SOFTWARE ENGINEERING AND APPLIED CRYPTOGRAPHY IN CLOUD COMPUTING AND BIG DATA

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1 Intrnational Journal on Tchnical and Physical Problms of Enginring (IJTPE) Publishd by Intrnational Organization of IOTPE ISSN IJTPE Journal Sptmbr 015 Issu 4 Volum 7 Numbr 3 Pags 47-5 SOFTWARE ENGINEERING AND APPLIED CRYPTOGRAPHY IN CLOUD COMPUTING AND BIG DATA M.I. Mihailscu 1 S.L. Nita 1. Information Tchnology and Communications Dpartmnt, Univrsity of South-East Europ LUMINA, Bucharst, Romania, Computr Scinc Dpartmnt, Univrsity of Bucharst, Bucharst, Romania, Abstract- In this articl w hav dcidd to covr th most important trnds and challngs from softwar nginring and cryptography filds by prsnting som important rsults achivd alrady (as stat-of-th-art). W will propos som nw rsarch dirctions, which ar absolutly ncssary to b covrd and focusd on if w want to mov to cloud computing nvironmnt and using big data. Du to ths rsarch dirctions, w hav figur out that if w don t hav a multi-disciplinary rsarch activity basd on ths two dirctions, th actual tchnologis, such as cloud computing and big data, will b in dp buckt and thy will bcom uslss. Th mntiond tchnologis, rprsnts th pak of th spar, in which w can actually say that w hav a rsarch work to do. Kywords: Cryptography, Chaos-Basd Cryptography, Fully Homomorphic Encryption, Sarchabl Encryption, Cloud Computing, Big Data. I. INTRODUCTION Cloud computing rprsnts th dlivry procss of computing srvics ovr th Intrnt. Cloud srvics giv th possibility to individuals and businsss to us softwar and hardwar which ar managd by third partis at locations that can b accssd rmotly. Exampls of cloud srvics onlin fil storag, social ntworking sits, wbmail, and onlin businss applications [10]. Th cloud computing giv th possibility to accss information and computr rsourcs from any location whr a ntwork connction is availabl. Cloud computing provids a shard pool of rsourcs, including data storag spac, ntworks, computr procssing powr, and spcializd corporat and usr applications [10]. Th following dfinition of cloud computing has bn dvlopd by th U.S. National Institut of Standards and Tchnology (NIST): Cloud computing is a modl for nabling convnint, on-dmand ntwork accss to a shard pool of configurabl computing rsourcs (.g., ntworks, srvrs, storag, applications, and srvics) that can b rapidly provisiond and rlasd with minimal managmnt ffort or srvic providr intraction. This cloud modl promots availability and is composd of fiv ssntial charactristics, thr srvic modls, and four dploymnt modls [11]. W ar facing to on of th most problm from nowadays and which will hav a strong impact on th futur of ncryptd sarch. Encryptd sarch is a vry snsitiv subjct from many aspcts and it bcoms an important problm in scurity and cryptography. From my point of viw, this aspct is happning bcaus of a combination of thr things: - Sarching rprsnt th main way of accssing th data. - Outsourcing is winning mor and mor faith to third partis. - Th trust in ths third partis is limitd, and th rasons ar obvious. Now, sarching ovr ncryptd data is of intrst for many othr sub-filds of computr scinc, such as cryptography, privacy, databass) but also w can find applications in govrnmnts and industry. A-priori sarching on ncryptd data could sound impossibl and vn contradictory; thr ar svral ways of doing it. Som mthods ar practical, som of thm ar mor scur, and som of thm ar mor functional and/or flxibl. In 001, for th first tim th problm of sarching on ncryptd data was proposd and takn into considration by Song, Wagnr, and Prrig [1]. Th authors dscrib a st of schms for th mntiond problm and provid proofs of scurity for th proposd crypto systms. Th schms proposd by thm ar focusd on: - Th schm is provably scur []; - Qury isolation for sarchs is providd; - Controlld sarching for th untrustd srvr is providd; - Hiddn quris. Bsid th advantags providd abov, thir schms ar vry fficint and practical. Th algorithms dvlopd by thm ar simpl to undrstand and to implmnt, and also ar vry fast. 47

2 A. Charactristics Th charactristics of cloud computing ar basd ondmand slf-srvic, broad ntwork accss, rsourc pooling, rapid lasticity and masurd srvic. Ondmand slf-srvic is rprsntd by th customrs (usually organizations) that can rqust and administrat thir own rsourcs usd in computing. Broad ntwork accss giv th possibility for th srvics to b offrd ovr th Intrnt or privat ntworks. Poold rsourcs mans that customrs ar abl to draw from a pool of computing rsourcs, usually in data cntrs plac in othr location (rmotly). Srvics ar scald largr or smallr; and us of a srvic which is masurd and customrs ar billd according with th plans. B. Srvic Modls [10] Th cloud computing srvic modls ar Softwar-asa-Srvic (SaaS), Platform-as-a-Srvic (PaaS) and Infrastructur-as-a-Srvic (IaaS). In a Softwar-as-a- Srvic modl, a pr-mad application, along with any rquird softwar, oprating systm, hardwar, and ntwork ar providd. In PaaS, an oprating systm, hardwar, and ntwork ar providd, and th customr installs or dvlops its own softwar and applications. Th IaaS modl provids only th hardwar and ntwork; th customr installs or dvlops its own oprating systms, softwar and applications. C. Dploymnt of Cloud Srvics [10] Cloud srvics ar typically mad availabl via a privat cloud, community cloud, public cloud or hybrid cloud. Gnrally spaking, srvics providd by a public cloud ar offrd ovr th Intrnt and ar ownd and opratd by a cloud providr. Som xampls includ srvics aimd at th gnral public, such as onlin photo storag srvics, -mail srvics, or social ntworking sits. Howvr, srvics for ntrpriss can also b offrd in a public cloud. In a privat cloud, th cloud infrastructur is opratd solly for a spcific organization, and is managd by th organization or a third party. In a community cloud, th srvic is shard by svral organizations and mad availabl only to thos groups. Th infrastructur may b ownd and opratd by th organizations or by a cloud srvic providr. II. CLOUD COMPUTING AND ITS IMPORTANCE As w can obsrv, th nds of th markt ar vry important whn w try to fix som pattrns rgarding th ncssitis and to find th right pattrns and solutions for ntrpriss and not only. Th markt around Googl, AWS, and Microsoft will bcom mor and mor convrgnc. Th ntrpriss that wish to mov in public clouds, thy hav to dal with ths thr companis. In th forsabl futur, th mntiond companis ar placing thir tchnology bts on cloud computing. Anybody, bsids of Googl, AWS, and Microsoft, will hav to obtain a small pic from th markt and hold it as long as possibl. Th privat cloud only, will fac a fall if thy will not mrg with public clouds. In this way, aftr th mrging procss is don, a nw hybrid or multi-cloud(s) is born. In th nxt fw yars, th companis that will focus on privat clouds will fall substantially. Anothr important aspct is that th nw providrs which offr public accss on cloud will hav to find vry fast a nich. Th markt is highly dominatd by som playrs who ar willing to spnd billions on rsarch and dvlopmnt, and markting. Startups ar focusing on nw and mrging cloud tchnology. Th sam pattrn will b obsrvd around data storag srvics, analytics srvics, Intrnt of Things (IoT), and othr nw tchnologis. Rgarding th Intrnt of Things (IoT) [8], w hav covrd som important aspcts which ar important to tak into considration whn w ar facing with this concpt. Th papr is cas study for biomtrics tchnologis and Larning applications. In Figur 1 w can obsrv that 58% is charactrizd by a top-lin growth and th collaboration among mploys, and thr is also 56% for th supply chain, thr aras on which th ntrpriss xpct cloud computing to hav a hug impact in th following thr yars. Also w can s th volution in thr yars (lightblu lin), and th top-lin growth will hav th most powrful volution, around 58%, and also an important rol will b playd by collaboration with mploys, around 58%. Figur 1. Evolution of th impact of cloud on businss, from today and in thr yars [1] A. Softwar Dvloping in Cloud Computing Agil Dvlopmnt is th bst way (mthod) to us whn w want to dvlop softwar for cloud computing. Cloud computing and virtualization tchnologis crat an asy way for agil dvlopmnt tams to combin 48

3 multipl nvironmnts basd on dvlopmnt, tst and production. Ths nvironmnts ar combind with othr cloud srvics, a vry important aspct which nd to b takn into considration. In th followings, w prsnt six important ways in which cloud computing and virtualization tchnologis nhanc agil softwar dvlopmnt. 1. Cloud computing givs an unlimitd numbr of tsting and staging srvrs.. Th Agil dvlopmnt bcoms a truly paralll activity. 3. Innovation and xprimntation ar ncouragd. 4. Th Dlivry and continuous intgration is nhancs. 5. W hav mor dvlopmnt platforms and xtrnal srvics bcom mor and mor availabl. 6. Cod branching and mrging bcoms vry asy to us. B. Scurity in Cloud Computing This topic is a vry important on. Whn w wish to hav a scur cloud, scurity bcoms a snsibl discussion which nds to giv th right focusing. Th favorit topic in this ara is homomorphic ncryption or fully homomorphic ncryption (FHE). FHE is a form of ncryption which giv th possibility for computations to b carrid out on th ciphrtxt, in this way by gnrating an ncryptd rsult which, whn is dcryptd, matchs th rsult of oprations prformd on th plaintxt [1]. Bcaus of th dsign, th homomorphic schms ar mallabl [], a proprty of som spcific cryptographic algorithms. W say that an algorithm is mallabl is it is possibl for an advrsary to transform th ciphr txt into anothr ciphr txt which dcrypts to a rlatd plaintxt. W suppos, givn an ncryption of a spcific plaintxt mssag, it is obvious to gnrat anothr ciphr txt which dcrypts to f (mssag), for a known function f, without ncssarily knowing or larning mssag. Som xampls of mallabl cryptosystms nd to b listd bcaus rprsnts th foundation and th main ntry point of th homomorphic ncryption schms and rsarch that can b usd in cloud computing in ordr to assur th scurity of th data. In a stram ciphr, th ciphrtxt is gnratd by using (xclusiv or) on th plaintxt and a psudorandom stram which is basd on a scrt ky k, as. Th advrsary is abl to E mssag mssag S k construct th ncryption of mssag t for any t, as E mssag t mssag t S k E mssag t. In RSA cryptosystm, th plaintxt mssag is ncryptd as Emssag mssag mod n n,, whr rprsnt th public ky. Starting from ciphrtxt, th advrsary is abl to construct th ncryption of mssag.t for any t, as. mod mod. E mssag t n mt n E mssag t. In ElGamal cryptosystm, th plaintxt mssag is b b ncryptd using E mssag g, mssag. A, whr ga, rprsnt th public ky. Starting from this ciphrtxt c t c 1,. t. mssag c c 1,, th advrsary is abl to comput which rprsnt a valid ncryption of, for any t. In 005, w ar facing with a nw concpt, calld non-mallabl, introducd by Mar Fisclin [3], an ability charactristic to th systm to kp thir non-mallabl proprty whil giving som xtra powr to th advrsary in ordr to choos a nw public ky, a ky that is rprsntd by a function basd on th original public ky. So, in this cas, th advrsary shouldn t b abl to com up with a ciphr txt whos undrlying plaintxt is in connction with th original mssag which also tak into considration th public kys. Starting from th algorithms mntiond abov, now w ar rady to go furthr with th volution of th scurity mchanisms usd in cloud computing. First modrn tchniqu that is usd in cloud computing is crypto cloud computing [5] which is usd in ordr to assur th scurity of th customr s data which rlis on th scurity of srvic from th cloud computing providrs, howvr, th currnt structur of cloud computing srvic that ar providd by indpndnt oprators. Crypto Cloud Computing (CCC) rprsnts on of th nwst scur cloud computing architctur. Using CCC w hav protction of information scurity at th systm lvl, and th usrs ar allowd to accss shard srvics in a convnint way and also accuratly. Th architctur is abl to: 1. Protcts individual s connction with th rst of world.. Th prsonal privacy is protctd without any dlay of th xchanging information. Th mthod, on which CCC is basd, is known as Quantum Dirct Ky (QDC) [4]. QDC rprsnt a st of asymmtric offlin mchanism, vrything rgarding th ntitis will go public and th privat ky pair is attachd to thir ID. Each ntity will hav his own privat ky and th ntity will hav also a public ky gnrator in ordr to gnrat any public ky. In th followings, w will prsnt how DTron Inc. dscribs th algorithm bhind th systm. QDK functions ar usd by gnrating a pair of public and privat ky from two public and scrt sd matrics M p (public) and M (scrt). Th Ky Managmnt s M s Cntr (KMC) is th singl ownr of and it is always offlin. Th privat ky is gnratd using th KMC basd on th us s ID: Kycs gs ( ID, Ms ) (1) Th public is gnratd any usr which us a known ID: Ky g ( ID, M ) () CP p p C. Homomorphic Encrption Th scond modrn tchniqu is rprsntd by homomorphic ncryption [6]. Hr ar facing with two catgoris of homomorphic cryptosystms, such as partially homomorphic cryptosystms (PHC) and fully homomorphic ncryption (FHE). 49

4 In PHC, w hav som strong xampls which ar absolutly ncssary to know and to undrstand. Thy rprsnt th main cor of framworks, such as cloud computing architctur and QDK. In th following xampls, th E (mssag) dnot th ncryption function of th mssag. C.1. First Exampl Unpaddd RSA In cas that th RSA public ky is modulus mssag and xponnt, thn th ncryption of th mssag is givn by mod E mssag mssag m. Th homomorphic proprty is thn 1 1 E mssag. E mssag mssag mssag mod m 1 1 mssag mssag mod m E mssag. mssag. C.. Scond Exampl ElGamal Whn w dal with ElGamal cryptosystm, in a cyclic group G of ordr q with gnrator g, if th public ky is rprsntd as G, q, g, h, whr h g x, and x rprsnt th scrt ky, thn th ncryption of th r r mssag is E mssag g, mssag. h random r 0,, q1., for som Th homomorphic proprty r1 r1 bcoms E mssag1 E mssag g mssag1 h.,.. 1 r r r 1 r r 1 r. g, m. h g, mssag. mssag h E mssag mssag 1. C.3. Third Exampl Goldwassr-Micali In Goldwassr-Micali cryptosystm, if th public ky is rprsntd by th modulus m and a quadratic nonrsidu x, thn th ncryption of a bit is, whr r0,, m 1. Th homomorphic proprty is thn b1 b b1b E bit1. E bit x r1 x r x r1 r E bit1. bit, whr. dnots addition modulo. In FHE th computation ar don on som oprations ovr th ciphrtxts, such as additions, multiplications, quadratic functions, tc). If a cryptosystm which supports arbitrary computation on th ciphr txts is known as fully homomorphic ncryption (FHE) and is vry powrful. On of th most important xampls in this dirction is rprsntd by th Gntry s cryptosystm, proposd by Craig Gntry, which is using lattic-basd cryptography. Th author dscribd th first plausibl construction for a fully homomorphic ncryption schm. Th schm proposd by Gntry, supports both addition and multiplication oprations on ciphr txts, from which is possibl to dvlop and build circuits for prforming arbitrary computation. bit E bit x r mod m Anothr xampl is rprsntd by th cryptosystm ovr th intgrs, proposd in 010 by Martn van Dijk, Craig Gntry, Shai Halvi and Vinod Vaikuntanathan. Th schm uss many of th tools of Gntry s schm, but dos not rquir idal lattics. This schm uss intgrs. III. BIG DATA Big data is a compound trm for data sts so larg and complx whr th classic applications ar not th right ons that ar abl to procss th data. Nw challngs includ analysis, captur, data curation, sarch, sharing, storag, transfr, visualization, and information privacy. Big data can b dscribd by th following charactristics (w will not go into dp for ach charactristic, bcaus is not th purpos of th articl): - Volum - Varity - Vlocity - Variability - Vracity - Complxity In [7] is prsntd a survy for scuring data analytics in th cloud. On of th most important challng on which will stop in this work is rprsntd by scurity, information privacy, by focusing on sarchabl symmtric ncryption (SSE). A SSE schm is corrct if th protocol usd for sarch rturns th (currnt) corrct rsults for th kyword that is bgin sarchd, xcpt th ( DB w ) ngligibl probability. In ordr to simplify th formalism w will ignor th cas whn a clint will attmpt to add a fil with an xisting idntifir or dlt/dit with an idntifir which is not prsnt in DB. Th protocols that alrady xist can handl ths situations in a clan mannr. Lt s s an xampl of algorithm usd in this dirction. Dfinition: Suppos w hav, which rprsnt a dynamic Stup, Sarch, Updat SSE schm and rprsnt a lakag functions. Lt s start from two algorithms A and S, w dfin som gams Ral A paramtr, and A. Ral A λ, whr rprsnt th scurity AS, Idal ( ) as following: A 1 choos DB. Th gam will run K, EDB Stup DB and will giv EDB to A. So, A will rpat rqusts to ngag in th protocols for Sarch and/or Updat. This is happning whn A picks a clint input as ntry. In ordr to rspond, th gam will runs th Sarch or Updat protocols with th input from th clint K, in and th srvr input EDB and will rciv a transcript to A (th srvr w supposd to b dtrministic). So, A will rturn a bit that th gam uss as its own output. 50

5 B. Idal A 1 A, S λ EDB S L DB will choos DB. Th gam will run and will giv EDB to A. In this cas th A will rpat th rqusts to ngag in th Sarch or Updat protocols. This will tak plac whn A picks a as clint input in. In ordr to rspond, th gam will giv as output of to. This is takn plac whn will L in S outputs a simulatd transcript which is passd to A. So, A will rturn a bit which is usd by th fam as his own output. In ordr to dmonstrat that is L-scur against adaptiv attacks for any advrsaris for A, thr will b an algorithm, S, that xist in such way that Pr Ral 1 Pr Idal 1 ng A A, S In [9] w find mor dtails about th mntiond algorithm. In [13] th authors discuss about a st of algorithms such as Zrnik and support vctor machin (SVM) in ordr to dtct th moving targts. This xampl rprsnts a vry intrsting cas study for data which can b stord and mad thm availabl to subscribrs through a big data nvironmnt. Anothr intrsting aspct prsntd in th mntiond articl rfrs to rconstructing binary imag, a nic xampl of using Zrnik momnts in ordr to find th most suitabl paramtrs whn thy ar compard with th original imag. This ida can b usd in combination with [16] in ordr to crat a strong authntication mchanism. Th authntication mchanism is basd on fac rcognition and an analysis is strongly rcommndd bfor th authntication procss is xcutd. IV. CONCLUSIONS By prsnting th main trnds and challngs in cloud computing and big data, w can say that w fulfill our goal to covr th most important tchnologis and algorithms from softwar nginring and cryptography that can b applid. Our incursion in cloud computing and big data w will not stop hr. Our rsarch will b conductd in ordr to optimiz and to find th bst ways to dvlop softwar and cryptographic algorithms for th mntiond nvironmnts. Cloud computing offrs bnfits for organizations and individuals. Thr ar also privacy and scurity concrns. If you ar considring a cloud srvic, you should think about how your prsonal information, and that of your customrs, can bst b protctd. Carfully rviw th trms of srvic or contracts, and challng th providr to mt your nds [10]. Th prsntd articl addrsss som important aspcts which ar ncssary to b tak into considration whn w will hav softwar applications which will work for tchnical and physical problms in lctrical nginring. Such xampls w hav sn in [13] and [14]. S (3) ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS W would lik to show our gratitud to Assoc. Prof. Adrian Btringh and Prof. Ion Sima for thir support and courag that thy giv it to us for writing this papr. In th nd w would lik to thank Dr. Cristian Kvorchian for his advics that h givs us in ths dirctions, for opning our minds and ncouraging us to xplor th nw challngs and rsarch dirctions in aras of cloud computing and big data. REFERENCES [1] Homomorphic Encryption, https://n.wikipdia.org/ wiki/homomorphic_ncryption, 17 August 015. [] Mallability (Cryptography), https://n.wikipdia. org/wiki/mallability_%8cryptography%9, 10 Fbruary 015. [3] Compltly Non-mallabl Schms, Marc Fischlin, Automata, Languags and Programming, Lctur Nots in Computr Scinc, Vol. 3580, pp , 005. [4] F. Ladinois, DTron, Introducs its QDK Cryptosystm to Enabl Tru Trustd Idntity for th Cloud Era, Postd on Sptmbr 6, 01, https://n.wikipdia.org/wiki/crypto_cloud_computing. [5] Crypto Cloud Computing, https://n.wikipdia.org/ wiki/crypto_cloud_computing, 7 Dcmbr 014. [6] V. Vaikuntanathan, Computing Blindfoldd: Nw Dvlopmnts in Fully Homomorphic Encryption, [7] S. Yakoubov, V. Gadpally, N. Schar, E. Shn, A. Yrukhimovich, A Survy of Cryptographic Approachs to Scuring Big-Data Analytics in th Cloud, lpaprs/8.pdf. [8] P.V. Cornliu, M.M. Iulian, Intrnt of Things and its Rol in Biomtrics Tchnologis and Elarning Applications, 13th Intrnational Confrnc on Enginring of Modrn Elctric Systms (EMES), pp. 1-4, ISBN , INSPEC Accssion Numbr: , 11-1 Jun 015. [9] D. Cash, t al., Dynamic Sarchabl Encryption in Vry-Larg Databass: Data Structurs and Implmntation, dfault/fils/07_4_1.pdf. [10] V.C. Pau, M.I. Mihailscu, Introduction to Cloud Computing, https://www.priv.gc.ca/rsourc/fsfi/0_05_ d_51_cc_.pdf [11] NIST Cloud Dfinition, Vrsion 15, nist.gov/groups/sns/cloud-computing/. [1] 55% of Entrpriss Prdict Cloud Computing Will Enabl Nw Businss Modls in Thr Yars, 5-of-ntrpriss-prdict-cloud-computing-will-nablnw-businss-modls-in-thr-yars/. [13] E. Yakhti Fard, A. Amiri, Finding Spcific Targts Basd on Fuzzy Logic Using Zrnik Momnts and Support Vctor Machin, Intrnational Journal on Tchnical and Physical Problms of Enginring (IJTPE), ISSN: , Issu 3, Vol. 7, No., pp , Jun

6 [14] S.H.R. Almohammad, M. Sanii, E. Mashhour, Rconfiguration of a Distribution Ntwork in a Rstructurd Powr Industry for Minimizing th Cost of Enrgy Loss Intrnational Journal on Tchnical and Physical Problms of Enginring (IJTPE), ISSN: , Issu 3, Vol. 7, No., pp , Jun 015. [15] M.I. Mihailscu, Nw Enrollmnt Schm for Biomtric Tmplat Using Hash Chaos-Basd Cryptography, Elsvir - Procdia Enginring, ISSN: , Vol. 69, pp , 014. [16] M.I. Mihailscu, Rsarch on Biomtric Synthtic Facs, Indian Journal of Rsarch (PIJR), ISSN: , Vol., Issus 9, pp , Sptmbr 013. BIOGRAPHIES Marius Iulian Mihailscu was born in Bucharst, Romania, H rcivd two B.Sc., first B.Sc. dgr from Univrsity of Titu Maiorscu (Bucharst, Romania), scond B.Sc. from Univrsity of Southrn Dnmark (Odns, Dnmark) and th M.Sc. dgrs from Univrsity of Bucharst (Bucharst, Romania) and Military Tchnical Acadmy (Bucharst, Romania). H has Ph.D. dgr from Univrsity of Bucharst (Bucharst, Romania), all in Information Communication Tchnology, Computr Scinc, Computr Enginring, and Information Scurity, in 008, 009, 010, 011 and 014, rspctivly. Currntly, h is Lcturr of Information Tchnology and Communications at Univrsity of South- East Europ LUMINA (Bucharst, Romania). Stfania Lordana Nita was born in Bucharst, Romania, on January 10, H rcivd th B.Sc. in Mathmatics from Univrsity of Bucharst (Bucharst, Romania) in 013 and M.S.E. dgrs in Softwar Enginring in 016 (xpctd). Currntly, h is an Assistant Lcturr (associat) at Univrsity of Bucharst, Romania. Hr rsarch intrsts ar in th application of cryptography, programming languags and databass, cloud computing and big data, applid mathmatics, softwar dvlopmnt managmnt. 5

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