81-1-ISD Economic Considerations of Heat Transfer on Sheet Metal Duct

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1 Air Handling Systms Enginring & chnical Bulltin 81-1-ISD Economic Considrations of Hat ransfr on Sht Mtal Duct Othr bulltins hav dmonstratd th nd to add insulation to cooling/hating ducts in ordr to achiv propr air distribution in th conditiond spac. his bulltin dals with th hat gain/loss by th supply air and how it ffcts th ovrall prformanc and cost of th HVAC systm. o achiv th propr dgr of comfort in a controlld nvironmnt, th dsign nginr bgins by calculating th hating/cooling load of th spac to b conditiond. Onc th spac load is calculatd, th nginr, in th cas of air-to-air HVAC systms, will dtrmin th volum and conditions of th supply air to b dlivrd to that spac. h summation of spac loads with th propr load divrsification will account for th total building load. Cooling Effct of th Supply Air h cooling ffct or snsibl cooling of th room or spac by th supply air is dtrmind by th following quation: Q S = M x 1.1 x ( r - Q S = Snsibl cooling/hating (Btu/hr M = Volum of supply air flow (cfm 1.1 = Unit convrsion constant combining th air dnsity, hat capacity of th supply air, and minuts to hours (Btu/hr/cfm/ F r = mpratur of th room ( F = mpratur of th supply air laving th duct ( F h tmpratur of th supply air is lowrd by rmoving hat from th air in a hat xchangr or cooling coil. Fan Hat Exchangr OA RA = 50 F SA OA = Outsid Air RA = Rturn Air SA = Supply Air r = 80 F =? h siz of th cooling coil is dtrmind by th volum and condition of th supply air rquird by th spac cooling load. For many rasons, on of which was discussd in th Enginring & chnical Bulltin daling with condnsation control on air conditioning ducts (80-1-ISD, th drop in th air tmpratur across th cooling coil is limitd to 30 F ±5 F for most HVAC systms. h coil snsibl cooling capacity is dtrmind by th following quation: Q sc = M x 1.1 x ( ra Sinc th tmpratur drop of th air across th cooling coil is limitd, cooling loads can b thought of in trms of volum of air rquird. Sinc hat gaind by th supply air in th air distribution duct will incras its tmpratur, th volum of air dlivrd to th conditiond spac at th tmpratur laving th duct still nds to b dtrmind.

2 Hat ransfr hory In ordr to dtrmin th corrct air volum to th conditiond spac, you must first find th tmpratur of th air laving th duct. Hat gain/loss by a duct can b xprssd by th following quation: = U x A x [ o - ( + ] U = Ovrall hat transfr cofficint [Btu/(hr ft F] A = Ara of th duct (ft o = Ambint tmpratur ( F = Entring air tmpratur ( F = Laving air tmpratur ( F Hat gain/loss by th air in th duct can b xprssd by th following quation: Q a = M x (1.1 x ( M = Volum of supply air flow (cfm 1.1 = Unit convrsion constant combining th air dnsity, hat capacity of th supply air, and minuts to hours (Btu/hr/cfm/ F Undr stady stat conditions, th hat gain/loss by th duct is qual to th hat gain/loss by th air insid th duct. hrfor: Duct hat (gain/loss = Air hat (gain/loss Substituting into th abov rlation th quations for hat gain/loss... U x A x [ o -( = Q a U x A x = cfm x 1.1 x + ] = cfm x 1.1 x ( From th hating/cooling load rquirmnts of th spac to b conditiond and th hating/cooling coil spcification, th valus for th variabls in th rlation can b obtaind. Only th tmpratur of th air laving th duct ( is an unknown valu.

3 Sampl Problm As a sampl problm, lt s tak a supply air duct with th following conditions: Hat Exchangr o = 80 F OA L = 100' RA = 53 F =? Sht Mtal Duct Assumptions Dsird Room mpratur = 78 F Room Cooling Load = 4,750 Btu/hr Volum of Supply Air Flow (M = 900 cfm (idalizd with no hat gain in duct = U x A x [ o - ( + ] = Hat gain by duct (Btu/hr U = 0.64 for bar sht mtal according to NAIMA dynamic thrmal tst [Btu/(hr ft F] A = 400 ft (for a 1" x 1" x 100' long duct = 53 F o = 80 F =? F 3

4 Sht Mtal Duct (cont d Q a = M x 1.1 x ( From prviously stablishd rlation, Q a = hat gain by air M = 900 cfm = 53 F U x A x [ o - ( + = M x 1.1 x ( ] and substituting th known variabls, Solving for : ( ] x 400 x [ = 900 x 1.1 x ( - 53 = 59. F or an incras in th supply air tmpratur of 6. F. 1" hick Fibr Glass Duct Following th sam procdur for a duct undr th sam conditions but fabricatd from 1" thick Mat-Facd Micro-Air Duct Board with a U of 0.19 from th NAIMA Dynamic hrmal st: ( ] U x A x [ + o - = M x 1.1 x ( and solving for : For 1" thick fibr glass duct with: ID = 1" x 1" OD = 14" x 14" A = ft substituting for th known variabls, 53 + ( x x [ 80 - ] = 900 x 1.1 x ( - 53 = 55.3 F or an incras in th supply air tmpratur of.3 F. 4

5 Snsibl Cooling Effct of th Air Supply h cooling ffct of th air dlivrd to th conditiond spac by th bar sht mtal duct is calculatd as follows: Q s = M x 1.1 x ( r - r = mpratur of th room ( F = mpratur of th supply air laving th duct ( F hrfor Q s = 900 x 1.1 ( Q s = 18,61 Btu/hr Sinc it was dtrmind that th cooling load of th conditiond spac was 4,750 Btu/hr, th air volum rquird to satisfy th load at th air laving tmpratur is calculatd as follows: For Sht Mtal Duct: M = Q s 1.1 ( = 4, ( = 1197 cfm For Fibr Glass Duct: M = 4, ( = 991 cfm his is a diffrnc in th air volum of sht mtal vrsus fibr glass of 06 cfm or 0.8%. 5

6 81-1-ISD Economic Considrations of Hat ransfr on Sht Mtal Duct Enginring & chnical Bulltin Conclusion As shown by th sampl calculation, in ordr to mt th rquird room load, th HVAC systm with a bar sht mtal duct rquird an additional air volum of 33%. his compard to an additional air flow of 10% for a fibr glass duct systm. By using ths prcntags for a building with a cooling load of 00 tons or 4,000,000 Btu/hr, th total air volum for an HVAC systm with bar sht mtal ducts would b 118,195 cfm. For an HVAC systm with fibr glass ducts, th rquird air volum would b 97,893 cfm, a diffrnc of 0,30 cfm. In actual practic, HVAC nginrs incrasd th building load by 15% in ordr to compnsat for th duct hat gain and lakag. Bcaus fibr glass duct will incras ovrall fficincy of th HVAC systm, th nginr can rduc th capacity of th HVAC quipmnt and distribution systm. his will allow th nginr to offr th ownr th following bnfits: 1. Lowr initial capital outlay for th purchas of HVAC quipmnt.. Savings in th cost of th air distribution systm. 3. Lowr hating and cooling costs. 4. A quitr HVAC systm. 5. No condnsation problms. 6. A bttr spac tmpratur control. his is a partial list and additional bnfits can b addd. Anothr bnfit is to hav a company lik Johns Manvill bhind th spcifid matrials and componnts th St. Dnvr, CO 800 ( spcjm.com North Amrican Sals Offics, Insulation Systms Eastrn Rgion P.O. Box 158 Dfianc, OH 4351 ( Fax: ( Wstrn Rgion & Canada P.O. Box 5108 Dnvr, CO 8017 ( Fax: ( h physical and chmical proprtis of Air Handling Products listd hrin rprsnt typical, avrag valus obtaind in accordanc with accptd tst mthods and ar subjct to normal manufacturing variations. hy ar supplid as a tchnical srvic and ar subjct to chang without notic. Numrical flam sprad and smok dvlopd ratings ar not intndd to rflct hazards prsntd by ths or any othr matrials undr actual fir conditions. Chck with th Rgional Sals Offic narst you to assur currnt information. All Johns Manvill products ar sold subjct to Johns Manvill s standard rms and Conditions including Limitd Warranty and Limitation of Rmdy. For a copy of th Johns Manvill standard rms and Conditions, Limitd Warranty and Limitation of Rmdy, and information on othr Johns Manvill thrmal insulations and systms, call ( ISD (Rplacs -07 Printd on rcycld papr. Copyright 008 Johns Manvill Printd in USA

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