr ar two main knowldg managmnt approachs: Human stratgy approach It rflcts a human orintation or focus in trms of knowldg managmnt. This stratgy mphasizs knowldg sharing via intrprsonal intraction and it utilizs dialogu through social ntworks including occupational groups and tams. It hlps shar knowldg through prson-to-prson contacts. This stratgy attmpts to acquir intrnal and opportunistic knowldg and to shar it informally. Systm Orintd stratgy approach This stratgy mphasizs th capability to hlp crat, stor, shar and us an organization s xplicitly documntd knowldg. It mphasizs codifying and storing knowldg. Typically, knowldg can b codifid via information tchnology. Codifid knowldg is mor likly to b rusd. Th mphasis is on compltly spcifid sts of ruls about what to do undr vry possibl circumstanc. Pag 14 of 81

16 Tabl 1: Faturs of Human and Systm Stratgy adaptd from Byounggu Choi t al (2002) Stratgy Faturs Human - Emphasizs dialogu via social ntworks and prson to prson contacts - Focus on acquiring knowldg via xprincd and skilld popl - Attmpts to shar knowldg informally Systm - Emphasizs codd knowldg in knowldg managmnt - Focus on codifying and storing knowldg via information tchnology - Attmpts to shar knowldg formally. 2.2 Knowldg Managmnt Procsss Knowldg managmnt is focusd on capturing th xprtis of organizations and individuals and on th disposal and application of this xprtis in ordr to maximiz th bnfits. Knowldg managmnt hlps to bring th right knowldg to th right popl at th right tim, thus nabling thm to mak th bst dcisions. Knowldg managmnt involvs th analysis of availabl and rquird knowldg and th subsqunt planning and control actions to dvlop knowldg assts so as to fulfill organizations objctivs. Figur 1: Knowldg Managmnt Procsss. Sourc: Brgron (2003): Essntials of knowldg managmnt Pag 15 of 81

17 i) Cration or acquisition: Knowldg is cratd or gathrd by knowldg workrs. ii) Modification: Knowldg is modifid in ordr to suit immdiat or futur nds. iii) Us: Th knowldg is mployd for spcific, usful purpos iv) Archiving: Knowldg is stord in a form and format that will surviv in tim and will still b accssibl and usabl for knowldg workrs in organizations. v) Transfr: Transfr or communication of knowldg from on prson or plac to anothr. vi) Translation/rpurposing: Knowldg is translatd from its original form into a nw form mor suitabl for nw purpos. vii) Usr accss: Provision of limitd accss to knowldg workrs according to thir position in th company and thir nds. viii) Disposal: It is important to idntify which information/knowldg to kp and which to dstroy. Th main sourcs of knowldg managmnt within th organization ar th mploys who gathr data and information through intraction with th organizational nvironmnt, such as rports, policis, company stratgy, mission and vision, product information, markt information tc. Th information from various sourcs ar thn valuatd by individuals who thn apply knowldg, tchnology and human intuition or intllignc to procss th information or data to rsult in organizational knowldg which can b stord, rtrivd and shard within th organization to improv businss prformanc. Pag 16 of 81

18 2.3 Knowldg Managmnt Systm Tchnologis Knowldg managmnt is mor a mthodology applid to businss practics than a tchnology or a product. Nvrthlss, information tchnology is crucial to th succss of vry knowldg managmnt systm. Information Tchnology nabls knowldg managmnt by providing th ntrpris architctur upon which it is built. Knowldg Managmnt Systms (KMS) ar dvlopd using thr (3) tchnologis: 1. Communication: Thy allow usrs to accss ndd knowldg and to communicat with ach othr. 2. Collaboration: Thy provid th mans to prform group work. Groups can work togthr on common documnts at th sam tim or in diffrnt placs. This is important spcially for mmbrs of community of practic working on knowldg contributions 3. Storag and Rtrival: This tchnology originally mant using a databas managmnt systm to stor and manags knowldg. This workd wll in th arly days for storing and managing most xplicit knowldg and vn xplicit knowldg about tacit knowldg. Howvr, capturing, storing and managing tacit knowldg usually rquirs a diffrnt st of tools. Elctronic documnt-managmnt systms and spcializd storag systms (knowldg rpositoris) that ar part of collaborativ computing systms fill this void. Pag 17 of 81

19 2.3.1 Tchnologis that Support Knowldg Managmnt Thr ar various tchnologis that support knowldg managmnt systms as shown in th figur blow: Tabl 2: Tchnologis supporting Knowldg managmnt Systms Tchnology Dscription Workflow Consists of an orchstratd and rpatabl pattrn of businss activity nabld by th systmatic organization of rsourcs into procsss. Intrants A ntwork containd within th ntrpris. It s usd to shar information and computing rsourcs among mploys as wll as facilitat group working. Extrants A privat ntwork that uss Intrnt tchnology and th public tlcommunication systm to scurly shar part of businss s information with xtrnal sourcs,.g. supplirs, customrs, vndors tc. Documnt Managmnt Managmnt of lctronic documnts, a systm to sarch, dit, distribut, rtriv, archiv, and manag th complt lifcycl of documnts. Dcision Support A computr-basd information systm that supports businss or Systms organizational dcision-making activitis. Data Warhous A larg stor of data accumulatd from wid rang of sourcs within a company and usd to guid managmnt dcisions Groupwar Softwar that supports multipl usrs working on rlatd tasks in local and rmot ntworks. Wb Confrncing It is a srvic that allows confrncing vnts to b shard with rmot locations. Projct Managmnt Th planning and organization of an organization s rsourcs in ordr to mov a spcific task, vnt or duty toward compltion. Pag 18 of 81

20 Ths tchnologis corrlat to four main stags of th Knowldg Managmnt lif cycl as discussd latr in this chaptr: 1. Knowldg is acquird or capturd using intrants, xtrants, groupwar, wb-confrncing and documnt managmnt systms. 2. An organizational mmory is formd by rfining, organizing, and storing knowldg using structurd rpositoris such as data warhouss. 3. Knowldg is distributd through ducation, training programs, automatd knowldg basd systms, xprt ntworks. 4. Knowldg is lvragd for furthr larning and innovation via mining of th organizational mmory and application of xprt systms such as dcision support systms. 2.4 Knowldg Managmnt Lif Cycl Modls Wiig Modl Wiig s modl is basd on th principal if w want to hav usful and valuabl knowldg, ths must b organizd. Knowldg should b organizd according to th way it will b usd. This modl also addrsss th problm rfrring to how rlvant knowldg can b, coming from a spcific sourc. Th sourc can b: minds of popl or knowldg bass (tacit or xplicit). According to Wiig (2004), anothr important aspct rfrs to th rlations btwn diffrnt objcts of knowldg. Vry fw lmnts ar compltly disconnctd. Dalkir, (2011) cits that Wiig s modl attmpts to dfin diffrnt lvls of intrnalization of knowldg and thrfor could b sn as a rfinmnt of th fourth Nonaka and Takuchi quadrant of intrnalization. Th lvls of intrnalization span th classifications of novic, bginnr, comptnt, xprt and mastr. Pag 19 of 81

21 Th tabl blow dfins th dgr intrnalization of th Wiig modl. Tabl 3: Dgrs of intrnalization of Wiig Modl Lvl Typ Dscription 1 Novic Extrmly low consciousnss (vn not at all) about knowldg and th way it can b usd. 2 Bginnr H knows about knowldg xistnc and whr it can b obtaind, but h dosn t know th way it can b usd. 3 Comptnt Knows, but th possibility of using knowldg is limitd. 4 Exprt H kps th knowldg in mind, undrstands whr can b applid, works with knowldg without xtrnal intrvntion. 5 Mastr Compltly intrnalization of knowldg; a mastr has a profound undrstanding about th vnts in his nvironmnt. Sourc: Wiig, K: Popl-focusd knowldg managmnt: How ffctiv dcision making lads to corporat succss, Buttrworth-Hinmann, Hirachical Spiral Modl of Knowldg Managmnt This modl according to Sun & Hao, (2006) is a hybrid modl borrowing from Sun s watrfall modl of knowldg managmnt and Nonaka s Spiral modl of knowldg managmnt. Th major procss stags of th hirarchical spiral modl ar xtractd from th watrfall modl. Th procsss ar dividd and catgorizd into fiv main procsss and lvn sub-procsss from a hirarchical point of viw, which form a spiral within thr main procsss. Th modl provids a guidlin btwn th diffrnt phass of knowldg managmnt activitis. Th main procss of th hirarchical spiral modl includs knowldg slction, knowldg cration, knowldg sharing and knowldg prsrvation and rtntion. Knowldg slction idntifis knowldg nds by undrstanding and slcting usful knowldg from th xisting rpository. This supports rachability of knowldg and filtrs th usful knowldg from an organization s xisting knowldg making it asy to sarch and find. Th slction procss has svral sub-procsss such as knowldg idntifying, undrstanding, discovring and rtriving. Pag 20 of 81

22 Knowldg cration supports gnration and cration of knowldg. Th dvlopmnt of nw knowldg in an organization focuss on crating nw products, bttr idas, mor fficint srvics or nw skills. This is dsirabl if th xisting knowldg dos not mt th nds. Knowldg sharing is rgardd as th cor procss of knowldg managmnt and is fulfilld aftr xisting knowldg has bn idntifid or nw knowldg has bn cratd. It is prformd by distribution and utilization of th knowldg that has bn slctd or gnratd from th organization and acquird outsid. Whn sharing knowldg, nw knowldg is oftn cratd by combining th shard knowldg and xisting knowldg (Davnport and Prusak, 2000). Th nw knowldg has to b stord in th fourth main procss of knowldg prsrvation and rtntion. Knowldg prsrvation aims at rtntion of knowldg assts. Th nw valuabl knowldg has to b stord from tim to tim. This is accomplishd by fficint storag mdia to accss knowldg, to prvnt valuabl xprtis from disapparing. Knowldg nds to b updatd frquntly bcaus th knowldg bcoms obsolt rapidly in th knowldg socity. Th sub-procsss dmonstrat how ths main procsss hav bn don in dtail and also show th rlationship btwn th procsss. Th hirarchical spiral modl is xtnsiv with fiv main procsss and lvn sub-procssss. This is advantagous in that th modl provids for a dtaild and thorough dpth of knowldg managmnt implmntation. Th limitation is that it may dmand for a long priod on th implmntation as th procss is followd. Pag 21 of 81

23 K = Knowldg K Sharing K Rprsntation K Utilization K Distribution K Slction K Cration K Idntification K Ontology Dsign K Rtrival K Discovry K Evaluation K Gnration K Undrstanding K Acquisition K Prsrvation & Rtntion K Updat Figur 2: Th Hirachical Spiral Modl for Knowldg Managmnt Sourc: Sun, Z and Hao, G (2006), HSM: a Hirachical Spiral Modl for knowldg managmnt, in procdings of th 2 nd Intrnational Confrnc on Information Managmnt and Businss (IMB2006), Sydny Australia, Fbruary 2006, pp Pag 22 of 81

24 2.4.3 A Spiral Modl of Knowldg Managmnt Nissn (2002) and Nonaka (2004) propos a spiral modl of dynamic intraction btwn tacit and xplicit knowldg and charactriz four procsss namly, Socialization, Extrnalization, Combination and Intgration. Ths procsss nabl individual knowldg to b amplifid and ffct organizational knowldg crystallization. Nissn and Lvitt (2002) adapt Nonaka s spiral modl to a dynamic modl of knowldg flow. This modl dscribs how knowldg flows through th modrn organization and what managrial intrvntions can b mad to nhanc knowldg flow. Th modl mbds th knowldg flow to organization s vryday work flow to distribut knowldg through th organization. Th modl also dscribs continuous and routin flows that compris th bulk of organizational knowldg work. This flow is charactrizd by four ntrpris procsss: socialization (tacit to tacit), xtrnalization (tacit to xplicit), combination (xplicit to xplicit), and intrnalization (xplicit to tacit). Figur 3: Nonaka s and Takuchi Knowldg Spiral Modl Sourc: Nonaka, Ikujiro; von Krogh, Gorg (2009). "Tacit Knowldg and Knowldg Convrsion: Controvrsy and Advancmnt in Organizational Knowldg Cration Thory". Organization Scinc 20 (3): Pag 23 of 81

25 2.5 Knowldg Managmnt Systms Rsarch Framworks Thr ar various rsarch framworks that hav bn proposd to guid rsarch into knowldg managmnt systms. Ths includ: Gnral Systms Framwork This framwork trats a knowldg managmnt systm as any othr information systm. Ths systms can b studid in trms of thir inputs, procsss and outputs. In othr words, a systms approach can b usd to provid a basis for rsarch programs in KMS. Th Gnral SystmsFramwork is shown in th figur blow. It shows th thr componnts of th framwork, that is, inputs.g knowldg, popl, tools, procss and outputs, Th advantag of this framwork is its simplicity and inclusivnss. All major componnts for KMS can b includd in this modl. Th disadvantag is it dos not highlight th importanc of knowldg bass/rpositoris, or th critical natur of knowldg transfr btwn popl. Inputs: Knowldg Popl Tools Procss: Intraction of Knowldg, Popl and Tools Outputs: Usful Knowldg Fdback Figur 4: Gnral Systms Framwork for Knowldg Managmnt Systms Sourc: Pag 24 of 81

26 2.5.2 KM Consulting Mthodology KM Consulting Mthodology was bn dsignd to nsur a propr, comprhnsiv, systmatic and consistnt approach to succssful managmnt, Ron Young (2005). It mbracs a holistic approach to th stratgic, cultural, popl, procss and tchnology issus. KM Consulting mthodology nsurs dtaild attntion is givn to th critical succss factors in succssfully implmnting knowldg managmnt programs. This may includ: Idntification of th critical knowldg aras A knowldg sharing cultur Enabling knowldg tchnologis Propr KM ducation Natural and flourishing knowldg-ld communitis Alignd rwards and rcognition Masurs to gaug th businss and KM bnfits Th KM Consulting Mthodology proposs th phas approach as dscribd blow: Stag I: Plan rfrs to th knowldg managmnt stratgic planning phas Stag II: Dvlop is th phas whrby an organization transforms itslf to a KM nabld company basd on th company-spcific KM valu proposition drivd in Stag I. Stag III: Oprat is th phas in which an organization rolls-out a company-wid implmntation plan with a holistic approach to KM. Masurmnt of th lvl of lvraging of knowldg assts with a KM ffort. Training of both th knowldg workrs to th nw procsss and tchnologis as wll as of th staff to tak up nw knowldg-rlatd rols. Pag 25 of 81

27 Awarnss Stag II: Stag I: Dvlop Stag III: Plan Oprat Masurmnt Training Figur 5: KM Consulting Mthodology Ovrviw Sourc: Knowldg-Managmnt-onlin.com Th Knowldg Managmnt Procss Modl by Botha t al (2008) Th modl attmpts to offr a mor ralistic ovrviw of th KM procss. Th thr broad catgoris ovrlap and intract with on anothr and th focus of th modl is on th managrial initiativs. This modl also includs th cration of nw knowldg as a spcific KM initiativ. Th modl shows which of th thr catgoris ar mor popl orintd and which ar mor tchnology focusd. According to this modl, organizations tnd to approach knowldg sharing as a tchnological challng rathr than organizational and social challng. Pag 26 of 81

28 Figur 6: Th KM Procss Modl by Botha t al (2008). Sourc: This rsarch dvlopd a systm prototyp that is computr wb-basd and taks into considration th managmnt of both tacit and xplicit knowldg. Th rsarch mad rfrnc to th hirarchical spiral modl and th Knowldg managmnt procss modl lookd at arlir. Th Hirarchical spiral modl as a knowldg managmnt tool capturs both tacit and xplicit knowldg. Th systm dvlopd prsnts a knowldg managmnt platform that idntifis, capturs, stors, avails and maintains organization s knowldg. Th systm has as its input both xplicit and tacit knowldg which th systm manags. This knowldg is output to th mploys of th organization who thn us it to mak dcisions and tak action. Pag 27 of 81

29 Th goal of this systm is to nabl mploys to hav rady accss to th organization s documntd bas of facts, sourcs of information, and solutions by conncting an organization s mploys to ach othr. It also maks provision for th mploys to ngag ach othr in discussions which will rsult in nw knowldg bing dvlopd and also transfr of skills and xprincs btwn th mploys. 2.6 Dvlopmnts in Us of KMS for Dissmination of Knowldg and Information Cas studis: According to Holtz (2008), Wachovia th fourth largst bank in th U.S. is building a wiki that is calld Wachopdia and also it is coming up with an intrnal social ntwork, a Facbook-lik utility that will allow mploys to shar information, photos, vidos and documnts. Thy will also b abl to form groups around subjcts that intrst thm. Holtz also rcords that Dll, IBM and a host of othr companis ar also bfing up th opportunity for mploys to find and intract with on anothr through social ntworking applications offrd by companis with nams such as Lvrag Softwar and Slct Minds. Knowldg Extract, Profiling and Sharing Ntwork (KEPSNET) is a knowldg managmnt framwork to support th managmnt of tacit knowldg comprising comptncis and xprincs in a projct group (Marzanah t al., 2020). KEPSNET capturs tacit knowldg through concpt maps. Usrs intract with th systm through a providd usr intrfac mnu. KEPSNET allows for knowldg rtntion through knowldg captur, knowldg rtriv through compar and profiling and knowldg rus through knowldg rcommndations and ntworking. KEPSNET is a gratr framwork for th managmnt of tacit knowldg but fails as a knowldg managmnt tool as it dos not ncompass ntir knowldg managmnt of both tacit and xplicit knowldg. Th Intrnational Livstock Rsarch Institut (ILRI) has implmntd a knowldg managmnt platform that includs a collaboration nvironmnt for collaborating within th organization and with its partnrs, information cntrs whr staff shar what thy know through journals and monographs, training and larning cntr and intrnt cafs accssibl both to ILRI staff and to th authorizd public. Pag 28 of 81

30 Okmwa (2006) indicats that th KM initiativs at ILRI hav not xhaustivly bn abl to captur th largly tacit knowldg comprising th thno-vtrinary knowldg in th subsaharan African rgion which would gratly improv its srvics by utilization of traditional human husbandry practics and indignious mdicinal plants. H also nots that th ILRI implmntation of th KM also lacks standards, tchniqus and mthods for audit knowldg. H finally rcommnds that mor sourcs of knowldg nd to b idntifid and tools dfind. Nwsmat is a mobil knowldg managmnt systm dsignd for Journalists. It is a prototyp for supporting knowldg sharing and xprtis location in both offic and fild locations. It is mostly gard on conncting Journalists for knowldg sharing. Th Documnt managmnt aspct is not substantial. Saroch & Barmash (2007) prsnt a knowldg managmnt systm. Th systm s goal is managmnt of knowldg found in proposals. This hlps organizations to asily locat past proposals inordr to hlp in futur proposal writing. Th systm is anchord on th organization s documnt managmnt and collaboration. It dos tacit knowldg sharing through similar groupd communitis of practic via discussion boards, talk platforms and onlin chats. Howvr, this systm lacks a way of tapping into and codifying th xprtis and xprincs of th workrs. Corporat Mmory (CoMm) is a prototyp knowldg managmnt systm for th managing of nginring dsignr s intrnal and xtrnal knowldg, Frutchr and Dmian (2002). CoMm groups th sts of projct mmoris into a corporat mmory and thn supports xtrnal knowldg rus from this mmory through thr moduls. Th ovrviw modul supports th dsignr to find rusabl knowldg in xtrnal rpositoris. It is implmntd as a tr map whr ach trm is color-codd by its rlvanc to th usr s dsign task. Th projct xplorr modul idntifis rlatd itms in th corporat mmory and visualizs ths rlatd itms to hlp th usr bttr undrstand why th itm in qustion was dsignd th way it was. Th volution history xplorr modulprsnts th vrsions of th slctd itm, and th tam intractions and rational driving this volution. It draws from th ffctivnss of storytlling and xplors how to visualiz vrsion historis. Gnrally, CoMm knowldg managmnt prototyp systm through its thr moduls of ovrviw, projct contxt xplorr and volution history xplorr supports th thr procsss of intrnal knowldg rus namly find, xplor volutionary history and xplor th projct contxt. Pag 29 of 81

31 CoMm in this way is a knowldg managmnt systm intndd to support ffctiv knowldg rus through fastr sarchs and provision of contxtual information. CoMm is primarily dvlopd for us by architctur, nginring and construction firms. Tacit aspct of knowldg managmnt is lacking in CoMm. Th Army Intllignc Comprhnsiv Analysis Tool (AICAT), an Intllignc Cntr onlin application provids th capability to analyz and assss th Army Intllignc Information including procsss and organizations in a mor timly and fficint mannr, Wsly t al (2008).. AICAT provids th Army Intllignc Community with a rpository to stor, maintain, qury, and rport on intllignc, survillanc, and intgration rquirmnts and rlatd doctrin, organization, training matrial, ladrship and ducation, prsonnl and facilitis information. Th systm also provids a location to captur statistical, assssmnt, and modling and simulation products. AICAT has provd to b a usful tool on many fronts. It was originally dvlopd as an intrnal tool to support th rsarch rquirmnts of th Intgratd Intllignc, Survillanc and Rconnaissanc Forc Dvlopmnt Tst and Exprimntation, its utility on a largr scal was apparnt from th bginning. Th Military Intllignc Ntwork (MI NET) is a knowldg managmnt sit that is usd by th military community to asily publish, manag, organiz and discuss a wid rang of contnt through on wbsit. It applis th concpt of social ntworking to knowldg managmnt acting lik th military s profssional forum. Usrs shar what thy know and find what is ndd by having subjct mattr xprts answr thir qustions timly. Usrs quickly shar idas, lssons larnd which is actually transfr of knowldg. Rsponss givn to rqust rang from simpl txtual rplis to tools lik standard opration procdurs, powrpoint prsntations, or othr documnts. According to Dustin Cloos (2008), MI Nt as a knowldg managmnt systm which oprats on th concpt of popl factor nds to b coupld with th tchnology factor for ffctiv impact of knowldg on popl. As a knowldg managmnt platform, MI Nt is ffctiv in that it mbodis th concpt of providing th right knowldg to th right popl at th right tim through asynchronous collaboration of th novics and th xprts. Th challng of MI NET is to hav an instant connction btwn th prson in nd of th information and th subjct mattr. Unlss this is pr-arrangd thn it can pos as a challng. Pag 30 of 81

32 This rsarch study will attmpt to dvlop a computr basd systm prototyp (intrant) that prsnts a knowldg managmnt platform that idntifis, capturs, stors, avails and maintains organizational knowldg. It taks into considration th managmnt of both tacit and xplicit knowldg. Th goal of this systm is to nabl mploys to hav rady accss to organization s documntd bas of facts, sourcs of information, and solutions by conncting mploys to ach othr and dlivring th right information to th right popl at th right tim. This rsarch will mak rfrnc to th MI NET knowldg managmnt systm whil at th sam tim try to improv on its waknsss. Th systm maks rfrnc to th Knowldg managmnt procss modl by Botha t al as th mthodology concpt for th prototyp. Rsarch shows that th majority of xisting knowldg managmnt tchnologis hav mrgd from a documnt managmnt approach. This rlativly rlats to th managmnt of xplicit knowldg. This majorly ariss from th confusion btwn information managmnt and knowldg managmnt. Most popl rlat ths to man th sam thing. If w follow th documnt managmnt approach, thn in rality only xplicit knowldg will b managd laving out th tacit knowldg which is also crucial to th organization. Knowldg managmnt incorporats both tacit and xplicit knowldg. Pna-Mora t al (2000) stats, thr xists th limitation to th managmnt of tacit knowldg. A limitation also xists in taking into account th intractions, skills, intrsts, intuitions, motivations and comptncis in an organization or a group. Thrfor, this rsarch study will try to incorporat both aspcts of tacit and xplicit knowldg managmnt in th systm prototyp. Pag 31 of 81

33 2.7 Proposd Concptual Modl: Intrnal Usrs (Employs) Tacit Knowldg - Skills - Exprincs KMS Explicit Knowldg - Rports - Policy and Procdurs - HR Manuals - QMS documnts Figur 7: Concptual Modl Th knowldg managmnt systm manags both tacit and xplicit knowldg. It has its main usr as th mploys of th organization who ar authnticatd and authorizd to accss and utiliz th rsourcs availd by th systm. Th tacit knowldg is managd in th systm whr th mploys ar abl to shar idas, xprincs and thir skills thrfor crating nw knowldg which builds th knowldg managmnt rpositoris whil th xplicit knowldg is availd to th usrs for rfrnc purposs and also nabls thm to mak bttr dcisions. Pag 32 of 81

34 CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY 3.0 Introduction Adapting to MI NET and Knowldg Managmnt Procss Modl by Botha t al (2008), this sction prsnts an ovrviw of th mthods and procdurs usd in th study. It covrs Systm Analysis and dsign, population, sampl and sampling tchniqus, data collction and analysis. 3.1 Rsarch Dsign A rsarch dsign is th concptual structur within which a rsarch is conductd. It is th ovrall stratgy that is chosn to intgrat th diffrnt componnts of a study in a cohrnt and logical mannr thrby nsuring on ffctivly addrsss th rsarch problm. It constituts th blu print for th collction, masurmnt, and analysis of data. A survy-basd study will b conductd to collct data on th currnt procsss involvd in th sharing of information amongst th Nairobi City Watr and Swrag mploys. This will involv th usrs of th various dpartmnts in undrstanding how information is passd on to thm and how that information assists thm improv thir work valu. Th analysis of th currnt stat will also involv a rviw of th systms in plac for communication and how ffctiv thy ar to th organization. 3.2 Data Sourc Nairobi City Watr and Swrag Company consists of mor than 2000 mploys and it is widly distributd into various gographical rgions. According to Mugo (2008), thr ar six fundamntal rasons for sampling instad of doing a cnsus and ths ar; conomy, timlinss, larg siz of th populations, inaccssibility of som population, dstructivnss of obsrvation and accuracy. Thrfor, in considration of this, a population sampl is chosn ovr th cnsus. Mugo (2008) furthr dscribs a sampl as a st of rspondnts slctd from a largr population for th purpos of survy. Pag 33 of 81

35 Individual organizational mmbrs who will rprsnt thir rspctiv dpartmnts will b targtd. Individuals will b randomly chosn to participat in th survy. Du to th natur of th study which rquirs th work rlatd activitis of th participants in th survy to rly on ffctiv us of knowldg to xcut thir tasks ffctivly. Thrfor th targtd participants ar thos within th following profssional strams; IT, Enginring, Billing human rsourcs, customr car and ISO. 3.3 Sampling and Sampling Tchniqu Diamantopoulos and Schlglmilch (2006) dscribs various sampling mthods that can b usd to obtain a population sampl, namly; convninc sampling, judgmntal sampling, quota sampling, snowball sampling, random sampling, stratifid sampling, tc. Ldy and Ormrod (2005), also hintd that rsarchrs oftn ovrlook th practical issus rlatd to availability of data or th availability of rspondnts. Diamantopoulos and Schlglmilch (2006), dscribs a convnint sampl as sampl mmbrs that ar chosn on th basis of bing radily availabl and accssibl to th rsarchr. Thrfor, taking all this into considration a convninc sampling mthod was dmd adquat for this study to nsur sufficint data collction. 3.4 Data Collction Th focus of th study was on knowldg sharing and transfr by us of knowldg managmnt systms. Thrfor th primary data from th partis involvd is crucial. Primary data will b collctd via us of qustionnairs. Howvr, scondary data from th rlvant publications, manuals, procdurs was also collctd to augmnt th studis. Th total duration for distributing and rciving back th qustionnairs from all th rspondnts was two wks. On wk for distributing th qustionnair and on wk for follow-up. Th rspondnts wr givn a maximum of on wk to rturn th qustionnairs to avoid prssurizing thm. It is important to not that two qustionnairs will b distributd; on to assss th viws of usrs on knowldg managmnt and th various knowldg managmnt fforts in us whil th scond qustionnair will assss th rspons of th usrs aftr us of th Pag 34 of 81

36 prototyp systm. Th first qustionnair will guid on th dvlopmnt of a prototyp for th knowldg managmnt systm. 3.5 Data Analysis Tchniqus Data collctd during survy will b analyzd using qualitativ mthods to dtrmin th rlvanc of th rsarch qustions. MS- Excl spradsht will b usd for appropriat analysis of th data. Th findings will b prsntd in form of tabls, pi charts and bar graphs. Th Excl sht is attachd in th Appndics. Pag 35 of 81

37 3.6 SYSTEM ANALYSIS and DESIGN A dtaild study of knowldg managmnt systms was conductd, such as COMm, MI Nt, KEPSNET and Nwsmat among othrs. Ths systms wr assssd to dtrmin thir mrit and dmrits and also to familiariz myslf with thir shortcomings in trms of knowldg managmnt. Rquirmnts wr dtrmind by analysis of th qustionnair fdbacks from various mploys Knowldg Cration and Snsing According to th Knowldg Managmnt Procss modl by Botha t al (2008), for knowldg to b managd it has to b cratd and snsd. Knowldg cration according to Nonaka s SECI modl is about continuous transfr, combination and convrsion of th diffrnt typs of knowldg as usrs practic, intract and larn. Knowldg Snsing involvs filtring what is important and usful to build knowldg. Th knowldg cratd nds to add valu to th vryday work of th usr. For knowldg to b cratd it nds to b harvstd and this bgins by nabling th xprts to vrbaliz thir tacit knowldg thrby making it xplicit. Th procss followd was idntification of th knowldg and captur th knowldg. This procss can also b idntifid as knowldg audit which idntifis th sourcs of knowldg rquird in-ordr for th knowldg managmnt systm to b usful to th usrs. Knowldg cration and snsing was don through th us of discussion forums and articls whr xprts can shar idas and xprincs through discussions of various topics Knowldg Organizing and Captur Th scond phas in th Knowldg Managmnt procss modl is th knowldg organizing and captur. This follows knowldg cration and snsing and thrfor th cratd knowldg nds to b organizd and capturd in a mannr that is asily accssibl and rtrivabl to th usrs. Explicit knowldg in th dpartmnts is found in th documntation matrials, whil tacit knowldg is managd by th xprt prsonnl. Pag 36 of 81

38 Knowldg Captur For knowldg to b managd it nds to b idntifid or auditd and thn capturd for storag. Knowldg captur is also rfrrd to as knowldg harvsting. Most of th knowldg was obtaind from rsarch data. Th projct procss followd was idntification of th knowldg, licit th knowldg and thn captur th knowldg. This is also rfrrd to as knowldg audit. This procss idntifis sourcs of knowldg rquird in-ordr to solv th businss problm th prototyp systm attmpts to addrss. Idntification of th knowldg in th organization was don through analysis of fdback from qustionnair distributd to th rspondnts. Sampl qustions and an analysis of th rspons givn ar displayd in th Appndix sction. Th organization s documnts wr also rviwd. Knowldg Organization Th knowldg capturd nds to b organizd. Explicit knowldg in th organization is found in documntations and in limitd ntwork foldrs. Tacit knowldg in th organization was found to b handld by xprts who do not hav forums for sharing th information. Explicit knowldg in th organization is found in form of manuals, QMS procdur, Rport, Usr manuals, Customr car chartr, tc whil tacit knowldg was managd by th rspctiv xprts. Explicit knowldg Explicit knowldg was found to largly xist in documnt formats. A documnt managmnt approach is chosn to manag this knowldg. A documnt managmnt approach is a rpository that is usd to stor, organiz and track documnts. It provids storag, mtadata, scurity, indxing and rtrival of th documnts. Documnt managmnt systms ar nablrs in th procss of knowldg managmnt. Knowldg managmnt is involvd in gathring, storing and sharing of th right information to th right popl at th right tim; th documnt managmnt systm nsurs that th information is availabl to th usr whn ndd. Pag 37 of 81

39 Th documnts modul is whr th mploys will b abl to accss thir documnts stord in th systm. Th documnts ar providd in soft copy thn thy ar uploadd in th systm for accss. Th prototyp systm provids th following functionality for this modul: Upload documnt Download documnt Sarch documnt Th documnts ar uploadd to a cntral plac by th administrator of th systm to mak thm availabl to th ntir organization. Tacit Knowldg Tacit knowldg in th organization was rarly shard and so was rtaind in th xprts had. Although not asy to captur and manag as compard to xplicit knowldg, rsarchrs hav xplord ways of sharing tacit knowldg. Ths would includ xprt systms, concpt maps, mntoring tc. This rsarch projct capturs tacit knowldg in form of discussion forums and articls which capturs th posts by th various usrs and stors it for futur rfrncing. Articls All th articls ar capturd in a databas. A sarch shows th author of th articl and th othr mploys ar abl to mak commnts on th various articls. Discussion Forum Th systm provids a discussion forum which th mploys ar abl to accss organization wid or dpartmnt-wis in-ordr for thm to discuss various issus and topics of intrst in th organization. Th commnts postd on th forum ar capturd and stord in a databas. Pag 38 of 81

40 3.6.3 Knowldg Sharing and Dissmination This is th third phas of th knowldg managmnt procss modl and it focuss on th tchnological aspct of th modl in ordr to provid sharing, collaboration and accss to knowldg rpositoris. Collaboration is working with ach othr to do a task and achiv shard goals. Collaboration allows for bttr communication within th organization and it is a way of coordinating diffrnt idas from numrous popl to gnrat a wid varity of knowldg. Data will b stord in a rpository whr mploys ar abl to rtriv it whn nd b and mak rfrnc Th knowldg managmnt systm moduls Usr Authntication and Authorization Tacit knowldg: Explicit Knowldg: Discussion forums Articls QMS procdurs Manuals Th various proposd moduls ar attachd in th appndix sction. Pag 39 of 81

41 CHAPTER FOUR IMPLEMENTATION AND TESTING 4.1 Implmntation Tools This was achivd using th following tools: PHP Th programming languag usd for th implmntation of th intrant prototyp is PHP. PHP is a scripting languag and was chosn for this systm bcaus of its ability to crat dynamic wb pags vry fast. Th intrant is a wb basd systm and th usrs can accss it via a wb link. This translats to having an intrnt connction. PHP is also availabl as an opn sourc softwar. PHP moduls ar asily intgratd with th Apach wb srvr. Microsoft xcl hav bn usd to analyz th qustionnairs. Databas Managmnt Softwar MySql is th DBMS of choic for this systm. It is a fast multi-thradd and multi-usr robust databas managmnt systm. MySQL nabls th systm information to b managd from a singl databas fil with sparat tabls. It is also compatibl with PHP and is also an opn sourc softwar. Mysql as a Databas Managmnt Softwar also nabls crating of robust databass. PHPMyadmin is also usd for as of graphical usr intrfac basd administration of th databass. Wb Srvr Du to th Wb application natur of th intrant, it nds to run on a wb srvr in ordr for it to b accssibl to all th mploys throughout th organization. Apach is th wb srvr of choic for this prototyp. All th abov namd tools (PHP, Apach, MySQL and PHPMyadmin) ar downloadd from th intrnt using th XAMPP packag. Pag 40 of 81

42 Graphical Usr Intrfac Th GUI is dvlopd using th PHP, a profssional HTML ditor widly usd for th dsigning, coding and dvloping of wb pags, wbsits and wb applications. Faturs of th Systm: Th systm faturs will includ:- Log on by Usrs Knowldg Rpository Sarch for articls and forums Discussion forums. Documnts accss Rsourcs Rquird a. Hardwar and Softwar PHP as th scripting languag MySQL as th Databas Apach as th wb srvr Ms Excl for analysis. Intrnt srvics to accss onlin matrials b. Matrials and costs: Qustionnairs Transport costs Stationry and printing srvics Laptop c. Accssibility Thr will b nd to accss:- Managmnt for th rsarch domain in ordr to gt authorization to distribut qustionnairs to mploys in various dpartmnts in th rsarch domain. Financial rsourcs budgt:- Th rsarchr will sponsor thmslvs to carry out th rsarch and dvlopmnt of th prototyp. Pag 41 of 81

43 4.2 Tsting Th knowldg managmnt systm prototyp was accssd by using th link Th link points to th tst srvr whr th application is uploadd. Softwar tsting is an invstigation conductd to provid usrs with information about th quality of th product or srvic undr tst. Softwar tsting can also provid an objctiv, indpndnt viw of th softwar to allow th businss to apprciat and undrstand th risks of softwar implmntation. Softwar tsting can b statd as th procss of validating and vrifying that a computr program/application/product: Mts th rquirmnts that guidd its dsign and dvlopmnt Works as xpctd Can b implmntd with th sam charactristics Satisfis th nds of stakholdrs. Softwar tsting is mainly dividd into whit and black box tsting. Whit box tsting tsts th intrnal structurs or workings of a program as opposd to th functionality xposd to th ndusr whil black box tsting xamins th functionality without any knowldg of intrnal implmntation. Th tstrs ar only awar of what th softwar is supposd to do and not how it dos it. This projct adaptd black box tsting to tst th prototyp. 4.3 Discussion of Rsults A discussion of th rsults from th tsting phas is as follows: Did you find th usr intrfac of th intrant frindly? 100% of th rspondnts found th usr intrfac was frindly. How would you rat th whol systm in trms of accssibility? 34% of th rspondnt found th systm to b modratly asy, 34% found it asy to accss information and 34% found it vry asy to accss. Pag 42 of 81

44 Prcntag Accssibility rating Variabl Vry difficult (1) Modratly asy (2) Easy (3) Vry asy (4) Is th systm xhaustiv? Most rspondnts dsird to s mor contnt in th systm so mor functions ar rcommndd as th prototyp dvlopmnt progrssd. Ys (1) 0% systm xhaustivnss No (2) 100% How long did you tak to accss rquird information? All th rspondnts wr abl to accss th systm within minuts. Did you xprinc significant spd in accssing information using th knowldg managmnt systm? All th rspondnts xprincd significant spd in accssing information making information rtrival asy. Pag 43 of 81

45 Spd of Accss Ys (1) No (2) What according to you is th bst fatur of th systm? 50% of th rspondnts likd th intrfac, 84% likd th discussion forums and 34% likd th documnts accss modul faturs. Bst Fatur Intrfac (1) Forums (2) Documnt Accss (3) Updats (4) All of th abov (5) Pag 44 of 81

46 How would you rat th whol systm in trms of accss and as of us? 67% of th usrs found th systm modratly asy to us whil 34% found thm asy to us and accss information on it. A systm that is asy to navigat and us ncourags th mploys to ngag on anothr thr building nw knowldg in th organization. Accss and Eas of Us rating Vry Difficult (1) Difficult (2) Modratly asy (3) Easy (4) Ar you abl to navigat through th systm with as? 100% of th rspondnts found it asy to navigat through th systm moduls. Eas of accss will ncourag th usrs to shar and transfr information with ach othr thrfor improving th comptnc and skills lvls in th organization. Navigation status Ys (1) No (2) Pag 45 of 81

47 Will th knowldg managmnt systm hlp you in dcision making? 67% of th rspondnts affirmd that th knowldg managmnt systm would assist making dcisions whil 34% wr not sur if th systm would assist. This indicats that th knowldg managmnt systm prototyp assistd th mploys in making crucial dcision basd on th information providd. Dcision making status Ys (1) No (2) May b (3) This was furthr analyzd using Corrlation analysis and th following wr th findings. Pag 46 of 81

48 Did you xprinc any improvmnt in accssing stord information? 100% of th usrs wr abl to accss information stord in th rpository with as. This shows that th systm has nabld th usrs to accss th rquird information whn ndd. Accss to stord information Ys (1) No (2) Sampl Knowldg Managmnt wb pags. Sampl forums and discussions Figur 8: Sampl forums and discussions pag Pag 47 of 81

49 Sampl Documnts pag Figur 9: Sampl Documnts pag Sampl Forums and discussions with commnts Figur 10: Sampl Discussions with commnts Pag 48 of 81

50 Sampl Sarch Rsults Figur 11: Sampl Sarch rsults pag Pag 49 of 81

51 CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS Th purpos of this rsarch as citd in sction 1.2 of this thsis, is to xplor how Knowldg Managmnt Systms nhanc accss, sharing and application of tacit and xplicit knowldg in organizations and to dvlop a knowldg managmnt systm platform to illustrat ffctiv knowldg managmnt in Nairobi City Watr and Swrag Company. Th study mad rfrnc to th Knowldg Managmnt Procss Modl as th guiding framwork that mphasizs on i) Knowldg cration and snsing ii) Knowldg organization and captur and iii) Knowldg sharing and dissmination. Th main mphasis is that tchnology is just an nablr to achiv knowldg managmnt and organizations should tak advantag of th dvlopmnts in tchnology to achiv propr knowldg managmnt. Th rsarch problm was brokn down into thr (3) main objctivs dtaild in sction 1.3 abov. Th first objctiv was Explor th application of knowldg managmnt systms. In-ordr to accomplish th abov objctiv, th following rsarch qustion ndd to b xplord What ar th main sourcs of knowldg for mploys? Th rsarch rsults indicat that 35% of th mploys obtain thir knowldg from xtrnal sourcs such as confrncs and 42% of th mploys accss thir information from stord documnts. This indicats that th mploys spnd a lot of thir tim in ths vnturs in-ordr to larn nw skills and accssibility to information is quit rigid. Prvious studis for xampl, th MI Nt sit shows that th knowldg managmnt systm is an ffctiv tool for sharing of information in a timly mannr. Th scond objctiv was Explor how a knowldg managmnt systm nhancs accss and sharing of knowldg. 78% of th rspondnts indicatd that thy accss and shar knowldg through formal procdurs such as rports, organizational procdurs and company publications. Ths ar thrfor fild and stord and can asily b tamprd with or vn lost. It can thrfor b dducd that th knowldg managmnt systm will nabl th mploys to accss thir Pag 50 of 81

52 rports, organizational procdurs in a bttr and fast mannr sinc thy will b accssd from a cntral rpository. This has bn achivd in systms lik CoMm discussd prviously in th cas studis sction, whrby it nabls fastr rtrival and rus of contxtual information stord in th systm. Th third objctiv was Dsign, build and valuat a prototyp systm to nhanc knowldg managmnt in Nairobi City and Swrag Company. Th rsarchr dvlopd a prototyp to implmnt a knowldg managmnt systm in th organization. According to th fdback from th usrs who tstd th systm, 54% of th rspondnts thought th systm had a good intrfac, 34% thought it had a good fatur for accssing thir documnts sinc thy wr asily rtrivabl. 67% of th rspondnts ratd affirmd that th knowldg managmnt systm would assist thm in making dcisions through th discussion forums and th shard documnts. Ths rsults also compar gratly to th documntd litratur of prviously don knowldg managmnt systms. Th MI Nt systm provids th right information to th right popl at th right tim but facs a big challng in having an instant connction with th rquird audinc. This can lad to lack of timly communication. Th CoMm knowldg managmnt systm ncourags rus of information and fastr sarchs and rtrival of contxtual information but facs a big challng in managing tacit knowldg. Th KMS by Saroch & Barmsh focuss capturing knowldg found proposals but it facs a codifying th xprtis and xprincs of workrs. Th KMS capturs tacit knowldg through discussion forms, talk platforms and onlin chats. Thrfor, from th sampld rsults w can infr that a knowldg managmnt systm would b vry appropriat for th organization sinc documnts will b managd from a cntral location and mad availabl to th usr whnvr ndd. Th discussions forum modul in th systm will hlp th mploys ngag on anothr in various topics of intrst thrfor sharing and transfrring skills and xprincs. This in a way is mntoring on anothr and in th nd th organization bnfits from th gaind knowldg of th mploys. Pag 51 of 81

53 5.1 Limitations of th Projct A fully fldgd knowldg managmnt systm is robust involving lots of stratgis and practics. To implmnt such a systm for maximum us and bnfit rquirs a lot of tim and rsourcs. Tim allocatd for this acadmic projct was tim bound in th midst of all th challngs and commitmnts on has. Thr is so much that could b don givn mor tim and rsourcs. Howvr, taking into considration that this is a prototyp systm, it can b rdsignd, rmodld, xtndd and customizd to grow to th bounds th customr rquirs to mt th nds of thir organization. Th fdback from th slctd rspondnts in th rsarch study shows that most xprts find it difficult to transfr thir knowldg and mntor othrs ithr du to fars of losing thir jobs or rplacmnt. Thrfor, it s important for th organization to offr incntivs. 5.2 Contributions to body of knowldg: Whil a lot of rsarch work rlatd to Knowldg Managmnt systms has bn carrid out, th implmntation of tacit knowldg managmnt still provs to b a big challng. A lot of ffort has bn put in trying to nsur that both xplicit and tacit knowldg is capturd in knowldg managmnt fforts. Organizations crat a lot of usful knowldg on a day to day basis through its activitis, in th form of lssons larnt from past xprincs, collctiv dcision making, uniqu organizational rsourcs, skills and capabilitis and intraction btwn th mploys. Ths factors can hlp th organization dvlop and crat distinctiv knowldg rsourcs and capabilitis through th us of a Knowldg Managmnt Systm. Howvr, it has bn provn in prvious rsarch studis (lik in th cas of Co Mm knowldg managmnt systm by Frutchr and Dmian (2002), which lacks in managmnt of tacit knowldg and also Nwsmat systm that facs challngs in managing documnts), that most organizations ar inffctiv in capturing knowldg and mor importantly tacit knowldg. This has ld to major losss in trms of information, rsourcs, tim and man powr. Pag 52 of 81

54 Th findings in this study highlight th fact that organizations fac a lot of challngs in managing th vast amounts of knowldg and spcially tacit knowldg which rsids in th mind of popl. Th organizational structur and cultur contributs a lot in th transfr and sharing of information amongst th mploys. Organizations nd to start harnssing tacit knowldg (i.. knowldg rsiding in th hads of individual mploys), by crating a cultur of knowldg cration and knowldg sharing among mploys. Organizations can also offr incntivs to xprts in various filds in ordr to ncourag mntoring and mak thm fl scur in thir jobs. Th intrant is on of th many tools that can b usd by most innovativ and succssful organizations for knowldg managmnt purposs. 5.3 Rcommndations for futur work Krugr and Snyman (2005) propos that knowldg managmnt rquirs th concurrnt managmnt of four domains namly; cultur, contnt, procss and infrastructur. Effctiv managmnt of knowldg in ordr to influnc knowldg cration activitis in th stting of an organization, th snior managmnt nds to play a ky rol in ncouraging mploys to crat and shar knowldg. A knowldg managmnt stratgy must b cratd by th managmnt that will b supportd throughout th organization. ICT infrastructur such as mails, intrant, xtrant, intrnt tc, must b dsignd and implmntd to nsur that thy ffctivly support knowldg managmnt activitis such as storing, archiving, sarching, accss control to snsitiv information and information dissmination throughout th ntir organization, to improv its businss xcution procsss. Th managmnt should ncourag th cultur of sharing information btwn mploys and nsur that th mploy fforts to crat and shar knowldg ar rcognizd and rwardd appropriatly. Th managmnt must coordinat knowldg cration activitis to ncourag and motivat functional aras, dpartmnts and tams to tak ownrship and crat knowldg bas rsourcs in aras of thir spcialty and publish th information in ordr to kp th organization up-to-dat and abrast with currnt organizational information and activitis. Pag 53 of 81

55 Th mploys must also tak th initiativ to scrn and xtract usful information from th knowldg managmnt systms in plac. Employs must also intract across disciplins in th organization to ncourag innovation and synrgy with othr mmbrs of th organization. Exprt systms as a knowldg managmnt tool would hlp guid th mploys on who posssss what skills and xprtis within th organization to nsur that whn dcisions ar mad, rlvant popl ar involvd in th dcision making procss to improv th quality of dcisions takn by th organization. Pag 54 of 81

56 REFERENCES Alan F. 2014, A Synthsis of Knowldg Managmnt Failur Factors, Bixlr, C.H Dvloping a Foundation for a succssful Knowldg Managmnt Systm in M. Stankoshy. (Ed.). Crating th Disciplin of Knowldg Managmnt: Th Latst in Univrsity Rsarch (pp.51-65).amstrdam, Boston: Elsvir Buttrworth-Hinmann. Boca, P., Chaffy, D., Grassly, A., & Hacky, S. (2006), Businss Information Systms; Tchnology, Dvlopmnt & Managmnt for th E- Businss, 3 rd Edition, Harlow. England, Prntic Hall. Botha, A., Kouri, D., and Snyman R, (2008) Coping with Continuous Chang in th Businss Environmnt, Knowldg Managmnt and Knowldg Managmnt Tchnology, Chandic Publishing Ltd. Bryan B 2003, Essntials of Knowldg Managmnt, John Wily & Sons, Inc., Hobokn, Nw Jrsy. Byounggu C, Hsok L, 2002, Knowldg managmnt stratgy and its link to knowldg cration procss, Exprt Systms with Applications, 23, pp Chang, T & Chuang, S, 2011 Prformanc implications of knowldg managmnt procsss: Examining th rols of infrastructur capability and businss stratgy, Exprt Systms with Applications, 38: Cui, A, Griffin, D. & Cavusgil S, 2005, Th Influnc of Comptitiv Intnsity and Markt Dynamism on Knowldg Managmnt Capabilitis of MNC Subsidiaris, Journal of Intrnational Markting, 13(3): Dalkir, K. (2011). Knowldg Managmnt in Thory and Practic. Cambridg, Massachustts: MIT Prss Pag 55 of 81

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59 Turban, Aronson, and Liang, 2005, Dcision Support Systms and Intllignt Systms, Svnth Edition; Prntic Hall, pg 491. Wsly M. Good & Rafal C, 2008, Th Army Intllignt Comprhnsiv Analysis Tool. Wiig, K: Popl-focusd knowldg managmnt: How ffctiv dcision making lads to corporat succss, Buttrworth-Hinmann, Zaid A, 2012 An Intgratd Knowldg Managmnt Capabilitis Framwork for Assssing Organizational Prfomanc, Intrnational Journal of Information Tchnology and Computr Scinc, (4)2: WEB REFERENCES Pag 58 of 81

60 Appndix A: Data Collction Qustionnair QUESTIONNAIRE KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT Plas assss to what xtnt th following statmnts rlatd to knowldg managmnt apply to NCWSC. Nam (Optional) Dpartmnt A. Knowldg Organization and Captur Rat th answrs from 1 to 5 ( as 5 is th most important) 1. Whr is most of th information that you nd to do your work locatd or stord? In papr-basd documnts In our tam mmbr s had In our cntral information systm Workstation computr Filing cabints 2. How did you acquir most th skills/xprtis that you hav bn using in your job ovr th past 1 yar? In this organization Slf-larning Formal training Prvious job Mntoring Pag 59 of 81

61 3. How oftn do you mak us to documntd procdurs to do your work whn you ar stuck? Constantly Vry oftn Quit oftn Not oftn/rarly Nvr Plas tick { }whr applicabl for ach of th following statmnts B. Knowldg Cration and Snsing 1. Our mploys obtain a good xtnt of nw knowldg from xtrnal sourcs Sminars Confrncs Training Subcription Journals Exprt ntworks Pag 60 of 81

62 F a l F a l 2. Our mploys obtain a good xtnt of nw knowldg from businss partnrs (.g. supplirs, clints). Supplirs Customrs Contractors Non of abov 3. In thir work, our mploys rly on xprinc, skills and knowldg. Tru Fals 4. In thir work, our mploys rly on writtn sourcs. Projcts documntation Instructions Rports Minuts Procdurs C. Sharing and Dissmination 1. Our mploys shar thir knowldg orally at mtings or informal gathrings Tru T r u Fals Not Awar T r u Pag 61 of 81

63 Pag 62 of Our mploys shar thir knowldg through formal procdurs (.g. projct rports, organizational procdurs and instructions, rports and company publications). Tru Fals Not Awar 3. Our highly skilld staff (xprts) hav mntoring sssions to transfr knowldg to othrs Tru Fals Not Awar 4. In our organization, ICT tools ar usd to support collaborativ work (.g. calndars, vido confrncing systms, intrant, documnt managmnt systm tc). Tru Fals Not Awar 5. Th collaboration tools in plac in our organization nabl ffctiv work. Tru Fals Not Awar 6. Which tchnologis hav you implmntd in your organization? a) Intrnt [ ] b) Intrant [ ] c) Extrant [ ] d) Groupwar [ ] ) Dcision Support Systm [ ] f) E Commrc [ ] g) Knowldg Managmnt Softwar [ ] T r u F a l s T r u F a l s T r u F a l s T r u F a l s T r u F a l s T r u F a l s T r u F a l s T r u F a l s T r u F a l s T r u F a l s T r u F a l s T r u F a l s T r u F a l s T r u F a l s T r u F a l s T r u F a l s T r u F a l s T r u F a l s T r u F a l s T r u F a l s T r u F a l s T r u F a l s T r u F a l s T r u F a l s

64 7. How significant is th rol that ffctiv KM can play in achiving th bst rsults w.r.t th following in your organization? a) Improving comptitiv advantag [ ] b) Improving customr focus [ ] c) Bttr dcision-making [ ] d) Employ dvlopmnt [ ] ) Improving quality [ ] f) Innovation [ ] Thank You. Pag 63 of 81

65 Qustionnair Data Analysis Qustionnair Administration Th qustionnairs wr distributd to th rspondnts according th procdur in sction Th rsarch survy qustionnairs wr distributd to 50-individuals from various dpartmnts. Th rspondnts wr rmindd twic to rturn th compltd forms within th timfram (on wk). Th distribution and collction procss took two wks. Rspons Rat All qustionnairs wr capturd onto a spradsht for analysis purposs. Th numbr of rsponss with thir prcntags rlativ to th originally distributd qustionnairs is indicatd in Tabl 6 blow. Tabl 6: Variabls, Frquncis and Prcntags rlativ to qustionnair distribution Variabl Frquncy Prcntag Total Qustionnair % distribution Rturnd 22 44% ICT 2 4% Billing 4 8% Human Rsourcs 3 6% ISO 3 6% Customr Car 2 4% Usabl rspons 14 28% Pag 64 of 81

66 Th graphical rprsntation of th rspons status is as blow: Rspons Status (Frquncy) Total Qustionnair distribution Rturnd ICT Billing Human Rsourcs Figur 8: Graphical rprsntation of Rspons status (Frquncy) 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% 100% 44% Rspons Status Prcntag 4% 8% 6% 6% 4% 28% Total Qustionnair distribution Rturnd ICT Billing Human Rsourcs Figur 8: Graphical rprsntation of Rspons status (Prcntag) Pag 65 of 81

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