Sci.Int.(Lahore),26(1), ,2014 ISSN ; CODEN: SINTE 8 131

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1 Sci.Int.(Lahor),26(1), ,214 ISSN ; CODEN: SINTE REQUIREMENT CHANGE MANAGEMENT IN AGILE OFFSHORE DEVELOPMENT (RCMAOD) 1 Suhail Kazi, 2 Muhammad Salman Bashir, 3 Muhammad Munwar Iqbal, 4 Yasir Salm, 5 M., Rizwan Jaml Qurshi, 6 S.Raza Bashir 1 FKM, Univrsity Tiknologi Malaysia (UTM), Malaysia 2,3,6 Dpartmnt of Computr Scincs, Virtual Univrsity of Pakistan 4 Dpartmnt of Computr Scinc& Enginring, UET Lahor, Pakistan 5 Faculty of Computing and Information Tchnology, King Abdulaziz Univrsity, Jddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia ABSTRACT:Rquirmnts gt changd during th cours of dvlopmnt. It is almost impossibl to stop th rquirmnts from changing. Diffrnt softwar dvlopmnt approachs tackl changing rquirmnt in diffrnt ways. Unlik Watrfall or documnt drivn approachs of softwar dvlopmnt, agil mthodologis wlcom chang during th cours of softwar dvlopmnt but at th sam tim manag th changs in a systmatic mannr. This papr discusss th offshor dvlopmnt modl with rspct to agil rquirmnt chang managmnt. An important condition for agil approach is to hav continuous collaboration and rlationship with th customr so that rquirmnts could b licitd as wll as vrifid rgularly. But in offshor nvironmnt, this approach can t b applid du to prsnc of th clint on gographically distant location. Thrfor this papr also highlights som of th licitation tchniqus, tools and mthodologis that can b applid in offshor dvlopmnt modl in such a way to minimiz lack of fac to fac intractions among diffrnt stakholdrs of application whil working with Agil. Kywords: Rfactoring,Pair programming, Extrm programming (XP), SCRUM 1. INTRODUCTION Rquirmnt chang managmnt is on of th important projct managmnt issus in softwar dvlopmnt. Rquirmnts do chang during dvlopmnt procss. Managing ths rquirmnts ffctivly can lad th projct to succss. Rquirmnt chang managmnt is important whthr following traditional or agil dvlopmnt modl. But good rquirmnt chang managmnt is vry ncssary in Agil bcaus Agil is charactrizd with constant rquirmnt changs. Rquirmnt can chang in th bginning ach itration or vn during dvlopmnt of a particular rlas thrfor rquirmnt chang managmnt is much mor important in Agil.In this papr, first part dpicts a short dscription to rquirmnt chang managmnt as wll as a thorough introduction about two famous agil approachs XP and SCRUM. Th scond part of this papr is on rquirmnt chang managmnt in Agil which hav bn dscribd in dtail. This papr also discusss th rquirmnt chang managmnt aspcts in offshor dvlopmnt spcially whn working in Agil and highlights th possibl ways and mans to manag changing rquirmnts in an Agil Offshor nvironmnt. 2. RELATED WORK 2.1. Rasons for Rquirmnts Changs Thr ar svral rasons for rquirmnts to chang. Som of th important rasons ar dscribd as follows: [1] 1. Lack of domain knowldg at start 2. Inconsistnt rquirmnts 3. Chang in customr prioritization 4. Chang in platform or nvironmnt 5. Chang du to xpnsivnss or difficult to implmnt 6. Th changs in organization 2.2. Extrm Programming (XP) Extrm Programming is th most famous agil tchniqu. XP us story cards for licitation. A usr story is th dscription that provids businss valu to th customr [1]. Morovr th tchniqus lik brainstorming, intrviws and prioritization ar also usd in licitation procss. In XP, thr ar crtain ruls that nd to b followd. Ths ruls ar dscribd blow [4]. 1. Th Planning Gam 2. Small Rlass 3. Mtaphor 4. Simpl Dsign 5. Tsts 6. Rfactoring 7. Pair Programming 8. Collctiv Ownrship 9. Continuous Intgration 1. 4-hour Wk 11. On-sit customr 12. Coding Standard Fig.1. Lifcycl of XP [6]

2 Scrum Scrum is anothr popular agil tchniqu usd to dvlop and manag softwar. Th following figur xplains th activitis prformd in Scrum. ISSN ; CODEN: SINTE 8 Sci.Int.(Lahor),26(1), ,214 location. Th onsit tam is usually rsponsibl for rquirmnt gathring and analysis and dploymnt whras offshor tam gts involv in th dvlopmnt activity. Fig.4. Offshor and onsit (Hybrid) rlationship [18] Fig.2. Scrum lif cycl [4] 3. OFFSHORE DEVELOPMENT Thr ar crtain variations of offshor dvlopmnt modls. On is pur offshor modl and othr is hybrid i.. th combination of onsit and offshor Offshor Modl In this modl th srvic providr is locatd in a diffrnt country or gographically at a distant location from that of th clint. In softwar dvlopmnt prspctiv, th clint dos not hav fac to fac intraction with th dvlopmnt tam and rquirmnt licitation usually taks plac through som lctronic sourc lik mail, fax, phon tc. [18]. Thr ar crtain variations of offshor modl. On is pur offshor modl whr clint and dvloprs do not hav dirct fac to fac rlation. Intraction btwn clint and th dvloprs usually tak plac by mans of tlphon, mail, fax, txt and voic chat, vido confrncing tc. Fig. 3: Offshor Rlationship btwn Clint & Dvlopmnt Tam [18] 3.2. Hybrid or Onsit/ Offshor Modl Thr is also anothr variant of offshor modl known as Onsit/ Offshor modl. This is a combination of onsit and offshor modls. Hr part of th tam is in continuous intraction with th clint and dvlopmnt activity may b prformd at gographically distant On of th advantags of this modl is; that thr is no communication gap btwn th clint and dvlopmnt tam. This modl can also b applid in complx projcts as rquirmnts can b asily vrifid from th customr [18]. 4. ANALYSIS OF PROBLEM STATEMENT Among th problms highlightd as a rsult of th studis conductd on offshor dvlopmnt, rquirmnt nginring and managmnt is idntifid as on of th major problms in offshor dvlopmnt modl. According to [19], Rquirmnts nginring was considrd as a continuous difficulty, involving rquirmnts licitation, analysis, spcification, validation, andmanagmnt. Morovr communication and languag diffrncs hav also bn idntifid as major rasons for causing difficultis in offshor dvlopmnt. Languag and communication problms occur du to cultural diffrncs [19] Poor communication rsults in poor licitation and undrstanding of rquirmnts and hnc caus difficultis in dvloping a succssful projct. 5. FIRST PROPOSED SOLUTION Th solution suggstd to ovrcom th problms that occur du to rquirmnts is to hav fac-to-fac rlationship with clints. But as this may not b possibl in offshor dvlopmnt so thr is a nd to find th suitabl licitation tchniqus that can hlp to gathr and licit corrct rquirmnts. Th nd of ffctiv rquirmnt licitation practics multiplis whn dvlopmnt taks plac undr th umbrlla of agil dvlopmnt modl bcaus on of th rquirmnts for Agil is to hav continuous rlationship with clint.thr ar numbr of rquirmnt licitation tchniqus lik qustionnair, survy, intrviws, analysis of xisting 5.1. Goal1 3.28% of strongly agrd to it % of th sampl agrd to th point Whil % of th sampl rmaind nutral % disagrd to th statmnt mntiond and 7.8% strongly disagrd to it. Ths facts can also b shown in [Figur 5].

3 Sci.Int.(Lahor),26(1), ,214 ISSN ; CODEN: SINTE Tabl 1: Cumulativanalysis of Goal 1 DisagrNutr Q. No Disagr al Total Avg Fig. 5. Cumulativ Analysis of Goal 1 Nutral 1. Prototyping: Prototyping is a rquirmnt licitation tchniqu whn rquirmnts ar vagu and not so clar. Thr ar diffrnt typs of Prototyping as Throw-away, Evolutionary, Story Boarding, and Excutabl. Th aim of this tchniqu is to licit clar and un-ambiguous rquirmnts. Prototyping is usually usd along with othr licitation tchniqus lik mting, intrviwing tc. This tchniqu may b usful in offshor dvlopmnt modl bcaus it so happns that rquirmnts may not b clarly undrstood whn clint is gographically apart thrfor this crats ambiguity in undrstanding of rquirmnts. This tchniqu is also suitabl for agil dvlopmnt bcaus it is normally usd whn thr is a lvl of uncrtainty about th rquirmnts, or whr arlyfdback from stakholdrs is ndd. 2. Qustionnair: Qustionnair is also a tchniqu usd in rquirmnt licitation in offshor modl. Qustionnair is usd to gt information about bhavior and blifs of prsons, charactristics and prformanc of xisting systm. It hlps in undrstanding how a work is bing prformd in th xisting systm and how diffrnt stakholdrs of th xisting systm think about proposd changs to th systm alrady in us. Morovr this tchniqu also hlps in gtting som statistical data which may b rquird in analyzing th problm domain. 3. Documnt Rviw: This tchniqu for liciting rquirmnts works wll in both onshor and offshor modl. Th purpos of rviwing th documnts usd is to hav good undrstanding of th businss domain, how an organization works and how it prforms its daily businss. This tchniqu is mor usful whr w hav to modify or automat an xisting systm. Kping in viw th clint and dvloprs ar at diffrnt gographical locations, documnts can b shard through mail or by using som rquirmnt nginring tool. And incas clints or dvloprs can hav a fac to fac mting as in cas of Hybrid modl of offshor dvlopmnt ths documnts can b rviwd and discussd with th clints. 4. Obsrvation: Obsrvation is also a way to licit rquirmnts. This hlps th Systm Analyst or Rquirmnt Enginr to undrstand th rquirmnt by obsrving a liv systm. This tchniqu givs th complt pictur of th businss procsss and hlps to ovrcom th problms usually causd du to communication difficultis. This tchniqu can b practicd in offshor dvlopmnt mthodology through vido rcordings.th vidos should b dvlopd in a way that it nabls a Rquirmnt Enginr to undrstand th systm asily. 6. USING RE TOOLS AND TECHNOLOGIES Thr ar various RE tools availabl which can hlp in managing th rquirmnts. Ths tools hlp in liciting th rquirmnts as wll as managing th rquirmnts. Thr ar numbrs of RE tools availabl which ar bing usd for rquirmnt managmnt. Ths tools can hlp in managing vrsions and changs, stor rquirmnt attributs, link rquirmnts to othr systm lmnts, track status, viw rquirmnt substs, communicat with stakholdrs tc. i. AgilTool [24] is on such tool that hlps in constant collaboration in agil wb application projct. This tool hlps in attaching th rquirmnts dirctly to th wb pag bing dvlopd. ii. Wiki is an mrging application that is also bing usd as a RE tool. Wikis ar usd for rquirmnt managmnt and tracability Purpos Built Softwar Applications Purpos built softwar lik portals, contnt managmnt systms and chatting softwar can also b built in-hous for continuous collaboration and communication btwn th clint and th dvlopmnt tam

4 REQUIREMENT CHANGE MANAGEMENT IN AGILE OFFSHORE DEVELOPMENT On of th important rquirmnts for Agil is continuous collaboration with clint for licitation of rquirmnts, prioritization of rquirmnts and for gtting fdback for th dlivrd itration or rlas. Rquirmnt chang managmnt procss is dpndnt on clint s intraction and fdback; hnc thr is a nd to addrss th issus rlatd to Agil Offshor dvlopmnt modl. W ar familiar with th way Agil works in onshor whr w can hav physical prsnc of th clint. Th clint s constant fdback and intraction hlps in dvloping th dsird product. This rlationship is asily possibl whn both dvlopmnt tam and clint ar prsnt on th sam location but may bcom difficult whn both partis ar gographically at distant location. But as physical prsnc of clint is not possibl in an offshor modl thrfor th bnfits that can achivd from clint-dvlopr rlationship ar at stak Problm Statmnt in Agil-Offshor Modl Though Agil-offshor dvlopmnt framwork has many advantags but at th sam tim has som limitations which ar brifly dscribd as follows i. Communication Diffrncs: Offshor working nvironmnt puts som limitations in having a dirct rlationship with th clint. ii. Diffrnc of Tim Zon: On of th limitations in Agil/ Offshor is th factor of diffrnc in tim zon. Espcially thr is lot of diffrnc in th offic hours of Pakistan and Unitd Stats thrfor this factor limits continuous collaboration btwn th stakholdrs. iii. Lvl of Trust: A trusty rlationship btwn th stakholdrs is an implicit goal of Agil but offshor dvlopmnt limits this goal by rstricting fac to fac communication. Agil rquirs a significant lvl of trust btwn th clint and dvlopmnt tam which is difficult to stablish whil working in pur offshor modl. 8. SECOND PROPOSED SOLUTION To dvlop a good undrstanding of th problm domain and stablishing a halthy rlationship with clint, it is important to hold som initial mtings with clints.in this way th mmbrs from th dvlopmnt sid should visit thir clints or clint can com to th dvlopmnt sit aftr vry fw months and hnc mak it possibl to ovrcom th limitations of pur offshor approach. Rgular fdback should also b takn from th clint aftr vry rlas so that rquirmnt st can asily b xtractd for th nxt rlas Goal % of strongly agrd to it % of th sampl agrd to th point Whil % of th sampl rmaind nutral % disagrd to th statmnt mntiond and 4.61% strongly disagrd to it. Ths facts can also b shown in [Fig.6]. ISSN ; CODEN: SINTE 8 Sci.Int.(Lahor),26(1), ,214 Tabl 2: Cumulativ Analysis of Goal 2 Q. Disagr Nutra Disagr No l Total Avg Nutral Figur 6: Cumulativ Analysis of Goal Goal % of strongly agrd to it % of th sampl agrd to th point Whil % of th sampl rmaind nutral % disagrd to th statmnt mntiond and 6.8 % strongly disagrd to it. Ths facts can also b shown in [Fig.7]. Tabl 3: Cumulativ Analysis of Goal 3 Q. Disagr Nutra No l Agr Total Avg

5 Sci.Int.(Lahor),26(1), ,214 ISSN ; CODEN: SINTE Nutral Figur 6: Cumulativ Analysis of Goal Conclusiv Cumulativ all Goals 37.44% of strongly agrd to it % of th sampl agrd to th point Whil % of th sampl rmaind nutral % disagrd to th statmnt mntiond and 6.7 % strongly disagrd to it. Ths facts can also b shown in following Graph (Fig). Tabl 4: Conclusiv Cumulativ all Goals (GOAL 1, GOAL 2, GOAL 3) Goal No. Disagr Disagr Nutra l Goal % of strongly agrd to it % of th sampl agrd to th point Whil % of th sampl rmaind nutral % disagrd to th statmnt mntiond and 6.8 % strongly disagrd to it. Ths facts can also b shown in [Fig.7]. Tabl 3: Cumulativ Analysis of Goal 3 Q. Disagr Nutra No l Agr Total Avg Disagr 8 Disagr Figur 7: Cumulativ Analysis of Goal 3 Nutra l Total Avg Total Avg. Nutral Figur 8: Conclusiv Cumulativ all Goals (Goal 1, Goal 2 And Goal 3) 9. DISCUSSION As discussd arlir, on of th rquirmnts for Agil dvlopmnt is continuous collaboration of customr and dvlopmnt tam. Th offshor dvlopmnt on th othr hand rstricts fac to fac and dirct intraction. Morovr th communication and cultural diffrncs adds complxity to Agil-Offshor framwork and hnc mak it difficult to adopt. To ovrcom ths hurdls, som rcommndations ar brifly discussd blow: 9.1. Initial Mtings with clints To dvlop a good undrstanding of th problm domain and stablishing a halthy rlationship with clint, it is important to hold som initial mtings with clints. Ths mtings should b fac to fac and Systm Analyst, Programmrs or Projct Managr should attnd this mting. If ths mtings ar hld with propr planning and prparation thn thy will b hlpful in running th projct smoothly and succssfully.

6 136 ISSN ; CODEN: SINTE 8 Sci.Int.(Lahor),26(1), ,214 Th main focus of ths initial mting should b on undrstanding th domain and rquirmnts of th systm. Propr undrstanding of th ral customr rquirmnts is on of th basic succss factors in a projct. It is an stablishd fact that svral rquirmnts rmaind unstatd by th clint and hnc causs problms in implmntation and mting th schduls. Ths unstatd rquirmnts can also b xtractd through informal communication and mtings with clint. Anothr advantag of holding som initial mtings with clint is to hav a halthy and trustd rlationship with clint. Agil dmands to stablish a consistnt rlationship with clints and holding initial mtings can b a hlpful tool in achiving this rquirmnt of agil dvlopmnt Priodic Fac to Fac Mtings with Customrs Martin Fowlr, a strong advocat of Agil, aftr conducting a rsarch on this topic rcommndd to adopt a hybrid approach and instad of having pur offshor dvlopmnt proposd to adopt a mix of onshor and offshor. H cam up with th ida to what h calls Hav Each Sit Snd Ambassadors to th Othr Sits. In this way th mmbrs from th dvlopmnt sid should visit thir clints or clint can com to th dvlopmnt sit aftr vry fw months and hnc mak it possibl to ovrcom th limitations of pur offshor approach. According to Fowlr on of th advantags of this approach is to licit hiddn or unstatd rquirmnts through informal communication. Thisinformal communication lik gossip can also b hlpful in stablishing a rlationship of trust btwn th two partis. Morovr liciting statd and unstatd rquirmnts hlps in managing th chang in th rquirmnts Rgular Fdback from clint Rgular fdback should also b takn from th clint aftr vry rlas so that rquirmnt st can asily b xtractd for th nxt rlas. This fdback can b takn by using diffrnt onlin rsourcs lik mail, portals, chatting softwar tc Rgular Onlin Mtings Apart from priodic fac to fac mtings proposd by Fowlr, clints and dvloprs should also hold onlin mtings through vido confrncing so that a rlationship of collaboration and trust should b stablishd 1. FURTHER DISCUSSION Cultural Diffrncs ar in fact th Smantic Diffrncs. Two popl, whos nativ languag is not sam, using th sam word in communication but pursuing this word in a diffrnt maning, In ordr to nhanc communication among on and offsit tam mmbrs, thr should b knowldg sharing procss among thm, which is on of th basic principls in agil mthodologis. As in Traditional softwar Dvlopmnt procsss, on of th biggst sourc of knowldg sharing is Documntation. As in agil, thr is a lss focus on documntation and mor focus on communication. Thn mor of th knowldg is orally i.. un-documntd. Also, communication among diffrnt tam mmbrs locatd on gographically distant locations is comparativly vry difficult as physically co-locatd prsons. Thrfor, in such a situation undocumntd or lss documntd knowldg sharing bcoms mor difficult. Also, any kind of softwar Rquirmnts spcification documnt can b a knowldg sharing mans and can nhanc communication among on and off sit tams but thr ar som issus in it. First on is that not vry on in th tam will clarly undrstand this documnt, scondly, as du to agil, it is not too much xplanatory as in Traditional Softwar dvlopmnt procsss. Som nw tchnologis can b usd to nhanc knowldg sharing but not in an xtnt as rquird. So in ordr to incras communication and to minimiz languag diffrnc barrirs ithr it is rquird to incras documntation that should b xtnsivly nough to undrstand vry mmbr of th tam, which is not possibl in Agil du to short rlas tim tc.scond way is to dvlop SRS documnt in such a way that it should b undrstandabl by vry mmbr of th tam. So lt s analyz how to b mor undrstandabl SRS so as to nhanc communication and bttr quality product. Scondly as in Hybrid Offshor Dvlopmnt, most of th dvlopmnt activats lik Dsign, Implmntation, Unit Tstingtc. ar prformd in Offshor whr as Rquirmnts Elicitation and Analysis ar don on sit, so th rol of vry tam mmbr locatd at distant positions ar critical. On of th good xampls is th dvlopr whos rsponsibility is not only to dvlop th dsignd application but also provid bttr solution to diffrnt problms facd by thir tam mmbrs. So, it is ncssary to hav vry good knowldg about Domain and of th projct that is not highlightd as much as it should b in SRS du to lss focus on documntation and much focus on coding du to agil principls. Thus, countris lik Pakistan, whr major portions of Softwar dvloprs switch thir jobs oftn in ordr to gt high salaris. That s why a lot of knowldg vanishs as h/sh movs away. Such situations lad to produc low quality product as wll as ffct cost and udgt and lss customr satisfaction. So what should b don in such a cass, whthr to incras documntation that ultimatly rsults in dcras communication and to incras rlas tim. But du to agil principls, work in short itrations and lssr rlas tim and documntation. Thus, th qustion ariss how to prvail data and knowldg in a cas if somon ls movs out of th organization. Hr, too w should hav to dvlop lss but comprhnsiv SRS that is undrstandabl by vry tam mmbrs with out much ffort locatd at distant locations. But bfor th dscription of th solution, lt s tak som ovrviw for bttr clarity. Thr ar svral rasons for rquirmnts to chang. Som of th important rasons ar dscribd abov lik lack of domain undrstandings, inconsistncy, R-prioritization of rquirmnts and som othrs. In Offshor GSD nvironmnt to build a good quality application, it is ncssary to put maximum fforts in capturing, businss, and usr, functional and non-functional rquirmnts in an fficint mannr. Spcifically, whn systm analyst tris to captur usr s rquirmnts, h/sh nds to put an xtra ffort in undrstanding som particular

7 Sci.Int.(Lahor),26(1), ,214 ISSN ; CODEN: SINTE concpts from th domain of cultural valus, blifs, usr s intrsts, hobbis, working nvironmnts tc. Qustion ariss hr, why w nd to study all ths? What ar th outcoms?it is th dsir of vry ownr of application that his/hr application should attract popl. For this lts tak an xampl, thr is a stor at Nw York, whos ownr wants to build an onlin application for sal/purchas of garmnts. Application intrfacs should b built in a way to attract th popl of Nw York particularly kping in viw thir cultural valus, nvironmnt, intrsts and blifs. For xampl skirt is th symbol of that cultur whr as th sam concpt undrmins in our cultur. So instad doing usful work, Businss or Systm analyst do most of th tim in undrstanding th abov said paramtrs instad of capturing ral tim rquirmnts of th systm. To ovrcom this problm, thr is a nd of som mchanism that provids th facility to put tim in a right dirction rathr than just collcting information. Now anothr qustion ris that what task can b calld th right on and othr can b calld just collcting information? Lts tak anothr xampl, A civil nginr wants to build a room, for this h visits to a shop from thr h slcts som raw matrials in th form of cmnt, quipmnt s, marbls tc. and put all ths in his van. In abov scnario, thr is an actual on task to build room for this h has to do som othrs xtra tasks i.. slction, loading tc. Thr might b way in which h just tlls th dimnsions and som input to th shopkpr and slction and loading activity is don by th shop on its bhalf. Enginr finds vrything rady in his van and gos away. Sam is th cas occurs in Offshor GSD nvironmnt whr in ordr to prform som usful work, thr ar many un ncssary activitis that nds to b prform which is th wastag of tim and rsourcs particularly undr th umbrlla of Agil. Bfor going to prsnt a modl, lt s considr anothr motivating scnario from softwar dvlopmnt s point of viw. Michal is th principl at Licstr School, Nw York. H communicats with your softwar industry for th dvlopmnt Larning Managmnt Systm for his school. Michal dscribs all functional, businss and nonfunctional rquirmnts along with on sntnc. Usr Intrfacs should b usr frindly and attract th popl. Now what dos usr frindly and attract mans with rspct to abov said contxt.w nd an Abstract Modl. From th abov givn xampls and thir analysis in diffrnt scnarios it is vidnt that w nd a Modl that provids suitabl mchanism for smantic storag of documnts rlatd to cultur, nvironmnt, blifs, social valus tc. with rspct to diffrnt gographical aras. With th hlp of rasoning ovr th undrlying of spcific Ontology this modl would suggst all possibl actions/guidlins smantically rlatd to th information givn through mail or any othr mans. For xampl whn w want to dal with garmnts kping in viw th cultur of NWFP, thr should b som suggstions about thir way of lif spcifically physical apparanc in trms of cloths, cap, shawl tc. From ths multipl suggstions, now w nd to slct som particulars with th hlp of ownr/usr. And thn prform that action. W can also tak hlp from som prvious action storag ara of prviously prformd task and its squnc. 11. CONCLUSIONSAND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE WORK With th dvlopmnt of fast and fficint dvlopmnt framworks, supporting tools and tchnologis as wll as du to markt comptition and businss rquirmnts, Agil is bcoming popular dvlopmnt framwork. But at th sam tim th dmand of producing quality softwar rmains intact. Rquirmnt managmnt plays an important rol in th succss of quality softwar thrfor thr is nd of good rquirmnt managmnt vn working in Agil. And if thr is an involvmnt of offshor dvlopmnt undr Agil thn th nd of good rquirmnt managmnt bcoms vn mor. In offshor dvlopmnt, a good ida is to us to RE tools in addition to traditional licitation approachs. Ths tools hlp in having a continuous rlationship with clint which is on of th basic rquirmnts for Agil.Much work has bn don indpndntly on Agil and about its diffrnt mthodologis as wll on offshor softwar dvlopmnt. Similarly considrabl work has also bn don on rquirmnt chang managmnt practics both with traditional and agil approachs. But thr is a nd of rsarch work on rquirmnt licitation, managmnt and customr collaboration in a scnario whr customrs ar prsnt at gographically distant location from that of dvlopmnt tam. Most of th work in Pakistani softwar industry is bing don for offshor clints and usually most or all dvlopmnt taks plac within Pakistan. Rquirmnts ar ithr licitd by Analysts or Projct Managrs at clint s location or rquirmnt licitation and rquirmnt managmnt is totally carrid out offshor (in Pakistan) and communication btwn dvloprs and clint taks plac through mail, portals, vido confrncs, phon tc. Thr is a nd to systmiz rquirmnt nginring practics whil working undr th umbrlla of Agil. 12. REFERENCES [1]. Patsch, F., A. Ebrlin, &F. Maurr. Rquirmnts Enginring and Agil Softwar Dvlopmnt.12th IEEE Intrnational Workshops on Enabling Tchnologis, Linz, Austria, 9-11 Jun, (23). [2]. Bdl, M. A. van Bnnkum, A. Cockburn, W. Cunningham, M. Fowlr, J. Highsmith, A. Hunt, R. Jffris, J. Krn, B. Marick, R. C. Martin, K. Schwabr, J. Suthrland, & D. Thomas. Agil Manifsto. Rtrivd July3, 212, from [3]. Sillitti, A., M. Cschi., B. Russo, B., t al. Managing Uncrtainty in Rquirmnts: a Survy in Documntation-Drivn and Agil Companis. Proc. Softwar Mtrics 25, 11th IEEE Int. Symp., p (25). [4]. Cohn D., M. Lindvall,& P. Costa. An introduction to agil mthods.in: M.V. Zlkowitz (Ed.),Advancs in

8 138 ISSN ; CODEN: SINTE 8 Sci.Int.(Lahor),26(1), ,214 Computrs, Advancs in Softwar Enginring, vol. 62, [11]. Rd, K. t al. Agil managmnt of uncrtain Elsvir, Amstrdam (24). rquirmnts via gnralizations: a cas [5]. ArvlaM.,&M.Muhonn.Agil Rquirmnts study.procdings of th 24 workshop on Dvlopmnt.Min Workshop Agiltool Lithuania 28 Final. (28). Quantitativ tchniqus for softwar agil procss, (24). [6]. Fakhar-ul-Islam Lodhi. Handouts on Softwar [12]. Sillitti,A., & M.Cschi. Managing Uncrtainty in Enginring II.Virtual Univrsity of Pakistan Rquirmnts: A Survy in Documnt Drivn and Agil [7]. Kn Schwabr, Jff Suthrland. Softwar in 3 Days: Companis. IEEE Computr Socity How Agil Managrs Bat th Odds, Dlight Thir [13]. Applton B., & S.Koniczka. Agil Chang Customrs, And Lav Comptitors In th Dust. Wily; Managmnt from first principls to bst 1 dition (May 1, 212), Hobokn, Unitd Stats. (212). practics.cm Crossroads (23).Rtrivd July3, 212. from, [8]. HannolaL., V.Salminn,& M.Tuominnm. articls/6539-qagilq-chang-managmnt-from-first- Rquirmnts Managmnt in Ntworkd Product principls-to-bst-practics Dvlopmnt.Fourtnth Intrnational Working [14]. Prior, P., &F. Knan. Rquirmnts Managmnt in a Sminar on Production Economics, Innsbruck, 2-24 Distributd Agil Environmnt.Transaction on Fbruary, 26 (26). nginring, computing and tchnology 4, (25). [9]. PMWORLDTODAY. An Introduction to Scott, W.,&Amblr. Agil Rquirmnts Chang Rquirmnts Managmnt.Publishd in PM World Managmnt. Rtrivd July3, 212, Today - Jun 27, Vol. IX, Issu VI (27). fromhttp:// [1]. Kotonya&Sommrvill.Rquirmnts Enginring Procsss and Tchniqus.John Wily & Sons, Inc. Nw York, NY, USA 1998, ISBN: (1998). nt.htm.

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