Category 7: Employee Commuting

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1 7 Catgory 7: Employ Commuting Catgory dscription This catgory includs missions from th transportation of mploys 4 btwn thir homs and thir worksits. Emissions from mploy commuting may aris from: Automobil travl Bus travl Rail travl Air travl Othr mods of transportation (.g., subway, bicycling, walking). Companis may includ missions from tlworking (i.., mploys working rmotly) in this catgory. A rporting company s scop 3 missions from mploy commuting includ th scop 1 and scop 2 missions of mploys and third-party transportation providrs. Calculating missions from mploy commuting Figur 7.1 offrs a dcision tr for slcting a calculation mthod for scop 3 missions from mploy commuting. Companis may us on of th following mthods: Ful-basd mthod, which involvs dtrmining th amount of ful consumd during commuting and applying th appropriat mission factor for that ful Distanc-basd mthod, which involvs collcting data from mploys on commuting pattrns (.g., distanc travlld and mod usd for commuting) and applying appropriat mission factors for th mods usd Avrag-data mthod, which involvs stimating missions from mploy commuting basd on avrag (.g., national) data on commuting pattrns. 4 Employs rfrs to mploys of ntitis and facilitis ownd, opratd, or lasd by th rporting company. Companis may includ mploys of othr rlvant ntitis (.g., franchiss or outsourcd oprations) in this catgory, as wll as consultants, contractors, and othr individuals who ar not mploys of th company, but commut to facilitis ownd and opratd by th company. Tchnical Guidanc for Calculating Scop 3 Emissions [87]

2 Figur [7.1] Dcision tr for slcting a calculation mthod for missions from mploy commuting Dos mploy commuting contribut significantly to scop 3 missions (basd on scrning) or ar missions from mploy commuting othrwis rlvant to th businss goals? ys Is data availabl on th typs and quantitis or cost of fuls consumd during transportation? ys Us th ful-basd mthod no no Is data availabl on distanc travlld and th mod of transport usd by mploys? ys Us th distanc-basd mthod no Us th avrag-data mthod Ful-basd mthod If data is availabl on th quantity or amount spnt on ful by mploys for commuting, companis may apply th ful-basd mthod. Th calculation mthodology for th ful-basd mthod is th sam as th ful-basd mthod in catgory 4 (Upstram transport and distribution). For guidanc on calculating missions using this mthod, rfr to th guidanc for catgory 4 (Upstram transport and distribution). If th ful-basd mthod is usd to calculat missions from commuting on public transport, thn missions nd to b allocatd to th mploy(s). For mor information on allocation, s chaptr 8 of th Scop 3 Standard. Distanc-basd mthod Activity data ndd Companis should collct data on th following: Total distanc travlld by mploys ovr th rporting priod (.g., passngr-kilomtrs travlld) Mod of transport usd for commuting (.g., train, subway, bus, car, bicycl). Tchnical Guidanc for Calculating Scop 3 Emissions [88]

3 Emission factors ndd Companis should collct: Emission factors for ach mod of transport (usually xprssd in units of grnhous gas (CO 2, CH 4, N 2 O, or CO 2 ) mittd pr passngr-kilomtrs travlld). Not: For air travl mission factors, multiplirs or othr corrctions to account for radiativ forcing may b applid to th GWP of missions arising from aircraft transport. Whr usd, companis should disclos th spcific factor usd. Data collction guidanc Companis should collct data on mploy commuting habits, for xampl through a survy. Companis should survy thir mploys annually to obtain information on avrag commuting habits. Typs of data to collct includ: Distanc travlld by mploys pr day, or location of rsidnc and offic Th numbr of days pr wk that mploys us diffrnt vhicl typs (all catgoris of subway, car, bus, train, bicycl, tc.) Numbr of commuting days pr wk and numbr of wks workd pr yar If th company is multinational: mploys rgion of rsidnc/work (sinc transportation mission factors vary by rgion) Whthr thr is a significant car-pooling schm in opration, th proportion of mploys using th schm and th avrag occupancy pr vhicl If applicabl, th amount of nrgy usd from tlworking (.g., kwh of gas, lctricity consumd). Collcting commuting data from all mploys through a survy may not b fasibl. Companis may xtrapolat from a rprsntativ sampl of mploys to rprsnt th total commuting pattrns of all mploys. For xampl, a company with 4,000 mploys, who ach hav diffrnt commuting profils, may xtrapolat from a rprsntativ sampl of, for xampl, 1,000 mploys to approximat th total commuting of all mploys. S Appndix A for mor information on sampling. Calculation formula [7.1] Distanc-basd mthod CO 2 missions from mploy travl = first, sum across all mploys to dtrmin total distanc travlld using ach vhicl typ: total distanc travlld by vhicl typ (vhicl-km or passngr-km) = (daily on-way distanc btwn hom and work (km) 2 numbr of commuting days pr yar) thn, sum across vhicl typs to dtrmin total missions: kg CO 2 from mploy commuting = (total distanc travlld by vhicl typ (vhicl-km or passngr-km) vhicl spcific mission factor (kg CO 2 /vhicl-km or kg CO 2 /passngr-km)) + (optionally) for ach nrgy sourc usd in tlworking: (quantitis of nrgy consumd (kwh) mission factor for nrgy sourc (kg CO 2 /kwh)) Tchnical Guidanc for Calculating Scop 3 Emissions [89]

4 Companis should convrt daily commuting distanc into annual commuting distanc by multiplying th daily distanc by th numbr of tims th trip occurs during th rporting priod. For xampl, if a company collcts distanc data on on-way journys, th company should multiply th distanc by th numbr of working days in th rporting yar, and thn multiply by two to account for daily rturn journys. Distanc-travlld data by transport mod should b summd across all mploys to obtain total annual kilomtrs or passngr-kilomtrs travlld by ach mod of transport. Companis may optionally calculat th missions of tlworking from hom. To calculat ths missions, a baslin missions scnario should first b stablishd. Baslin missions occur rgardlss of whthr or not th mploy was at hom (.g., nrgy consumd by th rfrigrator). Th rporting company should only account for th additional missions rsulting from working from hom, for xampl th lctricity usag as a rsult of running th air conditionr to stay cool. Exampl [7.1] Calculating missions from mploy travl using th distanc-basd mthod Company A is a small advrtising srvics company, with thr mploys working 48 wks pr yar. To calculat missions from mploy commuting, it crats an mploy commuting profil for ach mploy. Each mploy complts a qustionnair th rsults of which ar summarizd in th following tabl: Employ Rail commut (tims pr wk) On way distanc by rail (km) Rail mission factor (kg CO 2 / passngrkilomtr) Car commut (tims pr wk Car mission factor (kg CO 2 / vhiclkilomtr) On way distanc by car (km) A N/A B C 0 N/A Not: Th activity data and missions factors ar illustrativ only, and do not rfr to actual data. th total distanc travlld by rail (km) is calculatd as: (daily on way distanc btwn hom and work (km) 2 5 numbr of commuting wks pr yar) = ( ) + ( ) = 8,640 km th total distanc travlld by car (km) is calculatd as: (daily on way distanc btwn hom and work (km) 2 5 numbr of commuting wks pr yar) = ( ) + ( ) = 11,040 km total missions from mploy commuting for th rporting yar is calculatd as: (total distanc travlld by vhicl typ (vhicl-km or passngr-km) vhicl spcific mission factor (kg CO 2 /vhicl-km or kg CO 2 /passngr-km)) = (8, ) + (11, ) = 3,072 kg CO 2 Tchnical Guidanc for Calculating Scop 3 Emissions [90]

5 Avrag-data mthod If company spcific data is unavailabl, companis may us avrag scondary activity data to stimat distanc travlld and mod of transport. This may includ using: Avrag daily commuting distancs of typical mploys Avrag mods of transport of typical mploys Avrag numbr of commuting days pr wk and avrag numbr of wks workd pr yar. Such stimation rquirs making svral simplifying assumptions, which add uncrtainty to th missions stimats. Activity data ndd Companis should collct data on: Numbr of mploys Avrag distanc travlld by an avrag mploy pr day Avrag brakdown of transport mods usd by mploys Avrag numbr working days pr yar. Emission factors ndd Companis should collct: Emission factors for ach mod of transport (usually xprssd as kilograms of GHG mittd pr passngr pr kilomtr travlld). Data collction guidanc Company may collct avrag scondary data from sourcs such as national transportation dpartmnts, ministris or agncis, national statistics publications, and/or industry associations. For xampl, th UK Offic for National Statistics publishs avrag commuting pattrns and distancs (http://www. nighbourhood.statistics.gov.uk/dissmination/info.do?pag=analysisandguidanc/commutingstatistics/commutingstatistics.htm). Calculation rsourcs includ: GHG Protocol Calculation Tool, Mobil Combustion GHG Emissions Calculation Tool. Vrsion 2.0. Jun 2009, dvlopd by World Rsourcs Institut, availabl at U.S. EPA Climat Ladrs GHG Invntory Protocol, Optional Emissions from Commuting, Businss Travl and Product Transport, availabl at: For UK organizations, th Dpartmnt for Transport provids guidanc and a calculation tool for work-rlatd travl at: Tchnical Guidanc for Calculating Scop 3 Emissions [91]

6 Calculation formula [7.2] Avrag-data mthod CO 2 missions from mploy commuting = sum across ach transport mod: (total numbr of mploys % of mploys using mod of transport on way commuting distanc (vhicl-km or passngr-km) 2 working days pr yar mission factor of transport mod (kg CO 2 /vhicl-km or kg CO 2 /passngr-km)) Companis should convrt avrag daily commuting distanc into annual avrag commuting distanc by multiplying th on-way distanc by two for th daily rturn trip and by th avrag numbr of days workd pr yar (i.., xcluding wknds and days spnt on businss travl, vacation, or working from hom). Exampl [7.2] Calculating missions from mploy travl using th avrag data mthod Company A is a manufacturr in th Unitd Kingdom with ovr 10,000 mploys. To dtrmin th distanc and mod of transport of mploy travl, it rfrs to th UK Dpartmnt of Transport s information rgarding avrag commut choics and distancs of commutrs. National statistics show that UK workrs work on avrag 235 days a yar. Th xampl assums that mploys do not shar rids. Th rsults of th study ar shown blow: Commut group Prcnt of total commuts Avrag on-way distanc (km) Emission factor (kg CO 2 / vhicl or passngr km Rail Car Foot Bus Not: Th activity data and missions factors ar illustrativ only, and do not rfr to actual data. Tchnical Guidanc for Calculating Scop 3 Emissions [92]

7 Exampl [7.2] Calculating missions from mploy travl using th avrag data mthod (continud) CO 2 missions by mod of transport can b calculatd as follows: missions from mploy commuting = (total numbr of mploys % of mploys using mod of transport on way commuting distanc (vhicl-km or passngr-km) 2 working days pr yar mission factor of transport mod (kg CO 2 /vhicl-km or kg CO 2 /passngr-km)) rail commutrs: (10,000 50% ) = 2,350,000 kg CO 2 car commutrs: (10,000 30% ) = 4,230,000 kg CO 2 foot commutrs: (10,000 15% ) = 0 kg CO 2 bus commutrs: (10,000 5% ) = 117,500 kg CO 2 total CO 2 of mploy travl can b calculatd as follows: = 2,350, ,230, ,500 = 6,697,500kg CO 2 Tchnical Guidanc for Calculating Scop 3 Emissions [93]

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