ANDREAS MAHENDRO KUNCORO S.T., University of Gadjah Mada, 2004 M.S., University of Cincinnati, 2009 M.S., University of Central Florida, 2010

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "ANDREAS MAHENDRO KUNCORO S.T., University of Gadjah Mada, 2004 M.S., University of Cincinnati, 2009 M.S., University of Central Florida, 2010"

Transcription

1 EMPLOYING QUALITY MANGEMENT PRINCIPLES TO IMPROVE THE PERFORMANCE OF EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF ISO 9001 STANDARD ON TEACHERS AND ADMINISTRTORS PERFORMANCE IN THE INDONESIAN VOCATIONAL EDUCATION SYSTEM by ANDREAS MAHENDRO KUNCORO S.T., Univrsity of Gadjah Mada, 2004 M.S., Univrsity of Cincinnati, 2009 M.S., Univrsity of Cntral Florida, 2010 A dissrtation submittd in partial fulfillmnt of th rquirmnts for th dgr of Doctor of Philosophy in th Dpartmnt of Industrial Enginring & Managmnt Systms in th Collg of Enginring and Computr Scinc at th Univrsity of Cntral Florida Orlando, Florida Fall Trm 2013 Major Profssor: Ahmad Elshnnawy

2 2013 Andras Kuncoro ii

3 ABSTRACT ISO 9001 has bn world widly implmntd in both manufacturing and srvic organizations. A lot of studis hav bn conductd to invstigat th ffcts of ISO 9001 implmntation on th prformanc of ths organizations. Most of ths studis show that ISO 9001 implmntation ralizd positiv oprational improvmnts and financial succss. Building on th mrits of succssful implmntation of ISO 9001 quality managmnt systm in manufacturing and srvic, ducational institutions hav bn attmptd to adopt it in thir oprations. Evn though thr ar studis rlating ISO implmntation to ducation, no rsarch has bn don to invstigat th ffcts of ISO 9001 at th individual lvl. Th objctiv of this rsarch is to invstigat th ffcts of ISO 9001 quality managmnt implmntation on th prformanc of administrators and tachrs. Th Indonsian vocational ducation systm is slctd as a cas xampl as thr is a significant numbr of such institutions in Indonsia that attmpt to achiv ISO crtification and thr is a national nd to improv th prformanc of vocational ducation. It is a challng to assss objctivly th dgr of ISO 9001 implmntation in this spcific ducational contxt bcaus of th siz and divrsity. This study rlis on survy that masurs th rspondnts prcption. Hnc, this study applis a slf-rportd survy basd prformanc masurmnt. Th qustionnairs ar dvlopd basd on xtnsiv litratur rviw. Partial Last Squars Structural Equation Modling (PLSSEM) has bn usd to xamin th rlationships btwn th diffrnt lmnts of quality managmnt systms, quality cultur; administrator and tachr prformancs. Th study is abl to xamin multipl intrrlatd dpndnc and subsqunt rlationships simultanously among xamind factors such as tachr and administrator prformanc, xisting iii

4 quality cultur and ISO principls; and to incorporat variabls that cannot b dirctly masurd, such as ladrship, for xampl. Th findings of this study show that ISO 9001 implmntation has positiv significant ffct on th prformanc of th vocational school administrator and tachr. Th study also idntifis ky influncing lmnts of th ISO quality managmnt systm and xamins thir dirct and indirct rlationships with tachr and administrator prformancs. This study is xpctd to improv th currnt practics in implmnting ISO and quality cultur in any ducational sttings, spcifically in th cas of vocational ducational systm. iv

5 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I am hartily thankful to my dissrtation Advisr, Dr. Ahmad Elshnnawy, whos ncouragmnt, guidanc and support from th initial to th final lvl nabld m to dvlop an undrstanding of th subjct. Scond, I would also lik to thank to my committ mmbrs, Dr. Haiyan Bai, Dr. Gn L, and Dr. Luis Rablo, who hav mad availabl supports in a numbr ways. Lastly, I offr my rgards and blssings to all of thos who supportd m in any rspct during th compltion of th projct. v

6 TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF FIGURES... xi LIST OF TABLES... xii CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION Rsarch Background World-Class Schools Statmnt of Problm Rsarch Qustions Rsarch Objctivs Rsarch Rlvanc Rsarch Contributions Potntial of Proposd Rsarch Structur of th Rsarch... 7 CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW Quality Managmnt and Valus Quality Concpts Quality Practics Total Quality Managmnt Quality Assuranc vi

7 Malcolm Baldrig ISO Quality Cultur ISO 9000 in Education Indonsian Education Systm Vocational School as a Sub-Systm World Class School Dvlopmnt to Dat Background Dfinition of World Class School Critria of World Class and its Indicators Expctd Long-Trm Objctiv Efforts Undrtakn and Rsults Vocational School Administrator and Tachr Prformancs Vocational School Administrator Prformanc Vocational School Tachr Prformanc Litratur Gap CHAPTER 3: VARIABLES AND RESEARCH HYPOTHESES Variabls ISO Quality Managmnt Principls vii

8 Quality Cultur Vocational School Administrator and Tachr Prformanc Rlationships btwn variabls Effcts of ISO Quality Managmnt Principls on School Administrator and Tachr Effcts of Administrator Prformanc on Tachr Prformanc Effcts of Quality Managmnt Principls on Quality Cultur Effcts of Quality Cultur on School Administrator and Tachr Prformancs Rsarch Hypothss CHAPTER 4: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Modl Spcification Masurmnt Itms Data Collction Population and Sampl Sourc of Data Data Analysis Structural Equation Modling Partial Last Squars Structural Equation Modling Modl Charactristic Data Charactristics viii

9 Modl Estimation Rliability and Validity Rational of Mthodology CHAPTER 5: RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS Data Charactristics Dscriptiv Statistics of th Survy Data Sampl Siz Modl Assssmnt Masurmnt Modl Assssmnt Rflctiv Modl Rliability and Validity Formativ Modl Rliability and Validity Structural Modl Assssmnt Collinarity Assssmnt Structural Modl Path Cofficint Rlvanc of Significanc Rlationship Summary of Rsults and Discussion CHAPTER 6: CONCLUSIONS Summary Rsarch Contributions ix

10 6.3. Rcommndations Limitations and Futur Rsarch APPENDIX A: RESEARCH INSTRUMENT APPENDIX B: HUMAN SUBJECTS REVIEW APPROVAL LETTER APPENDIX C: DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS OF SURVEY DATA REFERENCES x

11 LIST OF FIGURES Figur 2-1: Total Quality School Modl (adaptd from Arcaro (1995)) Figur 2-2: Continuous improvmnt loop and associatd ISO 9001:2008 clauss (adaptd from Cianfrani t al. (2009)) Figur 2-3: Structur of Education in Indonsia Figur 3-1: Quality Managmnt Principls Figur 3-2: Quality Cultur of Organization Figur 3-3: Effct of ISO 9001 on Prformancs of School Human Rsourcs Figur 3-4: Effct of Administrator Prformanc on Tachr Prformanc Figur 3-5: Effct of ISO 9001 on Quality Cultur Figur 3-6: Effct of Quality Cultur on Vocational School Human Rsourcs Figur 3-7: Concptual Modl Figur 4-1: Rflctiv and Formativ in a Structural Modl Figur 4-2: Hirarchical Construct Modl Figur 4-3: Hirarchical Ordr Modl Figur 4-4: Rflctiv-formativ modl Figur 4-5: Two-stag Approach Modl (adaptd from Ciavolino and Nitti (2013); Ringl t al. (2013)) Figur 4-6: Partial Last Squars Structural Equation Modling Stps (adaptd from Hair t al. (2010), Klin (2010), and(ringl t al., 2013)) Figur 5-1: Significanc of th Masurmnt Modl Figur 5-2: Path Diagram xi

12 LIST OF TABLES Tabl 2-1: Concpt of WCS Tabl 2-2: Slctd Critria for WCS Tabl 2-3: Litratur Summary Tabl 2-4: Litratur Gap Summary Tabl 4-1: Rsarch Instrumnt Summary Tabl 5-1: Indicator Dltion Dcision Tabl 5-2: Fornll-Larckr Critrion for LOC of Administrator Prformanc Tabl 5-3: Fornll-Larckr Critrion for LOC of Quality Cultur Tabl 5-4: Fornll-Lackr Critrion for LOC of ISO Tabl 5-5: Fornll Larckr Critrion for LOC of Tachr Prformanc Tabl 5-6: Rsults Summary for Rflctiv Masurmnt Modl Tabl 5-7: Collinarity Assssmnt in Masurmnt Modl Tabl 5-8: Outr Wight Significanc Tst Tabl 5-9: Outr Loading Significanc Tst Tabl 5-10: Varianc Inflation Factor Rsults of Structural Modl Tabl 5-11: Total Effcts on Tachr Prformanc Tabl 5-12: Total Effcts on Administrator Prformanc xii

13 CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1.1. Rsarch Background ISO 9000 is a quality managmnt standard that can b implmntd in any organization and is an xcllnt starting point for th initiation of prformanc xcllnc in organizations. ISO crtification has gaind its popularity vry rapidly. It was rportd that th total numbr of ISO 9001 crtificats that hav bn issud in th nd of 2009 has passd 1,000,000 (Intrnational Organization of Standardization, 2011b). Th numbr of ISO 9001 (2000 and 2008 vrsions) crtifid companis has bn approximatly incrasd 8% from prvious yar (2008). Th incrasing numbr of usrs and changs to th standards implis that it is ssntial to clarify th ffctivnss of ISO on th crtifid organizations. Past studis show that ISO 9000 is prcivd to hav positiv impacts on financial (Bnnr & Vloso, 2008; Corbtt, Monts-Sancho, & Kirsch, 2005; Sharma, 2005), businss (Navh & Marcus, 2004; Singh, 2008), oprational prformancs (Baird, Hu, & Rv, 2011; Kaynak, 2003) in manufacturing and non-manufacturing organizations. Du to th ISO s mrits in non-manufacturing organizations, ducation institutions hav also bn intrstd in implmnting ISO Indonsia is a vry complx country in viw of its thnic divrsity, gographic and population. In trms of thnic and languag divrsitis, Indonsia has th gratst thnic divrsity in th world. Basd on Cntral Intllgnc Agncy (2008), thr ar many distinct thnic groups, comprising 40.6% Javans, 15% Sundans, 3.3% Madurs, 2.7% Minangkabau, 38.4% of many othrs (2000 cnsus). Obviously, thos divrs thnic groups must b srvd on th basis of thir diffrnt nds. 1

14 In trm of gography, Indonsia consists of roughly 17,000 islands scattrd throughout th country. Howvr, th fiv largst islands ar only Kalimantan, Papua Sumatra, Sulawsi, and Java, and th rst of thm ar small islands and vn vry small ons. This gographic complxity poss challngs that rquir diffrnt altrnativs in srving ducation in trms of policy, planning, budgting, communication, managmnt, infrastructur, transportation, to mntion just a fw. Thus, on siz of ducation srvic for all is not appropriat. In trm of population, Indonsia is th world s fourth most populous nation having 231 million popl (Indonsia, 2010). With this hug population, thr is a clar rcognition in Indonsia that nation dvlopmnt rsts upon th dvlopmnt of its popl. Popl ar th only activ human rsourcs and othr rsourcs such as financial, matrial and natural rsourcs ar all passiv ons. Thrfor, raising th quality of its popl is th ky towards long-trm national dvlopmnt. For this rason, Indonsia has always placd prim mphasis on ducation as th basis for dvloping th nation. For xampl, it is clarly mandatd by Indonsian Constitution 1945 (th fourth amndmnt, 2002) that minimum twnty prcnt (20%) of national and local govrnmnt budgts must b allocatd to ducation budgt. Not only this, currntly, aftr th succss of nin yar compulsory basic ducation (grad 9), grand dsign for twlv yar univrsal schooling (grad 12) is bing ndavord. According to Cntr of Education Statistics (2010) thr ar about 270 thousand schools to accommodat roughly 50 million studnts, starting from kindrgartn up to twlfth grad. Rspctivly, th total numbr of schools and studnts for ach lvl is as follow: kindrgartn/tk (67,550 schools and 2,947,193 studnts); primary schools/sd (143,252 schools and 27,328,601 studnts); junior scondary schools/smp (29,866 schools and 9,255,006 studnts); snior scondary schools/sma (11,036 schools and 3,942,776 studnts); vocational schools/smk (8,399 schools and 2

15 3,319,068 studnts); and spcial schools (1,803 schools and 74,293 studnts). Having this big numbr, consquntly, Indonsia s ducation systm is vry larg, complx and divrs whn it coms to providing quality ducation. Thus, ducation implmntation is a vry crucial whn it coms to gographic considrations, policy communication, human rsourc capacity, financial rsourc, matrial rsourc, and buraucratic structurs. Raising quality ducation at all lvls hav bn sriously undrtakn by th Indonsian Govrnmnt. National ducation quality standards, rgulations, critria, procdurs, policy dvlopmnt, stratgic planning and incrasd ducation budgt ar only som xampls among many othr srious issus that th Indonsian govrnmnt is invsting a lot of ffort in ordr to improv ducation quality in Indonsia World-Class Schools In 2006, Ministry of National Education (MONE) introducd world class schools (WCS for short) and som schools hav bn tightly slctd as a pilot for world class schools (WCS for short). According to Offic of Rsarch and Dvlopmnt (2010b), 195 primary schools, 299 junior scondary schools, 321 snior scondary schools, and 295 vocational schools throughout Indonsia hav bn slctd as a pilot for dvloping WCS to cop with th currnt and futur normous ral globalization challngs. Thos all pilotd WCSs ar insistd to implmnt Intrnational Organization for Standardization of 9001:2008 (ISO for furthr us) particularly in quality managmnt principls, but currntly, only vocational schools which ar all complying to adopt ISO. In fact, thos vocational schools which propos to b WCS must hav ISO Crtification bfor rgistrd as WCS. Thus, ISO Crtificat is a rquirmnt for vocational schools to b rgistrd as 3

16 WCS. Othr schools such as primary, junior and gnral scondary schools ar not all implmnting ISO du to a non-mandat. Vocational schools hav bn slctd as th focus (targt) of this study du to two rasons. First, thr is a nd to clarify th ffctivnss of ISO 9001 on vocational schools du to xistnc dbats and limitd numbr of studis conductd by othr rsarchrs. Scond, all vocational schools classifid as world class schools (WCS) implmnt ISO and quality cultur, thus it is asir to slct thm randomly as rsarch sampl. It was statd that this study is urgntly ndd by govrnmnt in ordr to improv practics in ISO and quality cultur implmntation. This study is important to carry out in ordr to provid policy input to MONE on improving th ffctivnss of ISO implmntation in vocational schools Statmnt of Problm Improving th quality of ducation has always bn th issu for many rsarchrs. Whn it coms to dvloping countris, lik Indonsia, th nd is vn most urgnt to work on initiativs to improv this important ara socital nd. Th Indonsian govrnmnt is facing a dilmma in improving ducation, particularly vocational ducation. Th improvmnt of quality, ducation rlvancy, and training in ordr to fulfill workforc markt dmand is still qustionabl (Nwhous & Suryadarma, 2011). Thr is still a gap btwn vocational school s curriculum rlvanc and th quality of taching-larning procss and th nds of industris (Di Gropllo, Krus, & Tandon, 2011). Vocational schools ar supposd to prpar studnts for gainful mploymnt, and yt, for xampl th graduat unmploymnt rat in Indonsia is still high i % and vn highr than thir countrparts (gnral high school) which is 11.90% (Indonsian Cntral Burau of Statistics, 2010). Th prformanc of vocational school administrator (73.5 on 100 scal basis) is still undr th 4

17 passing scor critria (76 on 100 scal basis) dtrmind by Institut of Dvlopmnt and Empowrmnt for School Administrators (2010). As for th tachr, Badhowi (2009) found that only 347,300 (13.32%) from th total tachr numbr of 2,607,311 in Indonsia who wr considrd to b comptnt tachr Rsarch Qustions Within th framworks of quality managmnt principls, this study attmpts to answr th following qustion: Dos ISO 9001:2008 implmntation hav ffcts on th prformancs of vocational school administrators and tachrs? Mor spcifically, this rsarch addrsss th fundamntal issu: What is th causal rlationship btwn ISO implmntation, quality cultur, and th prformancs of vocational school administrator and tachr? 1.4. Rsarch Objctivs Th main objctiv of this study is to invstigat th ffcts of ISO implmntation on th prformanc of vocational ducation administrator and tachr in Indonsia, by dvloping a thortical modl and xamining it mpirically. This study xamins th lvl of ISO 9001:2008 knowldg and th xtnt of its implmntation in vocational ducation. It also invstigats th lvl of prformanc of vocational ducation administrators and tachrs. Th study also attmpts to invstigat th rlationships btwn ISO knowldg and human rsourc prformancs, spcifically in vocational ducation stting. 5

18 1.5. Rsarch Rlvanc Th rsarch carrid out in this dissrtation is rlvant to ducational school districts, and vocational schools in particular, whr tachrs and administrators prformancs ar kys to improv th ovrall ducational goals. Th study attmpts to provid a modl that links th ISO 9001:2008 implmntation with quality cultur, prformancs of administrator and tachr Rsarch Contributions This study is xpctd to contribut to both thortical and practical importanc. Thortically, this study is xpctd to contribut to th advancmnt of scholarly knowldg about implmntation of ISO in vocational schools. Practically, this study is going to find vidnc that can b usd to provid a solid basis for sking improvmnt of th quality of vocational school administrator and tachr prformanc in Indonsia which is hopfully lading to th improvmnt of vocational school quality and dsird studnt prformanc, rspctivly. This study is also xpctd to provid ways of improving currnt practics in implmntation of ISO in vocational schools in Indonsia. Th Indonsian govrnmnt can also us th insights of this study to support th vocational schools improvmnt. This study is urgntly ndd to provid inputs to Indonsian Ministry of Education and Cultur rgarding national policy of ISO implmntation in vocational ducation. In addition, this study is xpctd to contribut to dvlopmnt of acadmic knowldg in th ara of quality managmnt in vocational ducation. So far, xtnsiv rsarch focusing on Indonsia s vocational ducational ara has not bn don by rsarchrs. 6

19 1.7. Potntial of Proposd Rsarch Th concptual modl of th impacts of ISO 9001 on vocational ducation can b xpandd in othr lvls of ducation, institution prformanc, and othr applicabl prformanc dimnsions. ISO 9001:2008 is also not th only quality managmnt practic that can b implmntd in any organizations. Th structural rlationship modl can provid any organizations to undrstand th causal rlationship of managmnt practics and th organization ky variabls so that th managmnt practics can b adoptd ffctivly Structur of th Rsarch This chaptr provids an ovrall introduction to th rsarch. Chaptr two prsnts rviw of litratur on quality, ISO, vocational ducation in Indonsia, and structural quation modling. Chaptr thr dscribs diffrnt variabls and rsarch hypothsis, followd by chaptr four that provids th rsarch mthodology mployd in this rsarch. Chaptr fiv prsnts th rsults and discussions of th data analysis. Chaptr six provids th conclusion of this study. 7

20 CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW Th objctiv of this chaptr is to provid an ovrviw of ISO 9001:2008 and quality cultur and thir ffcts on vocational school administrator and tachr prformancs. To achiv this objctiv, this chaptr will rviw rlatd litraturs on quality, ISO 9000 in ducation, Indonsian ducation systm, vocational school administrator and tachr prformancs, and structural quation modling Quality Managmnt and Valus Quality Concpts Quality has volvd from concpt into practics, tchniqus and articulatd procdur (Harvy, 1998). Many rsarchrs and practitionrs agr that quality is important in long-trm organization prformancs (Talib, Rahman, & Qurshi, 2010) vn though quality can b dfind in many various dfinitions (Evans & Lindsay, 2008; Hoyl, 2009; Hutchins, 1997; Rvs & Bdnar, 1994). Rvs and Bdnar (1994) summariz quality dfinitions from prvious philosophrs and rsarchrs into four dfinitions: (1) xcllnc, (2) valu, (3) conformanc to spcifications, (4) mting and/or xcding xpctation. Diffrnt individuals dfin quality diffrntly (Hizr, 2008). Th most rcognizd gurus in quality who hav significantly contributd to th fild of quality managmnt ar Waltr E. Dming, Josph J. Juran, Armand Fignbaum, and Philip Crosby. Th xistnc of various dfinitions of quality implis that quality nds to b dfind accordingly basd on diffrnt circumstancs bcaus ach dfinition has strngths and waknsss in rlation to masurmnt, and gnralizability, managrial usfulnss, an consumr rlvanc (Rvs & Bdnar, 1994, p. 435). Rvs and Bdnar 8

21 (1994) also argu rgarding th inconsistncy rsults of rlationship btwn quality and organization ky variabls (pric, markt shar, cost, natur of organizational output, tim, and multipl constituncis). Du to ths inconsistncis rsults, organizations managrs nd to undrstand ach dfinitions of quality along with its strngths and waknsss in ordr to undrstand th rols of quality in organization (Hoyl, 2009; Rvs & Bdnar, 1994). Dming dos not litrally dfin quality. Howvr, his contributions provid guidanc for organization to undrstand th importanc of quality and ffctivly manag th organizations itslf. Dming argus that variation in dsign, procss, manufacturing rsults in poor organization prformanc (Evans & Lindsay, 2008). Thrfor continus improvmnt nds to b initiatd in ordr to rduc variation. Dming dvlopd Dming s 14 Points to manag ffctiv organization. Ths points which ar adaptd from Evans and Lindsay (2008) includ: (1) Crat a vision and dmonstrat commitmnt, (2) Larn th nw philosophis, (3) Undrstand inspction, (4) Stop making dcisions purly on th basis of cost, (5) Improv constantly and forvr, (6) Institut training, (7) Institut Ladrship, (8) Driv out far, (9) Optimiz th fforts of tams, (10) Eliminat xhortations, (11) Eliminat numrical quotas and managmnt by objctiv, (12) Rmov barrirs to prid in Workmanship, (13) Encourag ducation and slf-improvmnt, and (14) Tak action. Th Dming s 14 Points implis that thr is a nd of cultural chang in th organization to facilitat quality improvmnt practic. Furthrmor, it rquirs strong ladrship in ordr to guid th followrs to implmnt th Dming s 14 Points so that th organization can b managd ffctivly. Howvr, Dming dos not spcify spcific ladrship styl that can b applid to implmnt th Dming s 14 Points. 9

22 Juran (1986) dfins quality as fitnss for us. Juran proposs Quality Trilogy: (1) quality planning, (2) quality control and (3) quality improvmnt. Quality planning is th procss of mting th organization goal. It starts by dfining both th intrnal and xtrnal customrs. Th customrs nds also nd to b idntifid. Ths nds ar translatd into product or srvic spcification rquirmnts. Quality control is th procss of mting quality goals during oprations (Juran, 1986). Statistics procss control can b usd as mans to rduc variability and monitor th procss prformanc (Montgomry, 2007). This procss nsurs that th product or srvic mts th rquirmnts. Quality improvmnt is th procss of xcding th currnt prformanc. Fignbaum proposs thr stp approach to quality: quality ladrship, quality tchnology, and organizational commitmnt. Fignbaum is also known for using phras Total Quality Control. Quality is applid to all stags in organization. Thus, it ncourags involvmnt and commitmnt (Evans & Lindsay, 2008). Fignbaum also stats that ladrship plays an important rol in lading th quality ffort. Crosby dfins quality as conformanc to rquirmnts (Evans & Lindsay, 2008). H is also known for his quality philosophy Absoluts of Quality Managmnt that includs th following points adaptd from (Evans & Lindsay, 2008): (1) quality mans conformanc to rquirmnts, not lganc, (2) thr is no such thing as quality problm, (3) thr is no such thing as th conomics of quality; doing th job right th first tim is always chapr, (4) th only prformanc masurmnt is th cost of quality, which is th xpns of nonconformanc, and (5) th only prformanc standard is zro dfcts. Total quality can b charactrizd by its principls, practics, and tchniqus (Dan Jr & Bown, 1994). Principl is dfind as law, truth, or assumption that is vrifiabl (Hoyl, 2009, p. 10

23 9). Dan Jr and Bown (1994) xplain that quality principl is th root of quality practics and quality tchniqus or tools. Quality practics ar th implmntation of quality principls. Thus, undrstanding th natur quality practic rquirs undrstanding th principls of quality. Quality tchniqus or tools ar usful if thy can support th quality principls. Total quality principls which ar on th highst lvl of th pyramid consists of customr focus, continuous improvmnt, and tamwork (Dan Jr & Bown, 1994). ISO 9000, as a quality practic, mbracs ight quality managmnt principls consisting of ladrship, customr focus, continual improvmnt, procss approach, systm approach, factual approach, involvmnt of popl, and mutually bnficial supplir rlationship (Hoyl, 2009). Thus, ISO alrady includs th thr total quality principls Quality Practics Quality practics that hav bn dvlopd basd on th cor of quality concpts includ Total Quality Managmnt, quality assuranc, Malcolm Baldrig, and ISO 9000 which ar dscribd as th following Total Quality Managmnt Total Quality Managmnt (TQM) has bn dfind somwhat diffrntly, but th cor valu is th sam i.. improving quality in ordr to conform to rquirmnts although th trm rquirmnts ar subjct to dbat. For xampl, Hradsky (1995) dfins TQM as a philosophy, a st of tools, and procss whos output yilds customr satisfaction and continuous improvmnt. Although his dfinition sms vry broad and it looks lik plnty of rooms for dbat, but h clarly offrs tn (10) tracks in th program of TQM dvlopmnt, namly foundation track, 11

24 implmntation track, cultural track, rcognition and rwards, ladrship/tam building, managmnt skills track, cor tchniqus, advancd tchniqus, customr focus, and train th trainr. TQM was also dfind slightly diffrnt by Sashkin and Kisr (1993): TQM mans that organization s cultur is dfind by and supports th constant attainmnt of customr satisfaction through an intgratd systm of tools, tchniqus, and training. This involvs th continuous improvmnt of organizational procsss, rsulting in high quality products and procsss. Although thir dfinition tnds to focus on organization s cultur, but th tools, tchniqus and training usd ar all support th attainmnt of customr satisfaction. Th application of TQM has bn xtndd to ducation sttings. Arcaro (1995) dvlopd total quality schools (TQS) modl basd on th hous of quality consisting of a roof or total quality schools, fiv pillars supporting th roof (customr focus, total involvmnt, masurmnts, commitmnt, and continuous improvmnt), and foundations consisting of blifs and valus xprssd in quality vision and mission. Arcaro (1995) mphasizs th importanc of blifs and valus bcaus ths foundations dtrmin th strngth and succss of quality transformation. Brifly, th fiv pillars can b dscribd as follow. According to Arcaro (1995), th school cannot improv th school quality without rcognizing th school s customrs. Scond, quality improvmnt is vrybody businss and thus, total involvmnt is a must. Third, quality masurmnt must b wll undrstood by school mmbrs, i.. what, why, and how to masur. Fourth, systm viw of ducation (holistic viw of school as a systm) must b usd as an approach to improv or transform quality. School mmbrs must rcogniz that, th school is considrd as a holistic systm and thrfor, partial considration will crat inffctivnss and infficincy of school quality improvmnt. 12

25 Customr Focus Total Involvmnt Masurmnt Commitmnt Continuous Improvmnt Arcaro (1995) proposs that TQS must bgin with quality vision and mission basd on prsonal blifs and valus of school stakholdrs consisting of school board mmbrs, school administrator, tachrs, administrativ staff, studnts, and parnts. Total Quality School Blifs and Valus Figur 2-1: Total Quality School Modl (adaptd from Arcaro (1995)) Quality Assuranc According to (Arnold & Hollr, 1995), quality assuranc is all thos plannd and systmatic actions ncssary to provid adquat confidnc that a systm or product will prform satisfactorily in srvic. Thy furthr claim that quality assuranc rsponsibilitis includ: stting broad goals, providing guidanc, stting dirction, rviwing qualifications and training prsonnl, rviwing quality-rlatd rcords, dvloping and documnting as wll as following up quality procdurs, schduling and conducting as wll as following up quality audits, bing involvd in procurmnt cycl, bing involvd in th dsign rviw cycl, and schduling and conducting survillanc. 13

26 Quality assuranc has somwhat rlationship with quality control. Quality control mphasizs on fulfilling th quality rquirmnts, whras quality assuranc has a rol to mak sur that quality control prform as is intndd to do (Johnson & Johnson, 2000). Quality assuranc is somwhat similar to ISO, TQM, and Malcolm Baldrig in that thy all addrss quality transformation or improvmnt. Th diffrnt btwn thm lis in th strss of input (quality dsign), procss or implmntation (quality of conformanc to dsign) and quality output (quality of prformanc) Malcolm Baldrig Malcolm Baldrig modl of quality managmnt practic is th xpansion of application of Malcolm Baldrig National Quality Award originally for US companis xclling in quality managmnt and quality of achivmnt to ducation sttings (Arcaro, 1995). Th award critria ar basd on cor valus and concpts of customr focus-drivn quality, ladrship, continuous improvmnt, total participation, fast rspons, dsign quality and prvntion, long-rang outlook, managmnt by fact, partnrship dvlopmnt, and community rsponsibility. Although Malcolm Baldrig modl is slightly diffrnt from ISO and TQM, thy all addrss th ways to transform th xisting quality to xpctd quality ISO 9000 ISO 9000 family of standards is a st of standards and guidlins rlating to quality managmnt systm (Intrnational Organization of Standardization, 2011a). (Intrnational Organization of Standardization, 2011a) dfins ISO 9001:2008 as th standard that provids a st of standardizd rquirmnts for quality managmnt systm. ISO 9001 has bn rvisd in 1994, 14

27 2000, and ISO 9001 dos not guarant th quality of th product (Intrnational Organization of Standardization, 2011d) and high organizational prformanc (Kim, Kumar, & Kumar, 2011). Howvr, ISO 9000 implmntation nsurs that it dlivrs consistncy to customr (Cianfrani, Tsiakals, & Wst, 2009; Corbtt t al., 2005; Morland & Clark, 1998), rgulators, and th organization own intrnal (Cianfrani t al., 2009) rquirmnts, as wll as th outputs producd, in trms of conformanc to spcification (Navh and Marcus, 2005). Consistncy indicats that th procss variation is undr control within th spcifid rquirmnts. It can b usd as quality and customr satisfaction masurmnt (Hutchins, 1997). Howvr, ISO 9000 can b intrprtd and undrstood diffrntly from on organization to othrs. Diffrnt auditors also hav diffrnt capabilitis and mthodologis in conducting th audit. Thus, thr is variation in implmnting ISO 9000 (Hutchins, 1997). Although ISO was foundd in 1947 in Gnva Switzrland, Indonsia has only rcntly adoptd it. Many institutions in Indonsia both public and privat sctors including ducation institutions ar now implmnting ISO. In ducation institutions, it is strongly insistd to adopt ISO for thos ducation institutions that ar alrady dsignatd as a world class school (WCS) or a world class univrsity (WCU). ISO/TC 176, th ISO tchnical committ that is rsponsibl of th intgrity of th quality managmnt standardization (Intrnational Organization of Standardization, 2011), dfins quality managmnt principl as a comprhnsiv and fundamntal rul or blif, for lading and oprating an organization, aimd at continually improving prformanc ovr th long trm by focusing on customrs whil addrssing th nds of all othr intrstd partis (Hoyl, 2009). Quality managmnt principls consist of ight kys that contribut to th succss of quality systms. Ths ar: customr focus, ladrship, involvmnt of popl, procss approach, systm 15

28 approach to managmnt, continual improvmnt, factual approach to dcision making and mutually bnficial supplir rlationships (Intrnational Organization of Standardization, 2011). Ths principls ar translatd into rquirmnts in ISO Sinc th rquirmnts of ISO 9001:2008 ar basd on ths principls, th rquirmnts ar rlatd to on or mor of ths principls (Hoyl, 2009). Th following dscription of ach of ight quality managmnt principls is quotd from ISO 9000:2005: Quality Managmnt Systms Fundamntals and Vocabulary. Each of ths principls is prsntd blow for furthr information and its rlvanc to th prsntd study. Principl 1 - Customr Focus: Organizations dpnd on thir customrs and thrfor should undrstand currnt and futur customr nds, should mt customr rquirmnts and striv to xcd customr xpctations (Intrnational Organization of Standardization, 2011f). Customr can b dtrmind diffrntly dpnding on th nvironmnt. In ducational stting, Hutchins (1997, p. 71) stats that customr can b dtrmind as studnts, tachrs, administration, school board, parnts, and/or othr tax payrs. Arcaro (1995) also stats that vryon is both a customr and supplir. Furthrmor, th customrs can b within and xtrnal to th ducation systm. Thus, idntifying th customr can b viwd from diffrnt prspctivs (R. G. Lwis & Smith, 1994). It is important to clarly idntify th customrs bcaus diffrnt customrs hav diffrnt nds. Hnc, whn th customrs ar corrctly idntifid, th organization can focus on fulfilling th customr nds that can rsult in satisfaction. R. G. Lwis and Smith (1994) also stat that th succssfulnss of organization can b masurd by customr satisfaction. Morovr, customr satisfaction is rlatd to organization comptitivnss (Pyzdk & Kllr, 2003). It is th top managmnt rsponsibility to b abl to convrt customr nds into ISO rquirmnts onc th customr nds ar idntifid (Tsim, Yung, & Lung, 2002). 16

29 Principl 2 Ladrship: Ladrs stablish unity of purpos and dirction of th organization. Thy should crat and maintain th intrnal nvironmnt in which popl can bcom fully involvd in achiving th organization s objctivs (Intrnational Organization of Standardization, 2011f). It is important for a ladr to clarify and articulat th vision, as wll as to xplain th mthods to achiv th vision so that th followrs ar abl to s th organization dirction and motivatd to achiv it (Evans & Lindsay, 2008). A ladr also has important rol to communicat ISO valus and systms to th followrs so that thy can mbrac ISO as part of organization cultur (Hutchins, 1997). Thus, a ladr should b abl to idntify th shard valus and vision bcaus thr is a sns of ownrship that maks th followrs want to commit thmslvs to mak thir visions into rality (Kouzs & Posnr, 2003). Arcaro (1995) rfrs ths vision ownrship accptanc and implmntation as th concpt of shard rsponsibility and mpowrmnt. H also stats that popl ar ncouragd to b crativ and innovativ in achiving th organization vision as wll as thir visions. Kouzs and Posnr (2003) also stat that shard valus and visions allow th followrs to not only achiv thir valus and visions but also th organization valus and visions. In addition, strong ladrship can driv th organization to crat and sustain th cultur that is idntifid as an important factor long-trm succssfulnss in any organizations. Many rcnt studis also show that ladr plays important rols in nhancing organizational prformanc (Valmohammadi, 2011). Principl 3 - Involvmnt of Popl: Popl at all lvls ar th ssnc of an organization and thir full involvmnt nabls thir ability to b usd for th organization s bnfit (Intrnational Organization of Standardization, 2011f). Popl, as human rsourc, ar important in organizational changs. Involving th popl in organization fforts crat shard valus (Hoyl, 2009), mak substantial contribution to quality (Evans & Lindsay, 2008), and motivat thm to 17

30 contribut to changing organizational cultur (Kim t al., 2011). Sinc quality cultur is part of organizational cultur (Ehlrs, 2009), it is xpctd that popl involvmnt can b rlatd to quality cultur. In addition, mploy commitmnt is also rlatd prformanc at both individual and organizational lvl (Fang, Chn, & Hung, 2008; Mowday, 1999). Principl 4 - Procss Approach: A dsird rsult is achivd mor fficintly whn activitis and rlatd rsourcs ar managd as a procss (Intrnational Organization of Standardization, 2011f). Hoyl (2009) stats that procss approach is about linking objctivs, activitis, rsourcs, and constraints. In addition, procss approach is xpctd to improv prformanc which is masurd by cost, rsults, and opportunitis (Intrnational Organization of Standardization, 2011c). Morovr, procss managmnt is positivly rlatd to invntory prformanc (Kaynak, 2003). Howvr, this study also shows that procss managmnt dos not dirctly affct quality prformanc. Thus, thr is mixd rsult of procss approach implmntation. Principl 5 - Systm Approach to Managmnt: Idntifying, undrstanding and managing intrrlatd procsss as a systm contributs to th organization s ffctivnss and fficincy in achiving its objctivs (Intrnational Organization of Standardization, 2011f). A systm can hav mor than on functions or procsss in an organization. It is important to rcogniz th intraction of among th functions or procsss bcaus changing on of thm can influnc or affct th othrs (Hoyl, 2009). Thus, systm approach mphasizs on th intractions of procsss. Principl 6 - Continual Improvmnt: Continual improvmnt of th organization s ovrall prformanc should b a prmannt objctiv of th organization (Intrnational Organization of Standardization, 2011f). Dming promots continual improvmnt in ordr to rduc variability in procss, srvic, and dsign (Evans & Lindsay, 2008) bcaus whn th variability incrass th quality dcrass (Montgomry, 2007, p. 6). PDCA cycl, dvlopd by Waltr Shwhart, provids 18

31 continuous improvmnt concpt. This cycl consists of four stags: plan, do, chck, and Act (Hizr, 2008). Cianfrani t al. (2009) illustrat ISO 9000 rquirmnts as continuous improvmnt loop in Figur 2-2. Plan is th procss of idntifying th improvmnt. Do is th procss of tsting th plan. Chck is th procss of assuring th plan works as intndd. Act is th implmntation of th plan. Thus, ISO 9000 rquirmnts mbodis PDCA (Plan, DO, Chck, Act) cycl (Rusjan & Alic, 2010) which rprsnt continuous improvmnt. Action Managmn t Rviw (5.6) Policy (5.3) Planning (5.4.2) (8.1) Plan Corrctiv Actions (8.5.2) & Prvntiv Action (8.5.3) Objctiv (5.4.1) Idntify Opportunitis (8.4 & 5.6) Masurs (8.2) Chck Analysis of Data (8.4) Data Collction (8.4) Do Figur 2-2: Continuous improvmnt loop and associatd ISO 9001:2008 clauss (adaptd from Cianfrani t al. (2009)) 19

32 Principl 7 - Factual Approach to Dcision Making: Effctiv dcisions ar basd on th analysis of data and information (Intrnational Organization of Standardization, 2011f). According to Dming (1986), quality can b improvd if it masurabl. Thus, it is important to collct data and information accuratly so that th procss of analyzing th data and information rsults in maningful in trms of linkag btwn ky masurs and businss prformanc (Evans & Lindsay, 2008). Statistical procss control, dsign of xprimnt and quality function dploymnt ar som of th quality tools to analyz and improv quality. Principl 8 - Mutually Bnficial Supplir Rlationships: An organization and its supplirs ar intrdpndnt and a mutually bnficial rlationship nhancs th ability of both to crat valu (Intrnational Organization of Standardization, 2011f). Establishing long-trm rlationship and minimizing th numbr of supplirs can improv th rlationship with th supplir (Kaynak, 2003). By having clos rlationship, ths partis can hav mor focus on solving quality problm. Morovr, Baird t al. (2011) argu that supply chain managmnt is positivly rlatd to invntory prformanc. Howvr, thir study shows that it dos not significantly rlatd to quality prformanc. Quality managmnt principls ar translatd into rquirmnts. Th succssfulnss of standards implmntation is rlatd to ISO 9000 policy and procdural knowldg (Russo, 1995). Policy and procdural knowldg has bn rportd to hav positiv rlationship with human rsourc prformancs that ar masurd by dcision making and problm solving (Nair, 2002). Krugr (1999) confirms that mploys policy and procdural knowldg ar rlatd to privat sctor organizational prformanc. ISO (2011b) provids th xpctations of implmnting ach of quality managmnt principls. 20

33 Th prformanc ralization framwork dsignd by Kim t al. (2011) suggsts that th ISO 9000 rquirmnts customization has to b alignd with th organizational goal and stratgy. Th purpos of customization is to hindranc mploy rsistanc and incompatibility with thir own systms. Thus, th ability to customiz th ISO 9000 rquirmnts rquirs undrstanding and knowldg of th quality managmnt principls. Th lvl of ISO 9000 policy and procdural knowldg and th ability to customiz th ISO 9000 rquirmnts to b alignd with th organizational stratgis and goals can b usd as masur indicators of quality managmnt principls. Th ight quality managmnt principls ar vry important for ducation institutions to adopt if thy want to improv thir quality. Thy ar vry important for ducation institutions bcaus of thir appropriatnss for quality ducation improvmnt. In fact, many Indonsian schools and univrsitis including vocational schools hav alrady implmntd thm. Howvr, ISO implmntation is still in a big challng. To som xtnt, th xprssion of what quality managmnt principls and quality cultur to b implmntd is th asy part. Th hard part is how to implmnt thm totally, consistntly, and passionatly. It is fully cognizant of complxity and divrsity whn it coms to ISO implmntation and in fact, dtaild implmntation is a big challng. Thus, rsarch on ISO is ndd in ordr to improv futur practics of ISO implmntation in vocational schools Quality Cultur Education or school improvmnt can utiliz rform approachs simultanously or sparatly i.. human rsourc, structural, political, fr markt conomic, and school cultur or 21

34 thos approachs (Dal, Ptrson, & Cntr, 1990). This sction dals with last on i.. cultural approach. In ducation, quality is conformanc to mission spcification and goal achivmnt within publicly accptd standards of accountability and intgrity (Bogu & Saundrs, 1992). Whil school cultur is dfind as bhavioral pattrns and valus, blifs, and norms that dfin and sustain thos pattrns (Dal t al., 1990). So, what is quality cultur, why quality cultur, what ar th lmnts of quality cultur, and how to chang xisting to dsird quality culturs, ar qustions that rquir clarification although school itslf lacks of clar quality thrshold as claimd by Lomax (1996). In trm of dfinition, quality cultur has bn formulatd diffrntly although thy ar mostly convrgnt in thir main maning. For xampl, although th dfinition dos not addrss quality dirctly, but Dal and Ptrson s dfinition of cultur (1990) is rlvant to prsnt hr. Thy dfin cultur as charactr as it rflcts dp pattrns of valus and blifs, and traditions that hav bn formd ovr th cours of its history. Cultur is also dfind by (Davis, 1984) as th pattrn of shard blifs and valus that giv th mmbrs of an institution maning and provid thm with th ruls for bhavior in thir organization. Although both dfinitions do not spcifically put th word quality, but thy ar rlatd to quality bcaus quality cultur also rlats to valus and blifs. Sashkin and Kisr (1993) dfin quality cultur as a crtain st of valus and blifs which tll us what is right and what is wrong in quality. Thy, furthr, divid quality cultur into ight lmnts, namly: (1) quality information must b usd for improvmnt, not to judg or control popl, (2) authority must b qual to rsponsibility, (3) thr must b rwards for rsults, (4) coopration, not comptition, must b th basis for working togthr, (5) mploys must hav scur jobs, (6) thr must b a climat of fairnss, (7) compnsation should b quitabl, and (8) mploys should hav 22

35 an ownrship stak. It is blivd that if organizations implmnt thos cultur lmnts, thir prformanc will improv. R. G. Lwis and Smith (1994) dvlop instrumnt of total quality cultur assssmnt masurd by nvironmnt, products and srvics, mthods, popl, organizational structur, and total quality mindst. This instrumnt is vry rlvant to my dissrtation bcaus it dals with ducation. Th quality cultur instrumnt is also vry comprhnsiv in natur and thrfor, it will b partly usd as instrumnt for this dissrtation. Evans and Lindsay (2008, p. 442) dfin cultur as an organization s valu systm and its collction of guiding principls. Basd on th litratur rviws rgarding quality managmnt principls (Evans & Lindsay, 2008; Hoyl, 2009; Kim t al., 2011), shard valus and commitmnt ar cratd. By crating ths cultural charactristics, popl can b motivatd to prform thir tasks (Hoyl, 2009). Howvr, solly rlying on motivation cannot achiv maximum task prformanc. Th ladr has important rol to stablish nvironmnt to allow th popl improv thir prformancs. In addition, customr focus also plays important rol to driv th ladr action and dcision. In ssnc, from th abov radings on quality cultur, it can b synthsizd that quality cultur is quality charactr as it rflcts dp pattrns of valus and blifs to commit to quality for customr. In this rsarch, it is blivd that quality cultur will hav significant influnc on vocational school administrator and tachr prformancs ISO 9000 in Education ISO 9000 has bn implmntd ovr th world, for xampl in privat schools in Thailand (Ayudhya, 2001), ducation systm in Hongkong (Chan & Lai, 2002), ducation systm in England 23

36 (T. Thonhausr & Passmor, 2006), public primary and scondary schools in Unitd Statd (Ba, 2007), and privat univrsity collg in Malaysia (Choon Boy Lim, 2008). Although ISO 9000 has bn implmntd world widly in manufacturing and non-manufacturing or srvic organizations, th implmntation of ISO in vocational ducation is considrd as nw. Currntly, thr ar only fw rsarchs that study th ISO implmntation in vocational ducation. According to a study conductd by Van dn Brgh (1997), factors that influnc th succssful ISO 9000 implmntation includ organization status of th school, an xisting quality policy, th stability of th school, an undrstanding of intrnal procss, th financial status of th school, a motivatd individual supporting ISO 9000 implmntation snior managmnt commitmnt, a limitd numbr of customrs and products, and th siz of th school. A study conductd by T. L. Thonhausr (2005) shows that th factors that ar rsultd in succssful ISO 9000 implmntation in ducation ar th managmnt rprsntativ, th organization status of institution bfor ISO 9000, and major projct changs during ISO 9000 implmntation. Th study shows that managmnt rprsntativ should b highly rgardd by othr school mmbrs. Th school should also b organizd or in stabl status bfor ISO 9000 implmntation. Th school should also hav prvious quality managmnt practics. Th school should also not hav othr projct changs during ISO 9000 implmntation. Manwhil, th ISO 9000 implmntation is difficult to apply, tim consuming and papr intnsiv, short trm implmntation, lack of information about ISO 9000, no prsonal involvmnt procss, difficulty undrstanding th languag and trms of th standard, and xpnsiv procss of implmntation (Bvans-Gonzals & Nair, 2004; Nair, 2002). Du to th xistnc dbats on th ffctivnss of ISO 9000 in ducation stting, it implis that thr is ssntial nd to study implmntation of ISO 9000 in vocational ducation. 24

37 2.3. Indonsian Education Systm Indonsian ducation is basd on Indonsia s 1945 Constitution i.., unity of th nation and social quity which ar xprssd in Indonsian nation stat philosophy, namly Pancasila (Panca = fiv; sila = principl). In vry brif, Pancasila mans that citizns of Indonsia bliv in th on and only God, striv toward just and civilizd humanity, ar committd to national unity, dmocracy guidd by th wisdom of unanimity arising from dlibrations, and social justic for all Indonsian citizns. Consquntly, th aim of Indonsian ducation systm is to dvlop studnt potntial fully in ordr to bliv in th on and only God, to b citizns who ar humanistic, halthy, strongly managd hard and soft scincs, smart, crativ, slf-supporting, and to b dmocratic and rsponsibl citizns as stipulatd in Law of Numbr 20 Yar 2003 on National Education Systm. To achiv th abov aim of ducation, Indonsian ducation is structurd as follows: six yars primary school, thr yars junior scondary school, thr yars snior scondary school dividd into two tracks namly gnral scondary and vocational scondary, and highr ducation dividd into two tracks namly acadmic and profssional. Figur 2-3 dpicts th structur of ducation in Indonsia, from primary up to highr ducation. As a sub-systm, vocational school is abov junior scondary school and undr highr ducation institution. Brif commnts on Indonsian ducation structur as sn in Figur 2-3 ar xplaind as follows. Six yars of primary school and thr yars of junior scondary school (it is now calld nin yars basic ducation) is compulsory for any citizn undr fiftn yars of ag. Thy must go to six yars of primary school and thr yars of junior scondary school and th govrnmnt will covr school financs. Aftr graduating from junior scondary school, studnts hav a choic to ithr to ntr gnral scondary school or vocational school. 25

38 Ag (Yar) Acadmic Track Ph.D. Mastr Undrgraduat (Bachlor) Profssional Track Supr Spcialist Spcialist Diploma 4 Diploma 3 Diploma Diploma 1 Gnral Scondary School Vocational School Junior Scondary School Primary School Figur 2-3: Structur of Education in Indonsia Likwis, aftr graduating from ithr gnral scondary school or vocational school, studnts also hav a choic; ithr pursus to highr ducation in acadmic track (univrsity to gt bachlor, mastr, and Ph. D dgr) or gos to profssional track (diploma 1, 2, 3, 4, spcialist, and supr spcialist) or thy dirctly go to work for som rasons not pursuing to highr ducation. In Indonsia, Islamic ducation, from primary school up to highr ducation, is vry strong and managd by Ministry of Rligious Affair. Although structurally thy ar undr Ministry of Rligious Affair, tchnically/acadmically, thy must follow norms, standards, procdurs, and critria dvlopd by Ministry of Education and Cultur. Sinc 1999, administrativly, xcpt Islamic ducation institutions, Indonsian ducation has bn dcntralizd to local govrnmnts, namly to provincs and districts. Indonsia consists of 33 provincs and 530 districts. Dcntralization of ducation is don through two typs of 26

39 dcntralization, namly d-concntration and dvolution. In d-concntration, th cntral govrnmnt (Ministry of National Education/MONE) disprss rsponsibility for crtain ducation srvics or it is simply shifting of workload from cntral govrnmnt to 33 provincs, but thy ar still guidd and suprvisd by cntral govrnmnt and thrfor it dos not involv transfr of authority. In dvolution, howvr, cntral govrnmnt (MONE) transfrs authority and rsponsibility to 530 districts on th managmnt of ducation, particularly primary and scondary ducation bcaus highr ducation is dirctly dcntralizd from MONE to highr ducation institutions and thy ar not undr provinc and district govrnmnt (Indonsia, 2004). Thus, at th prsnt tim, vocational school is administrativly undr th authority and rsponsibility of district govrnmnt, and MONE has only indirct control ovr such 530 districts Vocational School as a Sub-Systm As a subsystm of Indonsian national ducation systm, vocational ducation (hraftr vocational school is usd intrchangably with vocational ducation) offrs divrs programs such as agricultur, husbandry, halth, hotls and tourism, arts and handicrafts, businss and commrc, and industry. Vocational ducation plays vry important rols in conomic dvlopmnt. Study conductd by UNESCO-UNEVOC (2006) found that th highr th GDP pr capita, th highr th prcntag of tchnical/vocational nrollmnt PTVE) whr PTVE is participation of tchnical and vocational ducation or th numbr of studnts nrolld in tchnical/vocational programs at a givn lvl of ducation as a prcntag of th total numbr of studnts nrolld in all programs (tchnical/vocational and gnral) at that lvl. In Indonsia, study conductd by Dirctorat of Vocational Education (2008) concludd that thr was positiv corrlation btwn th numbr of 27

40 vocational school studnts and product domstic rgional bruto (PDRB) and conomic growth. Th mor vocational school studnts wr, th highr PDRB and conomic growth wr. Ths two studis wr consistntly supportd by rsarch finding that all countris invst in tchnicalvocational ducation and training, in fact, corrlations indicat that th highr th lvl of country incom, gnrally th highr th proportion of studnts nrolld in tchnical/vocational ducation and training institutions (Asian Dvlopmn Bank, 2008). On th basis of ths studis, Dirctorat of Vocational Education is planning to incras th proportion btwn th numbr of vocational scondary school studnts and gnral scondary school studnts from 30%:70% in 2005 to 70%:30% in 2014 (Dirctorat of Vocational Education, 2010). Howvr, raising quality of vocational ducation is a big challng bcaus of its complxity, divrsity, shr numbr of popl involvd (mor than thr millions of studnts, mor than fiv hundrd thousand of tachrs) and a far flung organization throughout Indonsia. Th xisting vocational ducation sub-systm xhibit a grat amount of inrtia, albit that th privat sctor rspons is gnrally fastr than th public sctor rspons (Djojongoro, 1996). In addition, vocational school subsystms tnd to focus on formal training gard toward wag mploymnt which may absorb only a minority of thos ntring labor markt (Asian Dvlopmnt Bank, 2009). This is du to lack of link and match btwn vocational schools and th world of work. Thus, it must b fully cognizant of complxity and divrsity whn sking improvmnt in vocational ducation (Djojongoro, 1994). In 2007, Dirctorat of Vocational Education (Dirctorat of Vocational Education, 2007), Ministry of National Education, th Rpublic of Indonsia slctd 300 from 8,399 vocational schools dsignatd as pilot for dvloping world class vocational school (WCS). Th stablishmnt of WCS was actually to rspond two things, th law mandat and globalization challngs. Th Law 28

41 Numbr 20 Yar 2003 (Indonsia, 2003) on National Education Systm, Articl 50, vrs (3) mandat that cntral govrnmnt and/or local govrnmnt stablish at last on WCS in all lvls of ducation. Globalization challngs ar charactrizd by tight comptition among countris rquiring profssional and skilld human rsourcs as on of th most important assts, shrinking distancs among countris causing no gap in information du to information tchnology, and pac of chang bcoms fastr and fastr. Globalization challngs rquir high quality of human rsourcs and WCS ar assignd to prpar thm. All dsignatd 300 world class vocational schools hav bn implmnting ISO, which mans, hav bn implmnting quality managmnt principls and quality cultur. But th qustion is how strong do ISO and quality cultur influnc vocational school administrator and tachr prformanc? Th hypothtical answr will b xplord aftr rviws of litraturs, whil th ral answr will b found from data collction and data analysis World Class School Dvlopmnt to Dat Th objctiv of this writing is to dscrib at glanc th dvlopmnt of world-class schools (WCS) in Indonsia. In ordr to achiv this, th following will discuss brifly about background, maning, xpctd long-trm objctiv, WCS and its indicators, fforts undrtakn, and challngs that li ahad in dvloping WCS Background Why WCS? Th Education Law Numbr 20 Yar 2003 on National Education Systm, Articl 50 vrs (3) mandats that Govrnmnt and/or local govrnmnt must dvlop at last on school to b world class school at all school lvls. In addition, globalization has cratd tight 29

42 comptition among countris rquiring high quality of comptitiv factors such as human rsourcs, managmnt, and tchnology. WCS was initiatd to crat high quality of human rsourcs capabl of compting with othr countris in global ra. Th initiation of WCS was startd in 2002 with two primary schools and two junior scondary schools namd as coalition schools with th intntion to hav information and idas xchangs among schools in ASEAN countris (SEAMEO). In 2003, vry provinc was pointd to hav on coalition school totaling 31 for primary and junior high schools. In 2005, taching Math and Scinc in English was introducd in thos schools, and in 2006, thos schools wr appointd as WCS and som snior gnral and vocational high schools startd joining to bcom WCS Dfinition of World Class School What is th maning of World Class School (WCS)? WCS is a school which has alrady fulfilld Indonsian National Standard of Education (NSE) plus X, whr X is a widning and/or dpning to NSE. In a complt formula, WCS can b formulatd as follow: Tabl 2-1: Concpt of WCS WCS= NSE + X Schools NSE X WCS PS NSE 1, 2, 3 WCS JSS NSE + 1, 2, 3 WCS SSS NSE 1, 2, 3, 4 WCS VS NSE 1, 2, 3, 4 Nots:1 = Widning/dpning of 8 componnts of NSE 2 = ICT (Information Communication Tchnology 3 = Forign languag (mainly English) 4 = Cross cultur undrstanding PS = Primary School SSS = Snior Scondary School 30

43 VS = Vocational School JSS = junior Scondary School NSE has ight main componnts standards, namly: graduat comptncy, curriculum, taching-larning procss, tachr and othr school prsonnl, school facilitis, school funding, school managmnt, and studnt assssmnt. X is sought through bnchmarking with school standards in othr countris, particularly dvlopd countris. If NSE is lowr than school standards from dvlopd countris, thn X (widning and/or dpning to NSE) should b addd. If NSE is th sam as or vn highr than othr school standards from dvlopd countris, non is addd to NSE. In addition, WCS may us English languag as a mans in taching-larning procss, starting from grad 5. ICT us is also applid in WCS, for xampl in taching-larning procss, library, and administration. For dtail of WCS formula in ach of ight componnt standard, s Guidlins on Quality Assuranc for WCS producd by Ministry of National Education (2007a) and th Rgulation of Ministry of National Education Numbr 78 yar 2009(Ministry of National Education, 2009) on World Class School (Skolah Brtaraf Intrnasional or SBI for Indonsian short trm) Critria of World Class and its Indicators WCS = NSE + X. Som componnts of NSE ar drivd into sub-standards. For xampl, tachr may b sub-standardizd into primary school tachr, junior high school tachr, gnral snior high school tachr, and vocational snior high school tachr. School facility, for xampl, is also sub-standardizd into gnral school and vocational school facility standards. Th complt indicators for ach WCS critria can b sn from Guidlins on Quality Assuranc for WCS producd by Ministry of National Education (2007a) and th Rgulation of 31

44 Ministry of National Education Numbr (Ministry of National Education, 2009)78 yar 2009 on World Class School. Th followings ar slctd critria of WCS adaptd from thos two important documnts, s Tabl 2-2. Tabl 2-2: Slctd Critria for WCS Critria Indicators NSE All 8 NSE componnts fulfilld Graduats NSE fulfilld, intrnational tsts, intrnational Olympiads, work opportunity for vocational school graduats Accrditation A (>95) Curriculum NSE widnd/dpnd from school standards in dvlopd countris Taching-larning procss NSE widnd/dpnd from school standards in dvlopd countris, us English, us ICT Tachrs NSE widnd/dpnd from school standards in dvlopd countris: Primary School >10%, Junior Scondary >20%, Snior Scondary > 30% of Mastrs /Doctor Dgr, abl to tach in English, us ICT School administrator (had NSE widnd/dpnd from school standards in mastr) dvlopd countris, good English communication, and us ICT School facility NSE widnd/dpnd from school standards in dvlopd countris, ICT bas, ISO Financing NSE widnd/dpnd from school standards in dvlopd countris, allowd to gt school f from studnts basd on SDP, cross- subsidy to poor studnts School Managmnt NSE widnd/dpnd from school standards in dvlopd countris, ISO 9001, ISO Studnt Assssmnt NSE widnd/dpnd from school valuation standards in dvlopd countris School Cultur Coopration Establishd larning community in school NSE widnd/dpnd from school standards in dvlopd countris (acadmics) Expctd Long-Trm Objctiv Th xpctd long-trm objctiv of WCS is to hav Indonsian schools having high intrnational comptitivnss as masurd by quality in trms of th aformntiond ight standards 32

45 (NSE) plus X. In practic, for xampl, th Indonsian WCS quality may b masurd by intrnational tsts on hard scincs such as mathmatics, physics, chmist, biology, tchnology, and by intrnational Olympiads in thos subjct mattrs Efforts Undrtakn and Rsults Thr hav bn a lot of fforts undrtakn by Ministry of National Education (MONE) in dvloping WCS, both inputs and activitis. In trms of inputs, MONE has providd Guidlins on Quality Assuranc for WCS producd by Ministry of National Education (2007a), Rgulation of Ministry of National Education Numbr 78 (Ministry of National Education, 2009)yar 2009 on World Class School, WCS critria, WCS oprational guidlins, monitoring and valuation instrumnts, larning matrials, larning mdia, school facilitis, and school block grant to financ WCS. In trms of activitis, MONE has traind tachrs, school administrators, and school committs, domstically and intrnationally. WCS hav bn traind to produc school dvlopmnt plan (SDP), both stratgic and oprational. Thy hav alrady implmntd SDP, rsults valuatd annually, and basd on valuation rflction, WCS improvs SDP for futur activitis. From 2006 up to 2009, thr had bn 1,110 WCS dvlopd. Du to socity criticisms (too xpnsiv, cration of litist schools, tc.), MONE dos not intnd to add mor WCS, at last for th tim bing Vocational School Administrator and Tachr Prformancs Quality can b improvd if it is masurabl (Dming, 1986). In srvic industry such as in hotl (Hartlin & Jons, 1996) and halth car (Andalb, 2001), mploy prformancs influnc 33

46 customr prcption of quality and valu. Furthrmor, th prcivd srvic quality lads to customr satisfaction in halth car contxt (Bowrs, Swan, & Kohlr, 1994; Choi, Cho, L, L, & Kim, 2004; L & Yom, 2007). It is a challng to assss objctivly th dgr of ISO 9000 implmntation in ducation contxt. In addition, valus and blifs driv norms and bhaviors. Thus, this study rlis on survy that masurs th rspondnts prcption. Hnc, this study applis a slf-rportd survy basd prformanc masurmnt. Thr ar studis that show no rlationship btwn ISO 9000 implmntation and organizational prformanc bcaus thr is a factor, such as motivation, that influncs th lvl of prformanc (Singls, Rul, & Van d Watr, 2001). Thir study masurs organizational prformanc using indicators consisting of production procss, company rsult, customr satisfaction, prsonnl motivation, and invstmnt on mans. Diffrnt rsarchrs us diffrnt indicators to masur organization prformancs (Talib t al., 2010). Huarng, Horng, and Chn (1999) us quality, cost, sals, and intrnationalization as prformanc indicators. Indicators that masur quality dimnsions vary in srvic organizations bcaus of human bhavior and prcption complxity involvd in diffrnt srvic organization sttings (Mahapatra & Khan, 2007). Thrfor, th prformanc masurmnt indicators nd to b rlvant to organization sttings and rflct organization goals. Th most complt indicators that masur th prformanc of vocational administrator and tachr hav bn dvlopd by Gphart and t al. (1975) 34

47 Vocational School Administrator Prformanc Top managmnt has important rols in planning quality managmnt systm bcaus it is th top managmnt who undrstands th ovrall organization s objctivs, quality objctivs, organizational stratgis, currnt rsults, businss risks and opportunitis (Cianfrani t al., 2009). Thus, th school principal plays a rol as th top managr in vocational school stting. Vocational school administrator prformanc is dfind as quality procss usd and product dvlopd by vocational school administrator whn prforming his/hr dutis and tasks. Radings on vocational school administrator prformanc may b statd in diffrnt ways but thy ar mor likly showing similarity than dissimilarity. For xampl, National Cntr for Rsarch in Vocational Education or NCRVE for short (Ohio Stat Univ, 1983) formulatd vocational School administrator prformanc consists of th following four dimnsions: (1) a task dimnsion, (2) a procss dimnsion, (3) an nvironmntal dimnsion, and (4) a prsonal skills dimnsion. Th task dimnsion dscribs what a school administrator has to dal with. Gphart and t al. (1975, p. 55) idntifid th following broad aras of rsponsibility that typify th rols of school administrators: school dvlopmnt planning, instructional managmnt, prsonnl managmnt, studnt managmnt, school facility managmnt, financial managmnt, school-community rlations, instructional ladrship and school cultur dvlopmnt, profssional dvlopmnt, and suprvision/monitoring and valuation. Th procss dimnsion dscribs how vocational school administrator prforms th abov various tasks through various activitis such as dcision making, programming, motivating, valuating, and coordinating. Thos procsss dscrib major actions takn by vocational school administrator to prform tasks that ar alrady idntifid arlir. 35

48 Th nvironmntal dimnsion dals with nvironmnt whr, whn, with whom, and styl of lif vocational school administrator works. Although th tasks and procsss of vocational school administrator may b similar across th country, but diffrnt nvironmnt rquirs diffrnt styl of ladrship. Diffrnt tim, popl, cultur, and buraucratic structurs ar such xampls that may influnc th work of vocational school administrator. Th prsonal skills dimnsion also influnc th prformanc of vocational school administrator. Diffrnt popl hav diffrnt styls and skills with thm as thy fulfill thir rols. Prsonal skills such as slf-disciplin, prsonal rlationship, rsponsibility, sociability, spaking, listning, tolranc, mpathy, honsty, and intgrity strongly influnc th prformanc of vocational school administrator. Anothr diffrnt dscription of vocational school administrator prformanc but thy ar likly similar is th nactmnt of Ministry of National Education Rgulation, Rpublic of Indonsia, Numbr 13 Yar 2007 (Ministry of National Education, 2007c) on Standard of School Administrator. Th rgulation idntifis four major comptncis that must b prformd by school administrator: good prsonal skills, managrial skills, ntrprnurial skills, suprvisory skills, and social skills. Vocational school administrators ar valuatd on th basis of thos four dimnsions of skills. Focusing on school managmnt, Ministry of National Education Rgulation, Rpublic of Indonsia Numbr 19 Yar 2007(Ministry of National Education, 2007b) on Standard of School Managmnt stats that any school administrator must prform th following school managmnt skills: school dvlopmnt plan (vision, mission, objctivs, school work plan), xcution of school dvlopmnt plan (school guidlins, school organization structur, school activitis implmntation, studnt managmnt, curriculum and instruction managmnt, prsonnl 36

49 managmnt, facility managmnt, businss and financial managmnt, school cultur and nvironmnt, school community rlationship), suprvision and valuation (suprvision program, school slf-valuation, valuation and dvlopmnt of dcntralizd school curriculum, valuation of prsonnl, and school accrditation), ladrship, managmnt information systm, and spcial assssmnt for schools byond standard. Ministry of National Education Rgulation, Rpublic of Indonsia, Numbr 28 Yar 2010 on Assigning Tachr (Ministry of National Education, 2010a) as a School Administrator stipulats that school administrator prformanc is valuatd in thr dimnsions: (1) fforts to dvlop school, (2) improvd quality basd on ight national ducation standards (graduat comptncy, curriculum, taching-larning procss, school prsonnl, school facilitis, financ, school managmnt, and valuation), and (3) slf-profssional dvlopmnt Vocational School Tachr Prformanc Vocational school tachr prformanc is dfind as quality procss usd and product dvlopd by vocational school tachr whn prforming his/hr dutis and tasks. Radings from vocational school tachr prformanc vary slightly in thir dscriptions, but thy show mor similarity than dissimilarity. Howvr, th formulation of vocational school tachr prformanc formulatd by National Cntr for Rsarch in Vocational Education (NCRVE for short) is th most complt on. For xampl, th Ministry of National Education Rgulation, Rpublic of Indonsia Numbr 16 Yar 2007 on (Ministry of National Education, 2007d)stipulats that any tachr must b abl to prform th following comptncis: pdagogical comptncy, prsonal comptncy, social comptncy, and profssional comptncy. Dtail dscription for ach tachr comptncy is 37

50 availabl in that rgulation, but spcific charactristics for vocational tachr comptncis ar not clar. Th abov aspcts of vocational tachr prformanc ar comprhnsiv and thos aspcts ar for both gnral snior scondary and vocational tachrs, but not spcifically dsignd for vocational tachrs. Lack of spcificity for vocational tachrs is its waknss. Th National Cntr for Rsarch in Vocational Education (1983) locatd in Ohio Stat Univrsity formulatd vocational school tachr prformanc consists of th following dimnsions: instructional planning, instructional xcution, instructional valuation, instructional managmnt, vocational guidanc, vocational studnt organization, school-community rlations (coordination with businss, industry, labor, govrnmnt, tc.), and profssional dvlopmnt. In thir dscriptions, all thos tachr prformancs ar contxtually rlatd to vocational schools. Thus, th prformanc dimnsions which ar formulatd by NCRVE ar mor appropriat for masuring vocational school tachr prformanc Litratur Gap ISO 9000 has bn implmntd world widly in manufacturing and srvic organizations. Th litraturs rviws show that thr ar mixd rsults in implmnting ISO. Furthrmor, thr ar limitd studis that invstigat th ffcts of ISO on vocational administrator and tachrs prformancs. Most of th ISO implmntation studis invstigat its ffcts on organizational prformanc lvl. Only fw studis hav attmpts to invstigat its ffcts on individual prformanc lvl, spcially in vocational ducation. In addition, most studis also us diffrnt 38

51 dimnsions or indicators to masur a variabl or factor. Thus, it is important to us indicators that ar rlvant to th typ of managmnt practics and organizations bing studid. It is a challng to assss objctivly th dgr of ISO 9000 implmntation in ducation contxt. Thus, thr is a nd to clarify th ffctivnss of ISO implmntation on ducation stting particularly on vocational ducation in Indonsia. Tabl 2-3 summarizs study rsults of rlationships btwn ISO implmntation and various prformanc masurs and Tabl 2-4 idntifis th nd for this rsarch and how th dvlopd modl has rspondd to fill-in th gap on ndd knowldg in this spcific ara of concrn. 39

52 Tabl 2-3: Litratur Summary Author Bnnr and Vloso (2008) Corbtt t al. (2005) Singl ISO Dimnsion Multi QM Non- QM Prformanc lvl Masur Organization Typ Dirctionality Rlationship Significant Rsult Organization Individual M S/E Dirct Indirct Ys No Singl Financial M Dirct Ys Sharma (2005) Singl Financial M S Dirct Ys Navh and Businss & Singl M S Dirct Ys Marcus (2004) Opration Non- Nair (2002) Individual E Dirct Ys QM Singls & Singl Organization M S Dirct No Watr (2001) Van dn Brgh (1997) Kuncoro (2013) Non- QM Organization E Dirct Ys QM Individual E Dirct Indirct Ys Nots: QM: Quality Managmnt S: Srvic E: Education 40

53 Tabl 2-4: Litratur Gap Summary Prformanc Organization Dirctionality Significant ISO Dimnsion Author lvl Masur Typ Rlationship Rsult? MULTI? QM? Individual? EDUCATION? Y/N Y/N Bnnr and Vloso (2008) N N N N N Y Corbtt t al. (2005) Sharma (2005) N N N N N Y Navh and Marcus Y N N N N N (2004) Nair (2002) Y N Y Y N Y Singls & Watr N N N N Y N (2001) Van dn Brgh (1997) Y N N Y N Y Kuncoro (2013) Y Y Y Y Y Y Nots: QM: Quality Managmnt Y: Ys N: No 41

54 CHAPTER 3: VARIABLES AND RESEARCH HYPOTHESES Building on th findings from th rviw of litratur that is prsntd in Chaptr two, th instrumnts that ar dsignd to masur th rlationships btwn ISO quality managmnt principls, quality cultur, and vocational school administrator and tachr prformanc ar dsignd. Th factors that dfin th implmntation of ISO quality managmnt principls, quality cultur, vocational school administrator and tachr prformanc nd to b masurd. Howvr, ths factors, rfrrd as constructs or latnt variabls, cannot b dirctly masurd. Thrfor, latnt variabls nd to b masurd by mor than on indicator or obsrvd variabl (Tabachnick & Fidll, 2007) Variabls ISO Quality Managmnt Principls ISO 9001 rquirmnts ar dvlopd basd on ight quality managmnt principls (Intrnational Organization of Standardization, 2011f). Ths ight quality managmnt principls ar customr focus, ladrship, involvmnt of popl, procss approach, systm approach to managmnt, continual improvmnt, factual approach to dcision making, and mutually bnficial supplir rlationship. Thus, ths ight quality managmnt principls rprsnt th obsrvd variabls that masur th xtnt of th implmntation of ISO quality managmnt principls. Th ISO Quality Managmnt Principls construct is prsntd graphically in Figur

55 Customr Focus Ladrship Involvmnt of Popl Mutual Bnficial Supplir Rlationship ISO Quality Managmnt Principls Procss Approach Factual Approach to Dcision Making Continual Improvmnt Systm Approach to Managmnt Figur 3-1: Quality Managmnt Principls Appndix A provids dtails masurmnt variabls that masur ach of ISO quality managmnt principls Quality Cultur An organization rquirs social chang in ordr to achiv total quality, spcially in ducation (R. G. Lwis & Smith, 1994). Quality cultur, as an aspct of social systm, cannot b masurd dirctly. Thr ar six componnts that nd to b addrssd in ordr to chang cultur that lads to quality-drivn organization (R. G. Lwis & Smith, 1994). Ths quality cultur componnts includ nvironmnt, product or srvic, mthods, popl, organizational structur, and mindst of total quality improvmnt. Sashkin and Kisr (1993) divid quality cultur into ight lmnts that ar prsntd in Chaptr Two. All of ths lmnts ar includd as quality cultur componnts prsntd by R. G. Lwis and Smith (1994), which rprsnt comprhnsiv obsrvd variabls to masur quality 43

56 cultur. Th complt brakdown of ths obsrvd variabls ar prsntd in Appndix A. Th quality cultur construct is prsntd graphically in Figur 3-2. Environmnt Product and Srvics Mthods Quality Cultur of Organization Total Quality Mindst Organizational Structur Popl Figur 3-2: Quality Cultur of Organization Vocational School Administrator and Tachr Prformanc Chaptr two discusss vocational school administrator and tachr prformanc dimnsions providd by National Cntr for Rsarch in Vocational Education (1983), Gphart and t al. (1975, p. 55), and Ministry of National Education Rgulation (2007). Among ths radings, NCRVE (1983) provids comprhnsiv administrator and tachr prformanc dimnsions, which will b usd as obsrvd variabls. Th vocation school administrator and tachr prformanc constructs ar assssd by masuring factors such as school dvlopmnt planning, instructional managmnt, prsonnl managmnt, studnt managmnt, school facility managmnt, school-community rlations, instructional ladrship and school cultur dvlopmnt, profssional dvlopmnt, and suprvision and valuation. 44

57 Th vocational school tachr prformanc can b assssd through masurs of instruction planning, instructional xcution, instructional valuation, instructional managmnt, vocational guidanc, vocational studnt organization, school-community rlations, and profssional dvlopmnt Rlationships btwn variabls Effcts of ISO Quality Managmnt Principls on School Administrator and Tachr Rsarch findings on th ffcts of ISO 9001:2008 on vocational school administrator and tachr prformancs in Indonsia ar vry limitd, and in fact, national studis on thm ar vn non. My national study will b pionring on and it is hopd to provid inputs to stakholdrs in vocational ducation at th national, provincial, district, and school lvls. Thr ar, howvr, rsarchs which ar conductd by scholars in othr countris on ISO and TQM but do not dirctly addrss thir ffcts on vocational school administrator and tachr prformancs. Th rsarch findings on th ffcts of ISO on organization prformanc ar, howvr, still contradictiv. For xampl, (Dal, van dr Wil, & van Iwaardn, 2007) claim that TQM is on of th most powrful crators of sals and rvnu growth, gnuinly good nw jobs, and soundly basd and sustainabl businss xpansion (Dal t al., 2007, p. 3). Othr rsarchrs (Huarng & Chn, 2002) found that TQM has positiv influnc on work motivation of mploys, improvs mploys job satisfaction, rduc intrst to job transfr, rduc cost and improv businss prformanc, improv managmnt prformanc, and improv human rsourc quality. In Indonsia, thr ar limitd rsarchs on ISO and TQM, but thy addrss only in small scal and ar limitd to th intrnalization of TQM application, implmntation of TQM in highr 45

58 ducation institution, and non of thm addrsss th ffcts of ISO on vocational school administrator and tachr prformanc national. For xampl, Suryadi (2003) found that if TQM valus wr to b implmntd in Atma Jaya Univrsity of Yogyakarta City in Indonsia, th majority of univrsity administrators and facultis accptd thm vry wll, but thy lack of capacity if th univrsity is going to implmnt TQM. In short, thr hav bn rsarchs on ISO implmntation in svral organizations, but thy found that th ffcts of ISO on organization prformanc ar still mix. In addition, non of thm addrsss th ffcts of ISO on ducation organization prformanc, particularly on vocational ducation prformanc of school administrators and tachrs. Thus, th ffct of ISO quality managmnt principls on vocational school administrator and tachr prformanc is assssd by tsting th following hypothss, which is also prsntd graphically in Figur 3-3 H01: ISO 9001:2008 has no ffct on vocational school administrator prformanc. H02: ISO 9001:2008 has no ffct on vocational school tachr prformanc. ISO Quality Managmnt Principls School Administrator Prformanc School Tachr Prformanc Figur 3-3: Effct of ISO 9001 on Prformancs of School Human Rsourcs 46

59 Effcts of Administrator Prformanc on Tachr Prformanc Basd on th administrator prformanc dimnsions dfind in th litratur rviw, an administrator ngag and communicats with th tachrs by implmnting policis, managrial actions, ladrship styls, tc. Most of ths intractions involv tachrs to prform thir job. Thus, th ffct of vocational school administrator on tachr prformanc is assssd by tsting th following hypothss, which is also prsntd graphically in Figur 3-4. H03: Vocational school administrator prformanc has no ffct on vocational school tachr prformanc. School Administrator Prformanc School Tachr Prformanc Figur 3-4: Effct of Administrator Prformanc on Tachr Prformanc Effcts of Quality Managmnt Principls on Quality Cultur In ordr to implmnt nw managmnt practic (.g. ISO 9000, total quality managmnt, Malcolm Baldrig), changs in organization s cultur is ncssary (Dming, 1986; Lakh & Mohanty, 1994) bcaus it will affct th mploys valu and blifs (Nahm, Vondrmbs, & Kouftros, 2004; Ngowi, 2000) which thn affcts activitis, attituds, bhaviors (Elçi, Ki, & Ertürk, 2007). Howvr, th organizational popl may rspond th changs by showing supportiv or rsistant bhaviors and attituds (Lamm & Gordon, 2010). Grumdahl (2010) stats that changs in organizational cultur can affct policy, dcisions, and bhaviors. According to (Carlsson & 47

60 Carlsson, 1996), implmnting ISO involvs communication and xchangs of information which rsult in changs of organization cultur. Th individuals rsponss toward organization changs ar du to th important rol of valu in driving and motivating individual s commitmnt, dcision and action (Kouzs & Posnr, 2003; Sullivan, Sullivan, & Buffton, 2001). Howvr, individuals and organization may hav diffrnt valus. It is also possibl that organization or individuals hav not wll clarifid thir valus. Th ladr plays important rol to clarify, align and shar valu btwn individuals and organization bcaus aligning and sharing valus btwn individuals and organization rsult in significant positiv attitud and work prformanc (Evans & Lindsay, 2008; Hutchins, 1997; Kouzs & Posnr, 2003). Thus, th ffct of ISO quality managmnt principls on quality cultur is assssd by tsting th following hypothsis, which is prsntd graphically in Figur 3-5. H04: ISO 9001:2008 has no ffcts on quality cultur. ISO Quality Managmnt Principls Quality Cultur Figur 3-5: Effct of ISO 9001 on Quality Cultur Effcts of Quality Cultur on School Administrator and Tachr Prformancs Quality managmnt principls implmntation dos not dirctly affct individual job prformanc. Stashvsky and Elizur (2000) show that applying quality managmnt principls and 48

61 participat in dcision making lad to improvmnt ffort which thn affcts individual job prformanc. Kaynak (2003) includs ladrship, training, mploy managmnt, information and analysis, supplir managmnt, procss managmnt, customr focus, and continuous improvmnt as total quality practics. Total quality practics that includ almost all of th ISO quality managmnt principls ar positivly rlatd to mploy prformanc (Kaynak, 2003). Howvr, total quality practics do not dirctly affct th mploy prformanc. According to Kaynak (2003), total quality practics crat quality cultur that motivats th mploy to improv thir prformanc. Although it may not b as clar as how cultur can affct quality, cultur plays an important rol in shaping quality today (Arnold & Hollr, 1995). Cultur is rcognizd as on of th important factors to improv organization prformanc. As Sashkin and Kisr (1993) claim that, if organizations implmnt th aformntiond ight cultur lmnts, thir organization prformanc will improv. In fact, whn Unitd Stats of Amrica was undr th administration of Prsidnt Gorg Bush, h implmntd TQM at Fdral Govrnmnt, but h rmindd us that, to achiv TQM succssfully rquirs th stablishmnt of cultural shift within an organization aimd at making th nw cultur mor participativ (F. L. Lwis & (U.S.), 1991). Although h did not xplicitly mntion quality cultur and only mntiond nw cultur, h implicitly advocatd quality cultur as an important factor in TQM. Th influnc of cultur on organization prformanc is rcognizd by Intrnational Labor Offic and Asian Productivity Organization (Prokopnko & North, 1997) as follows: Productivity cultur, as a cor philosophy of an organization, shaps bhaviors, valus and pattrns of work. It sts th goals of a company as gnrating mor valu from availabl rsourcs, srving customrs nds, dvloping harmonious working rlationships btwn 49

62 managmnt and labor, and sharing th fruits of productivity improvmnt fairly with customrs, workrs, managrs and invstors. Its ultimat objctiv is to improv th quality of working lif and th quality of lif itslf. Th abov quotation clarly informs any organization including vocational school, that cultur is not only important for an organization, but it is part of organization lif and in fact, it is th soul of organization. Wilkins and Ouchi (1983) stat that organizational cultur has significant ffct on ovrall organizational prformancs. Thus, cultur is abl to dirct and influnc organization prformanc, including vocational school, whr school administrator and tachr prformanc is part of it. Elçi t al. (2007) confirm that quality cultur is positivly associatd with job prformanc. R. G. Lwis and Smith (1994) vn offr stps to transform th xisting cultur into quality cultur as follows: changs in systm and structurs, actions, rols, bhaviors, attituds, norms, valus, and finally to quality cultur. Elçi t al. (2007) confirm that quality cultur is positivly associatd with job prformanc. Although th abov radings do not spcifically addrss th ffcts of ISO on vocational school administrator and tachr prformancs, thy provid lssons larnd and dirctions that, quality cultur may affct organization prformanc, including vocational school prformanc, whr administrator and tachr prformanc is part of it. Thus, th ffct of quality cultur on vocational school administrator and tachr prformanc is assssd by tsting th following hypothss which ar prsntd graphically in Figur 3-6. H05: Quality cultur has no ffcts on vocational school administrator prformanc. H06: Quality cultur has no ffcts on vocational school tachr prformanc. 50

63 School Administrator Prformanc Quality Cultur School Tachr Prformanc Figur 3-6: Effct of Quality Cultur on Vocational School Human Rsourcs 3.3. Rsarch Hypothss Basd on rviw of rlatd litraturs, th main rsarch qustion: Dos ISO 9001:2008 implmntation hav ffcts on th prformancs of vocational school administrators and tachr? can b answrd by tsting th following six hypothss as follows: 1. ISO 9001:2008 has no ffct on vocational school administrator prformanc. 2. ISO 9001:2008 has no ffct on vocational school tachr prformanc. 3. Vocational school administrator prformanc has no ffct on vocational school tachr prformanc 4. ISO 9001:2008 has no ffct on quality cultur 5. Quality cultur has no ffct on vocational school administrator prformanc. 6. Quality cultur has no ffct on vocational school tachr prformanc. 51

64 All of ths hypothss can b prsntd in Figur 3-7. ISO Quality Managmnt Principls H02 H01 H04 School Administrator Prformanc H03 School Tachr Prformanc H05 Quality Cultur H06 Figur 3-7: Concptual Modl 52

65 CHAPTER 4: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Th concptual modl dvlopd in chaptr thr nds to b assssd in ordr to valuat th hypothsizd rlationships btwn th diffrnt constructs; ISO, Quality Cultur, Prformancs of Vocational Administrator and Tachr. Structural quation modling was slctd to assss ths rlationships. This chaptr prsnts th us of structural quation modling in this study in assssing th hypothsizd rlationships btwn th diffrnt constructs; ISO, Quality Cultur, Prformancs of Vocational Administrator and Tachr Modl Spcification Th concptual modl, consisting of intrrlatd latnt variabls or constructs that nd to b xamind, can b illustratd graphically by a path diagram. Sinc th constructs cannot b masurd dirctly, a masurmnt modl for ach of th constructs nd to b dvlopd in ordr to masur th constructs. Thus, path diagram consists of two modls, th structural modl, which dscribs th rlationships btwn th constructs, and th masurmnt modls, which dscribs th rlationships btwn th constructs and thir indicators. Thr ar two diffrnt typs of masurmnt modls in trms of th rlationship btwn th constructs and thir indicators. Ths two masurmnt typs consist of rflctiv and formativ masurmnt modls. In a rflctiv modl, th construct causs th indicators (Diamantopoulos & Winklhofr, 2001) and xplains th indicators (Fornll & Bookstin, 1982). In addition, th indicators ar highly corrlatd (Chin, 1998), and mutually intrchangabl (Jarvis, MacKnzi, & Podsakoff, 2003). Whras in a formativ modl, th indicators influnc th construct (Diamantopoulos & Winklhofr, 2001) maning that ach of th indicators has diffrnt dimnsions 53

66 to form a construct (Fornll & Bookstin, 1982). Thus, ths indicators ar not mutually intrchangabl (Jarvis t al., 2003). It is important to spcify th typ of th masurmnt modl bcaus it will affct th modl stimations. Figur 4-1 illustrats ths two diffrnt typs of masurmnts in a structural modl. In structural modl, th circl, squar, and arrows rprsnt th construct, indicator, and squntial rlationship, rspctivly. Construct η r β r Construct η f ζ λ y1 λ y2 γ x1 γ x2 Indicator y 1 Indicator y 2 Indicator x 1 Indicator x (a) Rflctiv modl (b) Formativ modl Figur 4-1: Rflctiv and Formativ in a Structural Modl In Figur 4-1 (a), th rlationship btwn th construct and th indicator is rflctiv. Th construct xplains th indicators. Whras in Figur 4-1(b), th rlationship btwn th construct is formativ. Th indicators influnc th construct. Ths modl can also b writtn diffrntly in mathmatical trms as th following quations. y 1 = y1 r + 1 (1) 54

67 y 2 = y2 r + 2 (2) f = r β r + γ x1 x 1 + γ x2 x 2 + ζ (3) whr: y i is indicator of ndognous variabl i in rflctiv modl yi is th loadings of indicator y i in rflctiv modl r is th latnt construct variabl r scors or valus in rflctiv modl I is th masurmnt rror of indicator i in rflctiv modl x i is indicator of ndognous variabl I in formativ modl γ xi is th wights of indicator x i in formativ modl f is th latnt construct variabl f scors or valus in formativ modl ζ is th masurmnt rror of construct f in formativ modl β is th path cofficint In gnral ths quations can also b writtn as th following quations. y i,r = y,r η r + ϵ i,r (4) f = Σ r β r + Σ Υ xif x if + ζ f (5) A structural modl can contain two layrs of constructs instad of on layr. A complx modl that involvs highr-ordr modl can b stablishd in PLS-SEM. Th ovrall structural 55

68 modl can hav diffrnt combinations of rflctiv and formativ rlationships which can b shown in th following figur. Involving highr-ordr modl nabls th rsarchr to rduc th collinarity issus and th numbr of rlationship in a structural modl and, and solv discriminant validity (Ringl, Jr., Hult, & Sarstdt, 2013). Highr Ordr Construct Highr Ordr Construct Lowr Ordr Construct Lowr Ordr Construct Lowr Ordr Construct Lowr Ordr Construct Indicator Indicator Indicator Indicator Indicator Indicator Indicator Indicator (a) Rflctiv-Rflctiv modl (b) Rflctiv-Formativ modl Figur 4-2: Hirarchical Construct Modl In modl (a) of Figur 4-2, th rlationship btwn th highr ordr construct and th lowr ordr construct, and th rlationship btwn th lowr ordr constructs and thir indicators ar both rflctiv. It mans that th highr ordr construct xplains two lowr ordr constructs; and th lowr ordr constructs xplains thir indicators. Whras in modl (b), th rlationship btwn th highr ordr construct and th lowr ordr construct, and th rlationship btwn th lowr ordr constructs and thir indicators ar formativ and rflctiv, rspctivly. It mans that th lowr ordr constructs xplain th highr ordr construct and th indicators. 56

69 In this study, th constructs ar masurd by variabls that cannot b masurd dirctly. Thus, thr is nd to considr to us hirarchical construct modl to xamin th concptual modl. Basd on th variabls and hypothsis dfind in chaptr thr, th hirarchical construct modl can b spcifid in Figur 4-3. Adm1 Adm2 xk l ijk ISO1 λij Adm3 ISO2 ISO3 ISO4 ISO5 w ij ISO η 1 β 1 Administrator Prformanc η 3 Adm4 Adm5 Adm6 Adm7 ISO6 ISO7 ISO8 β 2 Adm8 Adm9 Adm 10 β 4 β 3 Cul1 Cul2 Cul3 Cul4 Cul6 Cul6 Quality Cultur η 2 β 5 β 6 Tachr Prformanc η 4 Tach 1 Tach 2 Tach 3 Tach 4 Tach 5 Tach 6 Tach 7 Tach 8 Figur 4-3: Hirarchical Ordr Modl 57

70 In this hirarchical modl, ISO, quality cultur, administrator and tachr prformanc, rprsntd by th big circl, srv as th highr ordr constructs (HOCs). Each of ths constructs is xplaind by th lowr ordr constructs (LOCs) which rprsntd by th small circls. Each of th lowr ordr construct (LOC) is manifstd by th indicators, rprsntd by th rctangular. Ths indicators hav valus obtaind from th qustionnairs. Th strngth of rlationship btwn high ordr constructs is indicatd by path cofficint (β). Th rlationship btwn th highr ordr construct and th lowr construct is masurd by th outr wights (w). Th rlationship btwn th lowr constructs and thir indicators is masurd by th outr loadings (l). ISO, quality cultur, administrator and tachr prformancs ar xplaind by ight, six, tn, and ight lowr constructs, rspctivly, in formativ rlationship. Ths rlationships can also b writtn in mathmatical mod as follows. x ijk = λ ij l jk + ijk (6) η i = λ ij w ij + i (7) η 2 = η 1 β (8) η 3 = η 1 β 1 + η 2 β (9) η 3 = η 1 β 2 + η 2 β 6 + η 3 β (10) whr: x ijk is th variabl valu of an indicator k of construct i and lowr construct j λ ij is th variabl valu of lowr construct j of construct i η i is th variabl valu of construct i l jk is th outr loading for indicator k of construct i and lowr lowr construct j w ij is th outr wight of lowr construct j of construct i β is th rlationship strngth btwn constructs 58

71 is th masurmnt rror Both of th highr and lowr constructs can b sn in th Tabl 4-1. Furthrmor, ach of ths lowr constructs ar masurd by indicators or masurmnt itms rprsntd by th data collctd from th qustionnairs. Th qustionnair can b sn in Appndix C Masurmnt Itms This study uss four typs of rsarch instrumnts (Tabl 4-1). Th first rsarch instrumnt (ISO) is adaptd from Intrnational Organization of Standardization (2011f). Th scond rsarch instrumnt (quality cultur) is adaptd from R. G. Lwis and Smith (1994). Th third rsarch instrumnt (administrator prformanc) is adaptd mainly from th National Cntr for Rsarch in Vocational Education, USA (Ohio Stat Univ, 1983) with slightly modifid and combind with instrumnt dvlopd by th Indonsian Ministry of Education and Cultur. Th fourth rsarch instrumnt (tachr prformanc) is adaptd from th National Cntr for Rsarch in Vocational Education (Ohio Stat Univ, 1983) with slightly modifid and combind with instrumnt dvlopd by th Indonsian Ministry of Education and Cultur. A fiv-point Likrt scal is usd for th scoring systm for all of th constructs. Th highr rating indicats th highr dgr of knowldg and th xtnt of implmntation prcivd by th rspondnts. Th numbr of itms for ach sub-variabl can b sn in Tabl 4-1. A total of 133 masurmnt itms ar usd to masur th construct. Th dtails of masurmnt itms for ach sub-variabl can b sn in Appndix A. 59

72 4.3. Data Collction Data was collctd by using qustionnairs that consist of four parts of data. Ths four parts of data includ ISO, quality cultur, administrator prformanc, and tachr prformanc. First, qustionnairs of ISO data will b collctd from tachrs or vic school administrators who ar rsponsibl for managing th ISO documnt. Scond, qustionnairs of quality cultur data will b collctd from tachrs. Third, qustionnairs of administrator prformanc data will b collctd administrators. Fourth, qustionnairs of tachr prformanc data will b collctd from th sam tachrs who answr part thr of th qustionnairs. All of th qustionnairs masur th rspondnts prcption of th xtnt of knowldg and implmntation of th constructs (ISO, quality cultur; prformancs of administrator and tachr). Tabl 4-1: Rsarch Instrumnt Summary No Highr and Lowr Constructs Cod 1 ISO 9001: 2008: a. Customr Focus b. Ladrship c. Involvmnt of Popl d. Procss Approach. Systm Approach to Managmnt f. Continual Improvmnt g. Factual Approach to Dcision Making h. Mutually Bnficial Supplir Rlationships Total 2 Quality Cultur: a. Environmnt b. Products and srvics c. Mthods d. Popl. Organizational structur f. Total quality mindst Total 3. Administrator Prformanc: 60 ISO1 ISO2 ISO3 ISO4 ISO5 ISO6 ISO7 ISO8 Cul1 Cul2 Cul3 Cul4 Cul5 Cul6 Numbr of Itms Rfrncs Intrnational Organization of Standardization (2011f) R. G. Lwis and Smith (1994)

73 No Highr and Lowr Constructs Cod a. School Dvlopmnt Planning b. Instructional Managmnt c. Prsonnl Managmnt d. Studnt Managmnt. School Facility Managmnt f. Financial Managmnt g. School-Community Rlations h. Instructional Lad. & School Cult. Dv. i. Profssional Dvlopmnt j. Suprvision/Monitoring and Evaluation Total 4. Tachr Prformanc: a. Instructional Planning b. Instructional Excution c. Instructional Evaluation d. Instructional Managmnt. Vocational Guidanc f. Vocational Studnt Organization g. School-Community Rlations h. Profssional Dvlopmnt Total Adm1 Adm2 Adm3 Adm4 Adm5 Adm6 Adm7 Adm8 Adm9 Adm10 Tach1 Tach2 Tach3 Tach4 Tach5 Tach6 Tach7 Tach8 Numbr of Itms Rfrncs Ohio Stat Univ (1983) Ohio Stat Univ, 1983) Population and Sampl Th targt population of this rsarch is vocational schools in Indonsia that hav bn implmnting ISO Th total numbr of vocational schools in Indonsia is (Kjuruan, 2013). Howvr, not all of thm hav bn implmnting ISO. Nvrthlss, thr ar 295 WCS that can b crtainly idntifid to hav ISO crtification. In ordr to incras th rspons rat, mor ISO-crtifid vocational schools wr invitd participat th survy. Simpl random sampling mthod was mployd to slct th sampl. A total of 503 vocational schools wr invitd to participat th survy. 61

74 Sourc of Data Th rsarchr obtaind data from both primary and scondary sourcs. Th rspondnts who participatd in this survy wr th administrators and th tachrs who work at vocational schools that had obtaind ISO 9001 crtification. Thus, ths rspondnts ar th primary sourcs of th data. Th scondary sourc of data that wr usd to sarch and vrify th ISO-crtifid vocational schools was rtrivd from th wbsit (Kjuruan, 2013) managd by th Indonsian govrnmnt. Whras th idntity of th rspondnts can b vrifid from othr Indonsian govrnmnt wbsit that can b sn publicly (Mnngah, 2013) Data Analysis Basd on th rsarch qustions to b answrd and rsarch dsign alrady mad, structural quation modling will b usd as th main data analysis dvlopd by Pdhazur (1997), Tabachnick and Fidll (2007) and Hair, Black, Babin, Andrson, and Tatham (2010). Structural quation modling (SEM) can b usd to study dirct and indirct ffcts of a variabl by incorporating corrlation mthod. Thr ar two typs of SEM that can b usd to stimat th rlationship btwn constructs. Th first typ of SEM is basd on covarianc approach than can stimat th modl paramtrs by minimizing th diffrnc btwn th stimatd and sampl covarianc matrics (Ringl t al., 2013). Th scond typ of SEM is basd on varianc approach that can stimat th path rlationships by minimizing th rror trms or maximizing th varianc xplaind valus of th ndognous constructs (Ringl t al., 2013). Th typ of SEM that was usd to xamin th thortical modl of this study is Partial Last Squars (PLS) Structural Equation Modling (SEM). 62

75 Structural Equation Modling Structural quation modling is suitabl to tst this study s rsarch hypothss bcaus it is abl to xamin multipl intrrlatd dpndnc or subsqunt rlationships simultanously and to incorporat variabls that cannot b dirctly masurd (Hair t al., 2010). It also allows dpndnt variabl in a rlationship bcoms an indpndnt variabl in othr rlationship. In this study, thr ar mor than on hypothss that can b intrrlatd. Each of ths hypothss involvs thortical concpt or hypothtical factor that can b rprsntd in many dimnsions. It rquirs multipl indicators to rprsnt this concpt or factor. Thus, thr is a latnt variabl or construct, a variabl that cannot b masurd dirctly, and an obsrvd variabl, a variabl that can b masurd dirctly. According to Hair t al. (2010) th masurmnt rror can b rducd if a latnt variabl is masurd by multipl qustions or obsrvd variabls. In addition, th rlationship stimation can b masurd mor prcisly and accuratly bcaus th masurmnt rror is incorporatd in th analysis Partial Last Squars Structural Equation Modling Modl Charactristic Th concptual modl prsntd in Error! Rfrnc sourc not found. is rcursiv which mans that thr is no circular rlationship btwn th constructs or latnt variabls. This modl charactristic satisfis th rquirmnt of PLS-SEM algorithm (Ringl t al., 2013). This modl involvs 4 main constructs with maximum of 10 sub-constructs pr construct, and a maximum of 13 masurmnt indicators pr sub-construct. Thus, it can b considrd as a complx modl. In addition, this modl also involvs both rflctiv and formativ rlationships. Th rlationship 63

76 btwn th construct and th sub-constructs is formativ. Whras th rlationship btwn th sub-construct and th masurmnt indicators is rflctiv. Thus, this typ of modl is incorporatd with highr ordr modl which can b illustratd in Figur 4-4 blow. Highr Ordr Construct Lowr Ordr Construct Lowr Ordr Construct Indicator Indicator Indicator Indicator Figur 4-4: Rflctiv-formativ modl Hirarchical componnt modl is a structural modl that involvs mor than on layr of constructs (Ringl t al., 2013). Thus, it consists of highr ordr componnt and lowr ordr componnt. Th rlationship btwn th highr ordr constructs and th lowr ordr constructs has th sam analogu as th rlationship btwn latnt variabls and masurmnt variabls. Thus, it can hav rflctiv or formativ modl. Th ovrall structural modl can hav diffrnt combinations of rflctiv and formativ rlationships. As th structural modl of this study is charactrizd with rflctiv-formativ typ, a two-stag approach is suggstd to b applid to valuat th structural modl (Bckr, Klin, & Wtzls, 2012; Ciavolino & Nitti, 2013; Ringl t al., 2013). At th first stag, th latnt variabls valus (latnt construct scors) of th lowr ordr 64

77 componnts ar stimatd using rpatd indicator approach. Scondly, ths valus can b usd as th masurmnt valus for th highr ordr componnts. This approach is illustratd in Figur 4-5. X1 X2 X3 X4 HOC HOC HOC LOC 1 LOC 2 LOC 1 LOC 2 LOC1 LOC2 X1 X2 X3 X4 X1 X2 X3 X4 (a) Bas modl (b) Rpatd indicator Modl (c) Final Two-Stag Modl Figur 4-5: Two-stag Approach Modl (adaptd from Ciavolino and Nitti (2013); Ringl t al. (2013)) Data Charactristics Th Partial Last Squars Structural Equation Modling was particularly usd to xamin th thortical modl of this study bcaus of its robustnss to small sampl siz and/or non-normally distributd data and its ability to xamin complx structural modl (Ringl t al., 2013). PLS-SEM allows smallr numbr of sampl siz than covarianc basd-sem. Th rcommndd minimum sampl siz is 10 tims th highst numbr of indicators in a singl formativ construct or 10 tim th highst numbr pointing to a construct in a structural modl (Barclay, Higgins, & Thompson, 1995). 65

78 Statistical powr analysis can b usd to dtrmin whthr th sampl siz provids adquat statistical powr givn th dsird ffct siz and significanc lvl (Faul, Erdfldr, Buchnr, & Lang, 2009). Idally, th sampls siz should provid statistical powr of 80%. Sinc PLS-SEM analysis is basd on ordinary last squars rgrssion, th sampl siz can b dtrmind using th powr analysis providd by Cohn (1992) Modl Estimation PLS-SEM algorithm starts by stimating th latnt construct scors obtaind from a st of dirct linar combination rlationships consisting of wights and loadings for formativ modl and rflctiv modl, rspctivly (Fornll & Bookstin, 1982; Ringl t al., 2013). Thn, th latnt constructs scors ar usd in Ordinary Last Squars (OLS) rgrssion to stimat th path rlationship cofficints (β), which ar th rlationship btwn th constructs, and cofficint of dtrmination (R 2 ), which ar th prcntag varianc xplaind, by using bootstrapping mthod, a rpatd randomly subsampling with rplacmnt (Ringl t al., 2013), is usd to stimat th outr wights and t-valus statistics. Th highr th path cofficint, th highr th ffct of prdictor variabls (latnt construct) on th xplaind variabls (latnt construct). Th significanc of path cofficints is xamind by th associatd t-valu statistics. Th path cofficint is considrd to b significant if th associatd t-valu is highr than 1.96 at significanc lvl of 5%. Th SmartPLS softwar (Ringl, Wnd, & Will, 2005) is usd to prform PLS-SEM analyss and stimat th paramtrs in th PLS modl. 66

79 Rliability and Validity Th main PLS-SEM valuation consists of masurmnt and structural modl assssmnts. Th purpos of masurmnt modl assssmnt is to nsur that th indicators accuratly and significantly masur th construct by xamining its rliability and validity (Aibinu & Al-Lawati, 2010; Hair t al., 2010). According to Ringl t al. (2013), rliability is a masur of which th data ar consistnt or clos to ach othr. Whras, validity is a masur of which th rliabl data accuratly prdict th tru targt. Thus, data nd to b rliabl bfor assssing validity. Th masurmnt modl which dpicts th rlationship btwn th indicators and th lowr ordr construct is valuatd diffrntly btwn th rflctiv and th formativ masurmnt modls. Thus, th rliability and validity assssmnt btwn rflctiv and formativ modl ar valuatd diffrntly. A rflctiv modl valuation is valuatd by assssing th intrnal consistncy rliability, indicator rliability, convrgnt validity, and discriminant validity. Intrnal consistncy (ρ c) is a rliability masur of which th indicators provid consistncy of rsults on th sam tst (Ringl t al., 2013). According to Ringl t al. (2013), intrnal consistncy can b calculatd using th following formula: ρ c = ( i l i ) 2 ( i l i ) 2 + i var() (11) var() = 1 (l i ) 2 (12) whr: ρ c is th intrnal consistncy rliability 67

80 l i is th standardizd outr loading of indicator i intrnal consistncy rliability var() is th varianc of th masurmnt rror intrnal consistncy rliability Intrnal consistncy valus btwn 0.7 and 0.9 ar considrd to provid satisfactory rliability (Nunnally, 2010). Th outr loading is stimatd trough rgrssion of indicator on its corrsponding construct. Convrgnt validity masurs th xtnt to which a masur corrlats positivly with altrnativ masurs of th sam construct (Ringl t al., 2013). It can b valuatd by assssing th outr loading, avrag varianc xtractd (AVE) and corrlation btwn variabls. Th avrag varianc xtractd is th avrag of th sum of th squard loadings which can b writtn in th following quation. AVE j = n i n l ij 2 (13) whr: AVE j is th avrag construct xtractd of construct j l ij is th loading of indicator i in construct j n is th numbr of loadings A latnt construct is considrd to xplain significant varianc of its associatd indicators if th latnt construct and its associatd indicators shar at last 50% of th varianc or outr loading of (th squar root of 50%). An indicator that has outr loading btwn 0.4 and and 0.7 can 68

81 still b includd in th modl if th dltion of th indicator dos not incras th AVE and composit rliability. An AVE of at last 0.5 is considrd to hav at last half varianc xplaind by th construct. Discriminant validity masurs th xtnt to which a construct dos not blong to othr constructs by using th Fornl-Larckr critrion. Th squar root of th construct s AVE nds to b highr than th highst corrlation with othr constructs. A formativ masurmnt modl is valuatd by assssing collinarity among th indicators and th significanc and rlvanc of outr wight. Th collinarity indicats high corrlation btwn two indicators. It mans that thr ar rdundant indicators that masur th construct. If thr ar rdundant indicators, ths indicators nd to b rmovd from th modl until thr is no rdundant indicator. Th outr wight, lik th outr loading, is stimatd trough rgrssion of indicator on its corrsponding construct. According to Ringl t al. (2013), th outr wight is considrd to b significant to masur th construct if th corrsponding t-statistics is highr than 1.96 at significanc lvl 0.5. If th outr wight is not significant but th outr loading is highr than 0.5, th indicator can still b includd in th modl. Morovr, if th outr loading is blow 0.5 and significant, th indicator can still b includd in th modl. Th structural modl which dpicts th rlationship btwn th highr ordr constructs is valuatd by assssing th siz and significanc of path cofficint (β), cofficint of dtrmination (R 2 ), and th rlvanc significanc rlationships. Th path cofficint is considrd to b significant if th corrspondd t-statistics is highr than 1.96 at significanc lvl 0.5. Th cofficint of dtrmination (R 2 ) rprsnts th prcntag of varianc xplaind, which has rang from 0 and 1. Th ovrviw of PLS-SEM stps can b dpictd in Figur

82 Spcify th modl -Structural Modl -Masurmnt Modl Dsign a Study to produc Empirical Rsults - Collct, prpar and scrn data - Assss adquacy of sampl siz - PLS path modl stimation Asss PLS-SEM Masurmnt Modl - Rflctiv: intrnal consistncy rliability, indicator rliability, convrgnt validity, discriminant validity -Formativ: Collinarity, significanc and rlvanc of outr wights Rspcify modl No Masurmnt Modl Valid? Ys Asss PLS-SEM Structural Modl - Siz and significanc of path cofficints - Cofficint of dtrmination - Rlvanc of significanc rlationships Conclusion and rccomndation Ys Structural Modl Valid? No Rfin modl and tst with nw data Figur 4-6: Partial Last Squars Structural Equation Modling Stps (adaptd from Hair t al. (2010), Klin (2010), and(ringl t al., 2013)) 70

83 4.5. Rational of Mthodology A concptual modl was dvlopd basd on th litratur rviw, rsarch qustions, and hypothss. This concptual modl nds to b convrtd and drivd into unobsrvabl latnt variabls or constructs and indicators, which ar linkd by a st of hypothss which can b rprsntd graphically by a path diagram (Diamantopoulos, 1994; Hanlin & Kaplan, 2004; Pdhazur, 1997). In ordr to invstigat th ffct of ISO quality managmnt principls implmntation on th prformanc of th administrator and th tachr, ach of ths variabls nd to b masurd by conducting quantitativ data collction mthod and survy wr conductd. Qustionnairs hav bn dvlopd to masur th xtnt of th implmntation of th constructs (ISO quality managmnt principls, quality cultur, prformancs of th administrator and tachrs).th qustionnairs rly on slf-rportd survy basd prformanc masurmnt. A fiv-point Likrt scal, ranging from (1) wakst lvl of implmntation to (5) strongst lvl of implmntation, is usd for th scoring systm for all of th masurmnt itms or indicators. Data analysis is conductd by applying Partial Last Squars (PLS) mthod of Structural Equation Modling (SEM) in ordr to invstigat th rlationships btwn ths constructs. PLS- SEM is mployd to xamin th ffcts of ISO on administrator prformanc, th ffcts of ISO on tachr prformanc, th ffcts of quality cultur on administrator prformanc, and th ffcts of quality cultur on tachr prformanc. 71

84 CHAPTER 5: RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS Th primary focus of this chaptr is to addrss th rsarch hypothss dvlopd in Chaptr 3. This Chaptr provids th rsults and discussions of th data analysis by incorporating th survy data to xamin th hypothss rlationships as prsntd at th nd of Chaptr 3 and using th Partial Last Squars mthodology prsntd in Chaptr 4. Th first stag of this mthod, th modl spcification, is alrady prsntd in Chaptr 4. Scond, th data collctd from th survy ar usd as indicators to masur th constructs (ISO, quality cultur; prformancs of administrator and tachr). Partial last squar consists of two main assssmnts which includ masurmnt and structural masurmnts. First, th data nd to rliabl and valid to masur th latnt variabls or constructs (ISO, quality cultur; prformancs of th administrator and tachr). Onc th masurmnt modl is valid, th structural modl, which illustrats th hypothss rlationships, can b xamind. This last assssmnt provids answr whthr th rlationships btwn constructs ar significant or not Data Charactristics Dscriptiv Statistics of th Survy Data Partial last squars dos not rquir th data b normally distributd. Howvr, it is important to vrify that th data is not xtrmly far from normally distributd bcaus it influncs th paramtr stimations in structural quation modl. Th data charactristics can b masurd by th man, standard dviation, skwnss and kurtosis in ordr to idntify th distributional form. Appndix C provids th dscription statistics of indicators for ach of th indicators. 72

85 All of th ISO indicators show that th skwnss ar btwn -1 and 1. It mans that th data is approximatly symmtric, which satisfis on of normal distribution rquirmnts. Most of th indicators show that th kurtosis ar btwn -1 and 1, suggsting that th distribution ar not too flat and pakd, rspctivly. Howvr, thr ar 11 indicators indicatd by th bold font on Appndix C which hav kurtosis abov 1. Th maximum kurtosis is which mans that th distribution is too pak. Howvr, th kurtosis valus ar not far away from 1. Thus th data can still b usd for th nxt analysis. As for th quality cultur, almost all of th indicators hav skwnss btwn -1 and 1, which indicat that thy hav symmtric distribution. Howvr thr ar 10 indicators that show kurtosis abov 1. Th maximum kurtosis valu is which is not far from 1. This data can still b usd for th nxt analysis. Th dscriptiv statistics for indicators of th administrator and tachr prformancs conclud th sam rsult analysis that th data ar not xtrmly far from normal distribution. Thus, th data can still b usd for th nxt analysis Sampl Siz Th minimum numbr of sampl siz can b dtrmin using th tn tims rul (Barclay t al., 1995) and powr analysis Cohn (1992). Th maximum numbr of formativ indicators to masur a construct in th structural modl is 10, which is indicatd by th numbr of sub-variabls in Quality Cultur (Tabl 4-1). Whras th maximum numbr of structural paths dirctd to particular construct is 12 (10 sub-variabls and 2 structural paths from ISO and quality cultur), which is indicatd by th administrator prformanc construct (Figur 4-3 and Tabl 4-1). Thus, th minimum sampl siz is 120 (10 multiplid by 12). Th total numbr of vocational schools in 73

86 Indonsia is (Kjuruan, 2013). Manwhil, this study obtaind 187 sampls out of 503 (rspons rat of 37.1%) invitd sampls, but only 178 sampls ar usabl and valid. Th lvl of missing data of th 178 valid sampls is lss than 5% pr indicator. Sinc th prcntag of missing valus is rlativly small, it is suggstd that th missing valus ar rplacd by th man (Ringl t al., 2013). According to th tn tims rul (Barclay t al., 1995), th numbr of valid sampls (178 sampls) is roughly adquat to b th sampl siz bcaus it xcds th minimum sampl siz (120 sampls). Statistical powr analysis can b usd to dtrmin whthr th sampl siz provids adquat statistical powr givn th dsird ffct siz and significanc lvl (Faul t al., 2009). Idally, th sampls siz should provid statistical powr of 80%. Sinc PLS-SEM analysis is basd on ordinary last squars rgrssion, th sampl siz can b dtrmind using th powr analysis providd by Cohn (1992). Proportion of varianc xplaind R 2 valu highr than 0.2 is considrd to hav adquat xplanation (Ringl t al., 2013). In this study, in ordr to dtct minimum th proportion of varianc xplaind R 2 valu of 0.1 for significanc lvl of 5% givn th maximum numbr of paths dirctd to particular construct of 12, th minimum sampl siz rquirmnt is 103 which alrady satisfid by th numbr of sampls (178 sampl ) collctd in this study Modl Assssmnt A final purpos of modl assssmnt is to find out th significant rlationships btwn constructs (ISO, quality cultur, th prformancs of administrator and tachr). Th first stp of th modl assssmnt is to xamin th masurmnt modl. This assssmnt dtrmins whthr th indicators (data from qustionnairs) can b includd in th modl to masur th lowr ordr 74

87 constructs (ight ISO principls, six dimnsions of quality cultur, tn masurs of administrator prformancs, and.ight masurs of tachr prformancs). Th nxt assssmnt is to dtrmin th dimnsions (lowr ordr constructs) of th highr ordr constructs (ISO, quality cultur, and th prformancs of administrator and tachr) that can b includd in th modl. In othr words, this assssmnt finds out which part of ISO, quality cultur, and prformancs of administrator that ar significant and important to masur thos constructs. Th last modl assssmnt is to masur th significant rlationships btwn constructs to tst th hypothss dvlopd in Chaptr Masurmnt Modl Assssmnt Masurmnt modl is xamind by assssing th rliability and validity in ordr to nsur that th indicators accuratly and significantly masurs th construct (Aibinu & Al-Lawati, 2010; Hair t al., 2010). Th purpos of this assssmnt is to dtrmin whthr th indicators can still b includd in th modl. Sinc th modl compriss of two layrs of construct, th rliability and validity of th lowr ordr construct nd to b assssd. Thn, th latnt construct scors obtaind from lowr ordr construct by running th softwar can b usd to assss th highr ordr construct Rflctiv Modl Rliability and Validity Th lowr ordr construct (LOC) has bn charactrizd to hav rflctiv modl. Thus, th assssmnt of this modl consists of intrnal consistncy rliability, indicator rliability, convrgnt validity, and discriminant validity. 75

88 An initial PLS-SEM softwar xcution of th modl producs outr loadings, indicator rliability, composit rliability, avrag varianc xtractd, and corrlations btwn lowr ordr constructs (LOCs). All of th indicators hav outr loading valus of at last It indicats that th indicators provid consistncy of rsults on th sam tst. Howvr, thr ar two indicators, studnt placmnt srvic (on of th masurmnt indicators of Studnt Managmnt in Administrator Prformanc) and fling of blong (on of th masurmnt indicators of Popl in Quality Cultur) that hav outr loading valus lowr than Tabl 5-1 shows th dcision is mad to rmov indicators from th modl. Tabl 5-1: Indicator Dltion Dcision Indicator Studnt Placmnt Srvic Fling of blong Construct Studnt Managmnt Administrator s Prformanc Popl Quality Cultur Composit Rliability Bfor dltion Aftr dltion Avrag Varianc Extractd Bfor Aftr dltion dltion Dcision Dlt indicator Dlt indicator Ths two indicators hav outr loadings and , rspctivly, which ar both lowr than Th dltion of on of indicators of studnt placmnt srvic (Adm4) incrass both th composit rliability from to and th avrag varianc xtractd from to Th dltion of on of indicators of blong fling (Cul1) incrass both th composit rliability from to and th avrag varianc xtractd from to Thus, ths indicators ar dltd to mt a minimum indicator rliability of 0.5. All of th AVE and th composit rliability ar abov 0.5 and 0.7, rspctivly. Thus, th critria of intrnal consistncy and 76

89 convrgnt validity ar satisfid. In othr words, th indicators provid consistncy of rsults on th sam tst. Th nxt assssmnt is to masur th Discriminant Validity. Discriminant validity masurs th xtnt to which a construct dos not blong to othr constructs by using th Fornl-Larckr critrion. Th squar root of th construct s AVE nds to b highr than th highst corrlation with othr constructs. Tabl 5-2, Tabl 5-3, Tabl 5-4, and Tabl 5-5 show th discriminant validity using Fornll-Larckr critrion for lowr ordr construct (LOC) administrator prformanc, quality cultur, ISO, and tachr prformanc, rspctivly. Th numbrs in bold font rprsnt th squar root of avrag varianc xtractd (AVE), whras othr numbrs rprsnt th corrlation btwn LOCs. In summary, th Fornll-Lackr critrion analysis shows that th squar root of th LOC s AVE ar highr than th highst corrlation with othr LOCs. Thus, th discriminant validity rquirmnt is satisfid. In othr words, th proposd dimnsions (lowr ordr constructs) of th constructs do not blong to othr constructs. Thus, thr ar no rdundant variabls that masur othr constructs. Hnc, ths dimnsions of th constructs ar rtaind in th modl for furthr analysis. Tabl 5-2: Fornll-Larckr Critrion for LOC of Administrator Prformanc Construct Adm1 Adm2 Adm3 Adm4 Adm5 Adm6 Adm7 Adm8 Adm9 Adm10 Adm Adm Adm Adm Adm Adm Adm Adm Adm Adm

90 Construct Adm1 Adm2 Adm3 Adm4 Adm5 Adm6 Adm7 Adm8 Adm9 Adm10 Cul Cul Cul Cul Cul Cul ISO ISO ISO ISO ISO ISO ISO ISO ISO Tach Tach Tach Tach Tach Tach Tach Tach Th Fornll-Lackr critrion analysis in Tabl 5-2 shows that th squar root of th avrag varianc xtractd (indicatd by th bold font) of th lowr ordr construct of administrator ar highr than th highst corrlation with ISO, quality cultur, and tachr prformanc. Ths lowr ordr constructs ar not suitabl to masur othr constructs. Thus, th dimnsions of administrators prformanc consisting of school dvlopmnt planning, instructional managmnt, prsonnl managmnt, school facility managmnt, school-community rlations, instructional ladrship, profssional dvlopmnt, Suprvision and Evaluation ar distinct from othr dimnsions in that thy do not blong to othr dimnsions (lowr ordr constructs). Thus, th rsults support conclusion that thr is adquat discriminant validity btwn constructs. 78

91 Tabl 5-3: Fornll-Larckr Critrion for LOC of Quality Cultur Construct Cul1 Cul2 Cul3 Cul4 Cul5 Cul6 Cul Cul Cul Cul Cul Cul ISO ISO ISO ISO ISO ISO ISO ISO ISO Tach Tach Tach Tach Tach Tach Tach Tach Th Fornll-Lackr critrion analysis in Tabl 5-3 shows that th squar root of th avrag varianc xtractd (indicatd by th bold font) of th lowr ordr construct of Quality Cultur ar highr than th highst corrlation with ISO, and tachr prformanc. Ths lowr ordr constructs ar not suitabl to masur othr constructs. Thus, th dimnsions of quality cultur consisting of nvironmnt, products srvics, mthods, popl, organization structur and total quality ar distinct from othr dimnsions in that thy do not blong to othr dimnsions (lowr 79

92 ordr constructs). Th rsults support conclusion that thr is adquat discriminant validity btwn constructs. Hnc, th discriminant validity rquirmnt is satisfid. Tabl 5-4: Fornll-Lackr Critrion for LOC of ISO Construct ISO1 ISO2 ISO3 ISO4 ISO5 ISO6 ISO7 ISO8 ISO ISO ISO ISO ISO ISO ISO ISO Tach Tach Tach Tach Tach Tach Tach Tach Th Fornll-Lackr critrion analysis in Tabl 5-4 shows that th squar root of th avrag varianc xtractd (indicatd by th bold font) of th lowr ordr construct of ISO ar highr than th highst corrlation with tachr prformanc. Ths lowr ordr constructs ar not suitabl to masur othr constructs. Hnc, th dimnsions of ISO consisting of customr focus, ladrship, 80

93 popl involvmnt, procss approach, systm approach, continual improvmnt, factual approach, and mutually bnficial supplir ar distinct from othr dimnsions in that thy do not blong to othr dimnsions (lowr ordr constructs). Thus, th discriminant validity rquirmnt is satisfid. Tabl 5-5: Fornll Larckr Critrion for LOC of Tachr Prformanc Construct Tach1 Tach Tach 2 Tach Tach 3 Tach Tach 4 Tach Tach 5 Tach Tach 6 Tach Tach 7 Tach Tach 8 Tach Th Fornll-Lackr critrion analysis in Tabl 5-5 shows that th squar root of th avrag varianc xtractd (indicatd by th bold font) of th lowr ordr construct of Tachr prformanc ar highr than th highst corrlation with its own othr lowr ordr constructs. Ths lowr ordr constructs ar not suitabl to masur othr constructs. Hnc, th dimnsions of tachr s prformancs instructional planning, instructional xcution, instructional valuation, instructional managmnt, vocational guidanc, vocational studnt organization, school-community rlations, and profssional dvlopmnt ar distinct from othr dimnsions in that thy do not blong to othr dimnsions (lowr ordr constructs). Thus, th discriminant validity rquirmnt is satisfid. In summary, th rliability and validity of th lowr ordr constructs (LOC) masurmnt modl (rflctiv modl) ar satisfid which can b shown in th Tabl

94 Tabl 5-6: Rsults Summary for Rflctiv Masurmnt Modl Lowr Ordr Construct Lowst Indicator Loadings Lowst Indicator Rliability AVE Composit Rliability Discriminant Validity ISO Ys ISO Ys ISO Ys ISO Ys ISO Ys ISO Ys ISO Ys ISO Ys Cul Ys Cul Ys Cul Ys Cul Ys Cul Ys Cul Ys Adm Ys Adm Ys Adm Ys Adm Ys Adm Ys Adm Ys Adm Ys Adm Ys Adm Ys Adm Ys Tach Ys Tach Ys Tach Ys Tach Ys Tach Ys Tach Ys Tach Ys Tach Ys 82

95 Thus, thr no rdundant dimnsions (lowr ordr constructs) that nd to b rmovd from th modl Formativ Modl Rliability and Validity Th nxt stp aftr assssing th lowr ordr construct (LOC) masurmnt modl is to xamin th highr ordr construct (HOC) masurmnt modl. Th highr ordr construct has bn charactrizd to hav formativ modl. Thus, th assssmnt of this modl consists of collinarity assssmnt, significanc and rlvanc outr wights. Collinarity indicats high corrlation btwn two or mor formativ indicators (Ringl t al., 2013). It signifis that thr ar rdundant indicators that masur th construct. Thus, it will influnc th wights stimation and statistical significanc in th structural modl. Collinarity is masurd by varianc inflation factor (VIF), which indicats th dgr to which th standard rror has bn incrasd du to th prsnc of collinarity (Ringl t al., 2013). Th collinarity masur is calculatd using Equation (14) as follows. VIF = 1 (1 R 2 ) (14) whr: VIF is th varianc inflation factor R 2 is th prcntag of varianc xplaind Th varianc inflation factor (VIF) nds to b blow 5 in ordr to avoid th collinarity issu. This valu indicats that 80% of th varianc is xplaind by othr indicators that masur th 83

96 sam construct. Tabl 5-7 shows th rsults of varianc inflation factor (VIF) for th lowr ordr constructs. All of th varianc inflation factor (VIF) ar blow 5, which indicat that thr is no collinarity issu. In othr word, ths constructs do not hav sam information from on to anothr. Thus, ths constructs can b includd in th structural modl. Tabl 5-7: Collinarity Assssmnt in Masurmnt Modl ISO Quality Cultur Administrator Prformanc Tachr Prformanc Indicators R 2 VIF Indicat Indicator Indicator R ors VIF R s VIF s R 2 VIF ISO Cul Adm Tach ISO Cul Adm Tach ISO Cul Adm Tach ISO Cul Adm Tach ISO Cul Adm Tach ISO Cul Adm Tach ISO Adm Tach ISO Adm Tach Adm Adm In formativ modl, th construct is built from th combination of indicator scors and th corrspondd wights in linar rlationships (Ringl t al., 2013). Thus, th outr wights nd to b significant in ordr to xplain th rlationship btwn th construct and th corrspondd indicators. Bootstrapping mthod, a rpatd randomly subsampling with rplacmnt (Ringl t al., 2013), is usd to stimat th outr wights and t-valus statistics. It is suggstd that th procss of subsampling b at last 5,000 tims. An indicator is dltd from th modl if its outr wight and th outr loading ar not significant, indicatd by th t-valu lowr than 1.96 at significant lvl Tabl 5-8 and Tabl 5-9 provid th outr wight and outr loading significanc tsts, rspctivly. 84

97 Tabl 5-8: Outr Wight Significanc Tst Rlationship btwn th indicator and th construct Outr Wight (w) Standard Error (STERR) t-valus ( w/sterr ) Significanc tst t- valus > 1.96 ISO1 -> ISO Kp indicator ISO2 -> ISO Kp indicator ISO3 -> ISO Furthr analysis ISO4 -> ISO Furthr analysis ISO5 -> ISO Furthr analysis ISO6 -> ISO Furthr analysis ISO7 -> ISO Furthr analysis ISO8 -> ISO Furthr analysis Cul1 -> Cultur Furthr analysis Cul2 -> Cultur Furthr analysis Cul3 -> Cultur Furthr analysis Cul4 -> Cultur Kp indicator Cul5 -> Cultur Furthr analysis Cul6 -> Cultur Furthr analysis Adm1 -> Administrator Prf Kp indicator Adm2 -> Administrator Prf Furthr analysis Adm3 -> Administrator Prf Furthr analysis Adm4 -> Administrator Prf Furthr analysis Adm5 -> Administrator Prf Kp indicator Adm6 -> Administrator Prf Furthr analysis Adm7 -> Administrator Prf Kp indicator Adm8 -> Administrator Prf Furthr analysis Adm9 -> Administrator Prf Furthr analysis Adm10 -> Administrator Prf Furthr analysis Tach1 -> Tachr Prf Furthr analysis Tach2 -> Tachr Prf Kp indicator Tach3 -> Tachr Prf Furthr analysis Tach4 -> Tachr Prf Furthr analysis Tach5 -> Tachr Prf Furthr analysis Tach6 -> Tachr Prf Furthr analysis Tach7 -> Tachr Prf Furthr analysis Tach8 -> Tachr Prf Furthr analysis Basd on th rsults of th outr wight significanc tst in Tabl 5-8, thr ar only six indicators or lowr ordr constructs (ISO1: Customr Focus, ISO2: Ladrship, Cul4: Popl, Adm1: School Dvlopmnt Planning, Adm5: Prsonnl Managmnt, and Tach2:Instructional Excution) that provid significanc rlationship with thir corrspondd constructs. Thus, ths indicators ar includd in th modl. An illustration of th rsults of outr wight significanc tst can also b sn in Figur 5-1 (th fad color indicats non significanc). 85

98 Adm1 Adm2 lijk ISO1 ISO2 ISO3 ISO4 ISO5 ISO6 ISO7 ISO8 wij ISO β 2 β 1 Administrator Prformanc Adm3 Adm4 Adm5 Adm6 Adm7 Adm8 Adm9 Adm 10 β 4 β 3 Cul1 Cul2 Cul3 Cul4 Cul6 Cul6 Quality Cultur β 5 β 6 Tachr Prformanc Tach 1 Tach 2 Tach 3 Tach 4 Tach 5 Tach 6 Tach 7 Tach 8 Figur 5-1: Significanc of th Masurmnt Modl Basd on th illustration in th Figur 5-1, th lvl of ISO implmntation is only positiv significantly affctd by th knowldg and implmntation of Customr Focus and Ladrship. Th quality cultur is positiv significantly affctd by Popl. Th vocational school administrator has significant prformancs in School Dvlopmnt Planning and Prsonnl Managmnt. Th tachr has significant prformancs in Instructional Excution. 86

99 Th othr dimnsions (lowr ordr constructs) that do not hav significant outr wight indicatd by t-valus lowr than 1.96 (t-statistics valu at significanc lvl 0.05) still nd furthr analysis (outr loading significanc tst) whthr ths indicators can still b includd in th modl or not. Th rsults of th nxt analysis, th outr loading significanc tst, can b sn in Tabl 5-9. Tabl 5-9: Outr Loading Significanc Tst Rlationship btwn th indicator and th construct Outr Loading (l) Significanc tst t- valus > 1.96 Standard Error (STERR) t-valus ( l/sterr ) ISO1 -> ISO Kp indicator ISO2 -> ISO Kp indicator ISO3 -> ISO Kp indicator ISO4 -> ISO Kp indicator ISO5 -> ISO Kp indicator ISO6 -> ISO Kp indicator ISO7 -> ISO Kp indicator ISO8 -> ISO Kp indicator Cul1 -> Cultur Kp indicator Cul2 -> Cultur Kp indicator Cul3 -> Cultur Kp indicator Cul4 -> Cultur Kp indicator Cul5 -> Cultur Kp indicator Cul6 -> Cultur Kp indicator Adm1 -> Administrator Prf Kp indicator Adm2 -> Administrator Prf Kp indicator Adm3 -> Administrator Prf Kp indicator Adm4 -> Administrator Prf Kp indicator Adm5 -> Administrator Prf Kp indicator Adm6 -> Administrator Prf Kp indicator Adm7 -> Administrator Prf Kp indicator Adm8 -> Administrator Prf Kp indicator Adm9 -> Administrator Prf Kp indicator Adm10 -> Administrator Prf Kp indicator Tach1 -> Tachr Prf Kp indicator Tach2 -> Tachr Prf Kp indicator Tach3 -> Tachr Prf Kp indicator Tach4 -> Tachr Prf Kp indicator Tach5 -> Tachr Prf Kp indicator Tach6 -> Tachr Prf Kp indicator Tach7 -> Tachr Prf Kp indicator Tach8 -> Tachr Prf Kp indicator 87

100 Basd on th rsults of Tabl 5-9, all of th indicators in high ordr construct hav outr loadings highr than 0.5 which indicats that all of th indicators can b includd in th modl. Howvr, it mans that th indicators that do not pass th outr wight significanc tst (Tabl 5-8) ar not significant but thy ar still absolut important Structural Modl Assssmnt Th nxt stp aftr assssing th masurmnt modl is to valuat th final structural modl. Th purpos of this stp is to valuat th ability of th modl to prdict and th rlationship btwn th constructs (Ringl t al., 2013). Ths valuations includ assssmnt collinarity of th structural modl, th significanc of th path cofficint (β), and th cofficint of dtrmination (R 2 ), and th rlvanc of significanc rlationship Collinarity Assssmnt Th collinarity assssmnt starts by using th latnt variabls scors obtaind from running SmartPLS softwar (Ringl t al., 2005). Ths latnt variabl scors ar usd to run multipl rgrssions with a st of prdictor constructs as indpndnt variabls and any othr latnt variabl, which dos not srv as th dpndnt variabl by using PLS-SEM softwar. Tabl 5-10 shows th rsults of varianc inflation factor (VIF) for th highr ordr constructs. Varianc inflation factor is calculatd using quation (14). It is obtaind by rgrssing an xognous variabl with othr xognous variabls that xplain th sam ndognous variabl. 88

101 Tabl 5-10: Varianc Inflation Factor Rsults of Structural Modl First St Scond St Construct R 2 VIF Construct R 2 VIF ISO ISO Cultur Cultur Administrator Prf Tabl 5-10 consists of two st of varianc inflation factor rsults bcaus thr ar two ndognous variabls (administrator and tachr prformancs) that ar linkd into mor than on xognous variabls (ISO and Quality Cultur). Th path modl shows that th prformanc of administrator is xplaind by ISO implmntation and quality cultur. Thus, two rgrssion analyss ar prformd by first including ISO as dpndnt variabl and Quality Cultur as indpndnt variabl. Scond, th rgrssion analysis is prformd by switching th ISO as indpndnt variabl and Quality Cultur as dpndnt variabl. Th path modl show that administrator prformanc is xplaind by th ISO, Quality Cultur and th prformanc of th administrator. Thus, thr rgrssion analyss ar prformd by including ISO as dpndnt variabl; and Quality Cultur and Administrator Prformanc as indpndnt variabls. Scond, Quality Cultur srvs as dpndnt variabl, and th rst srv as indpndnt variabls. Third, th Administrator prformanc srv dpndnt variabl, and th rst srv as indpndnt variabls. All of th varianc inflation factor (VIF) ar blow 5, which indicat that thr is no collinarity issu. In othr words, ths constructs do not hav sam information to masur th sam variabls. Thrfor, thr ar no rdundant constructs in th modl. Thus, ths constructs can b includd in th structural modl. 89

102 Structural Modl Path Cofficint Th strngths of rlationships btwn constructs ar indicatd by th path cofficints (β) which ar obtaind from xamining multipl rgrssions using quation (6) through (10) Th structural modl that includs th path cofficints with thir rspctiv t-tst statistics indicat that all of th paths show significant rlationships as shown in th following figur. All of th t-tst statistics ar abov 1.96 which is th statistics significanc assssd at p-valu < In total, th six null hypothsizd rlationships wr not supportd by th data. In othr words, all of th rlationships hav positiv significant ffcts. ISO Implmntation β= t = β = t = β = t = Administrator Prformanc R 2 = β= t = Tachr Prformanc R 2 = β = t = Quality Cultur β = t = R 2 = 0.47 Figur 5-2: Path Diagram Cofficint of dtrmination (R 2 ) is anothr masur to valuat structural modl and prdict th modl accuracy. Thus, only ndognous constructs, constructs that ar bing xplaind, that 90

103 hav cofficint dtrmination (R 2 ). In this cas, th constructs othr than ISO (quality cultur; prformancs of administrator and tachr) hav cofficint of dtrminations (R 2 ). Cofficint of dtrmination (R 2 ) of an ndognous construct signifis th proportion of varianc xplaind by any xognous construct linkd to it. According to Ringl t al. (2013), th lvl cofficint of dtrmination of 0.25, 0.5, and 0.75 can b catgorizd as wak, modrat, and substantial prdictiv accuracy, rspctivly. Forty prcnt of th varianc of Quality Cultur is xplaind by ISO implmntation. Thus, ISO implmntation can modratly prdict th lvl of quality cultur implmntation. Whras, about twnty ight prcnt of th varianc of th administrator prformanc is xplaind by ISO implmntation and quality cultur. It mans that th accuracy of implmntation of ISO and quality cultur to prdict th prformanc of administrator is wak. Manwhil, about almost fifty fiv prcnt of th varianc of th tachr prformanc is xplaind by ISO implmntation, quality cultur, and administrators prformanc. It signifis that ISO implmntation, quality cultur and administrators prformanc ar substantially accurat to prdict th prformanc of th tachr. Thus, ISO implmntation has positiv significant ffcts on th quality cultur, th prformancs of administrator and tachr. Th cultur has positiv significant ffcts on prformancs of th administrator and th tachr. Th prformanc of administrator also has positiv significant ffcts on th prformanc of th tachr Rlvanc of Significanc Rlationship Rlvanc of significanc rlationship provids furthr analysis in undrstanding th importanc of th constructs. It masurs th xtnt to which th ffcts of construct rlvant to othr constructs. Thus, this analysis provids both dirct and indirct ffcts valuation. Th sum of 91

104 ths dirct and indirct ffct rsults in total ffct. Th dirct ffct is masurd by th path cofficint. Th indirct ffct on an ndognous construct is calculatd by summing th multiplication of th path cofficints that linkd indirctly (Ringl t al., 2013). E Ty = E Dy + E Iy (15) whr: E Ty is th total ffct on ndognous construct y E Dy is th dirct ffct on ndognous construct y E Iy is th indirct ffct on ndognous construct y According to th path diagram in Figur 5-4, th indirct ffct of ISO on th tachr prformanc can b xamind from th indirct rlationships ranging from ISO to Tachr s Prformanc: 1. ISO Quality Cultur Administrators Prformanc Tachr s Prformanc 2. ISO Administrators Prformanc Tachr s Prformanc 3. ISO Quality Cultur Tachr s Prformanc Thus, th indirct ffct of ISO on Tachr Prformanc is calculatd th following E ISO-Tachr = β ISO-Cultur β Cultur-Administrator β administrator-tachr + β ISO-Administrator β administrator-tachr + β ISO-Cultur β Cultur-Tachr = (0.686)(0.305)(0.194) + 92

105 (0.273)(0.194)+ (0.686)(0.411) = Using th sam procdurs to calculat th indirct ffct of ISO on tachr prformanc, th total ffct of xognous constructs on th ndognous constructs can b summariz in Tabl Tabl 5-11: Total Effcts on Tachr Prformanc CONSTRUCT Dirct Effct on Indirct Effct on Tachr Prformanc Tachr Prformanc ISO Cultur Administrator Prformanc Total Effct on Tachr Prformanc Tabl 5-11 shows that th indirct ffct of ISO on Tachr Prformanc (0.3756) is highr than th its dirct ffct (0.258). Thus, th mdiators, quality cultur and administrator prformanc, play important rol in influncing th tachr prformanc. Quality cultur has highr dirct ffct (0.411) on th tachr prformanc than its indirct ffct (0.0592) bcaus th administrator prformanc has wak influnc (0.0592) on th prformanc lvl of th tachr. Howvr, influncing th prformanc of administrator improv th prformanc of th tachr. Tabl 5-12: Total Effcts on Administrator Prformanc CONSTRUCT Dirct Effct on Administrator Prformanc Indirct Effct on Administrator Prformanc 93 Total Effct on Administrator Prformanc ISO Cultur

106 Tabl 5-12 shows that ISO has almost qual dirct and indirct ffcts on th administrator prformanc. Th impact of ISO on quality cultur plays important rol in influncing th administrator prformanc Summary of Rsults and Discussion A concptual modl was dvlopd to answr th main rsarch qustion whthr ISO 9001:2008 implmntation has ffct on th prformancs of vocational school administrator and tachr. Th concptual modl, which illustrats th rsarch hypothss in this study, is xamind by using Partial Last Squars Structural Equation Modling bcaus its ability to xamin multipl intrrlatd dpndnc or subsqunt rlationships simultanously. A survy has bn conductd by using qustionnairs to masur th lvl of ISO implmntation, quality cultur, th prformancs of administrator and tachr. Th rsults of data analysis show that ISO 9001 implmntation has positiv significant ffct on quality cultur and th prformancs of administrator and th tachr. Quality cultur also has positiv significant ffct on th prformanc of th administrator and th tachr. Th prformanc of th administrator also has significant ffct on th prformanc of th tachr. Basd on ths rsults, ths imply that ISO 9001 implmntation has both dirct and indirct ffcts on th prformancs of th vocational school administrator and tachr. In othr words, th ffct of ISO 9001 on th prformancs of administrator and tachr is partially mdiatd by quality cultur. Th ffct of ISO 9001 on th prformanc of tachr is partially mdiatd by th quality cultur and th prformanc of th administrator. As th undrstanding and th implmntation of ISO 9001 incras, th quality cultur implmntation incrass. In turn, quality cultur improvmnt incrass th prformancs of th administrator and th tachr. 94

107 Furthr analysis shows that only th customr focus and ladrship of ISO 9001 principls ar important and significant to masur ISO 9001 undrstanding and implmntation Th rst of th ISO 9001 principls (Involvmnt of Popl, Procss Approach, Systm Approach to Managmnt, Continual Improvmnt, Factual Approach to Dcision Making, and Mutually Bnficial Supplir) ar not significant but ths principls ar still important to undrstand and implmnt in ordr to affct mor on th vocational school administrator and prformanc. In Quality Cultur, th dimnsion of Popl is th only on of th masurs that is significant and important. Othr dimnsions (Environmnt, Products and Srvics, Mthods, Organization Structur, and Total Quality Mindst) of th Quality Cultur ar not significant but ths dimnsions ar still important to b includd in th modl to masur Quality Cultur. In th construct of Administrator Prformanc, th componnt of School Dvlopmnt Planning and th Prsonnl Managmnt show significant ffct to masur th prformanc of administrator. Othr componnts (instructional managmnt, school facility managmnt, schoolcommunity rlations, instructional ladrship, profssional dvlopmnt, Suprvision and Evaluation) of th prformanc of administrator ar not significant but ths ar also important to b includd in th modl to masur th prformanc of administrator. In th construct of Tachr Prformanc, Instructional Excution is th only on significant componnt that masurs th Tachr Prformanc. Th rst of th Tachr prformanc masurmnts prformancs instructional planning, instructional valuation, instructional managmnt, vocational guidanc, vocational studnt organization, school-community rlations, and profssional dvlopmnt ar not significant but ths ar still important componnts to masur Tachr Prformanc. 95

108 In addition, th analysis of indirct ffct shows that th inclusion of mdiator (Quality Cultur) can incras th ffct of ISO 9001 on th prformancs on th administrator and tachr. Furthrmor, th influnc of ISO on th administrator also incrass th prformanc of th tachr. 96

109 CHAPTER 6: CONCLUSIONS This chaptr prsnts th conclusion of this study that bgins with th summary of this study, summarizs th rsults of this study and concluds th implication of ISO implmntation on th prformanc of th vocational school administrator th tachr, contributions, rcommndations, limitations and potntial for futur rsarch Summary Th main objctiv of this study is to invstigat th ffcts ISO 9001 quality managmnt principls implmntation on administrator and tachr prformancs in Indonsian vocational ducation. A concptual modl has bn dvlopd to valuat th rlationships. Qustionnair has bn dvlopd in ordr to masur th dgr of rlationship btwn constructs. Partial Last Squar Structural Equation Modling has bn usd to xamin th concptual modl bcaus its ability to multipl intrrlatd dpndnc or subsqunt rlationships simultanously. Th masurmnt modl assssmnt shows that only th customr focus and ladrship of ISO 9001 principls ar important and significant. Th rst of th ISO 9001 principls (Involvmnt of Popl, Procss Approach, Systm Approach to Managmnt, Continual Improvmnt, Factual Approach to Dcision Making, and Mutually Bnficial Supplir) ar not significant but ths ar still absolutly important to b implmntd. This assssmnt also shows that th only Quality Cultur dimnsion that is significant and important masur is Popl. Othr dimnsions of Quality Cultur ar not significant but thy ar still important to b implmntd. Th componnt of School Dvlopmnt Planning and th Prsonnl Managmnt show significant ffct to masur th prformanc of administrator. Instructional Excution is th only on significant componnt that 97

110 masurs th Tachr Prformanc. In summary, this assssmnt implis that th non-significant dimnsions nd to b improvd in trms of th knowldg and th implmntation. Th rsults of th study provid modl supports for th concptual modl that links th ISO 9001:2008 implmntation with quality cultur, prformancs of administrator and tachr. Partial Last Squars Structural Equation Modling shows that ISO implmntation has positiv significant ffcts on th quality cultur; and th prformancs of th administrator and tachr. Vocational administrator prformanc also has positiv significant ffct on th vocational school tachr prformanc. Quality cultur has positiv significant ffct on th prformancs of vocational school administrator and tachr. Thus, ths findings answr th rsarch qustions Rsarch Contributions Th concptual modl of this study rprsnts th first attmpt to xamin multipl dpndnc or subsqunt rlationships simultanously by using Partial Last Squars Structural Equation Modling mthodology in th ara of Quality and Vocational Education sttings. This study is not only abl to confirm th significant ffct of ISO quality managmnt implmntation on th prformanc of vocational school administr and tachr but this study also abl to idntify th ky lmnts of ISO that contributs to significant ffct. Morovr, it is abl to show th dimnsions of ISO, quality cultur, prformancs of administrator and tachr that nd to b improvd. This study provids th undrstanding on how ISO 9001:2008 quality managmnt practic affcts th prformancs of human rsourcs. 98

111 6.3. Rcommndations It is rcommndd that th implmntation of ISO in vocational ducation b continud as it shows significant ffct on th vocational school human rsourc prformancs. According to th findings of this study, thr ar som masurmnt indicators that ar not significant but ar absolut important to b implmntd vn though th currnt practic has alrady provn to hav significant ffct on th prformancs of vocational school administrator and tachr. In this study, th aras that nd to b improvd in undrstanding and implmnting ISO 9001:2008 ar Involvmnt of Popl, Procss Approach, Systm Approach to Managmnt, Continual Improvmnt, Factual Approach to Dcision Making, and Mutually Bnficial Supplir. Furthr analysis shows that ISO implmntation and quality cultur hav both dirct and indirct ffcts on th vocational school human rsourcs prformancs. Th rlvanc of significanc analysis show that mdiators, quality cultur and administrator s prformanc, play important rols in improving th ffct of ISO on Tachr prformanc. Quality Cultur also plays important rols as a mdiator btwn ISO and administrator prformanc. Evn though ISO has positiv dirct ffct on prformancs of th administrator and th tachr, th influnc of ISO on th quality cultur can furthrmor improv th prformancs of administrator and th tachr. In addition, whn ISO positivly influncs th prformanc of administrator, th prformanc of administrator positivly influnc th prformanc of th tachr. Hnc, including mdiator in th modl can provid mor undrstanding th rlationships btwn constructs. Basd on th rsarch findings, it is rcommndd that th policy of Indonsian Ministry of Education and Cultur on th application of ISO on vocational schools in Indonsia b continud in th futur. Thus, it is important to provid fforts (.g. training, workshops, inviting succssful ISO 99

112 crtifid company, tc.) to hav th administrators and tachrs undrstand th principls of ISO and implmnt thm in ducation sttings Limitations and Futur Rsarch This study is limitd to th vocational ducation sttings. Nowadays, ISO has bn implmntd in many aras. Thus it cannot b usd to gnraliz byond this scop. Howvr, th rational mthodology in this study can b usd to conduct in many aras. Thus, it hlps to undrstand th impact of an implmntd practic on crtain prformancs mor accuratly. This study only xamins th influnc of on implmntd practic (ISO 9001) on prformancs. Futur study can involv mor than on practics to s th intraction ffcts that influnc othr variabls. Furthr study can also xplor mor variabls or constructs that can b involvd in th modl as modrators. This will provid bttr undrstanding about caus and ffct rlationship in a complx modl. Figur 6-1 shows an illustration on how a modrator can b includd in th concptual modl. Th modl shows that th rlationship btwn th managmnt and organization prformanc is modratd by a modrator. This modl shows that th modrator is an indpndnt variabl which is not affctd by othr indpndnt variabl. 100

113 Modrator Managmnt Practic Organization Prformanc Figur 6-1 Modrator in th Concptual Modl 101

114 APPENDIX A: RESEARCH INSTRUMENT 102

115 VARIABLE 1: QUALITY MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES Plas rat th lvl of your knowldg and th xtnt of implmntation on ach of th following componnt using following critria: 1 = poor, 2 = fair, 3 = avrag, 4=good, 5 = xcllnt. Tabl A-1: Quality Managmnt Principls Masurmnt Itms (adaptd from ISO (2011f)) ISO Quality Managmnt Principls No 1 Knowldg and Implmntation Componnts Rsarching and undrstanding customr nds and xpctations Lvl of Knowldg and Implmntation Customr Focus Ladrship Involvmnt of Popl Ensuring that th objctivs of th organization ar linkd to customr nds and xpctations Masuring customr satisfaction and acting on th rsults Convrting customr nds into ISO rquirmnts Considring th nds of all intrstd partis including customrs, ownrs, mploys, supplirs, financirs, local communitis and socity as a whol 6 Clarify and articulat vision 7 8 Crating and sustaining shard valus, fairnss and thical rol modls at all lvls of th organization Providing popl with th rquird rsourcs, training and frdom to act with rsponsibility and accountability 9 Gtting popl undrstanding th importanc of thir contribution and rol in th organization Gtting popl frly sharing knowldg and xprinc Gtting popl opnly discussing problms and issus 103

116 ISO Quality Managmnt Principls Procss Approach Systm Approach to Managmnt Continual Improvmnt No Knowldg and Implmntation Componnts Systmatically dfining th activitis ncssary 12 to obtain a dsird rsult. Establishing clar rsponsibility and 13 accountability for managing ky activitis Analyzing and masuring of th capability of 14 ky activitis Evaluating risks, consquncs and impacts of 15 activitis on customrs, supplirs and othr intrstd partis Structuring a systm to achiv th 16 organization's objctivs in th most ffctiv and fficint way. Undrstanding th intrdpndncis btwn 17 th procsss of th systm. Providing a bttr undrstanding of th rols and rsponsibilitis ncssary for achiving 18 common objctivs and thrby rducing crossfunctional barrirs. Undrstanding organizational capabilitis and 19 stablishing rsourc constraints prior to action. Employing a consistnt organization-wid 20 approach to continual improvmnt of th organization's prformanc. Making continual improvmnt of procsss 21 and systms an objctiv for vry individual in th organization. 22 Establishing goals to guid, and masurs to track, continual improvmnt. Lvl of Knowldg and Implmntation

117 ISO Quality Managmnt Principls Factual Approach to Dcision Making Mutual Bnficial Supplir Rlationship No Knowldg and Implmntation Componnts Ensuring that data and information ar 23 sufficintly accurat and rliabl. Analyzing data and information that rsults in maningful in trms of linkag btwn 24 ky masurs and organization prformancs using valid mthods Making dcisions and taking action basd 25 on factual analysis, balancd with xprinc and intuition. Establishing rlationships that balanc 26 short-trm gains with long-trm considrations. 27 Idntifying and slcting ky supplirs. Establishing joint dvlopmnt and 28 improvmnt activitis. Lvl of Knowldg and Implmntation

118 VARIABLE 2: INSTRUMENT OF QUALITY CULTURE Plas rat your vocational school on th following critria: 1 = dos not apply, 2 = fair, 3 = nutral, 4 = somwhat applis, 5 = dfinitly applis. Tabl A-2: Quality Cultur Masurmnt Itms (xcrptd from Lwis and Smith (1994)) Quality Cultur No Knowldg and Implmntation Componnts Lvl of Knowldg and Implmntation Accpts rsponsibility to all stakholdrs Environmnt 2 School dmonstrats long-trm focus 3 Human rights and divrsity accptd 4 Workrs mpowrd 5 Workrs supportd by managmnt 6 A shard common vision xists Product and Srvics Mthods 7 Satisfy customr nds and xpctations 8 Customr input to srvic dvlopmnt 9 Masur customr satisfaction proactivly 10 Study/larn from succsss and failurs 11 Establish oprational dfinitions of quality for ky procsss 12 Obtain constant fdback 13 Study/larn from othrs 14 Manag procsss and stabiliz through Statistical Procss Control 15 Communicat using data 16 Fl "I blong" 17 Rcogniz contribution Popl 18 Larn continuously 19 Committd to tam 20 Shar customr vision 21 "Connctd" to customr 106

119 Quality Cultur Organization al Structur Total Quality Mindst No Knowldg and Implmntation Componnts 22 Cooprat at all lvls 23 Oprat all systms/ procsss using total quality 24 Undrstand rols/rsponsibilitis 25 Encourag crativity and innovation 26 Improvd quality incrass 27 Rcogniz that variation is normal 28 All mmbrs larn continuously 29 All mploys us data 30 Employ th PDCA cycl 31 Masur and track rsults 32 Rcogniz that all outcoms rsult from a procss 33 Rcogniz that all quality mans continuous improvmnt 34 Rcogniz that managrs control (ar rsponsibl for) th work procss 35 Practic systms thinking 36 Mov from numrativ to analytical approach 37 Customr nds dfin quality Lvl of Knowldg and Implmntation

120 VARIABLE 3: INSTRUMENT OF VOCATIONAL SCHOOL ADMINISTRATOR PERFORMANCE Rat th vocational school administrator s prformanc lvl on ach of th following prformanc componnt. Indicat th lvl of th vocational school administrator s prformanc by placing an X in th appropriat column undr th lvl of prformanc hading. Not: 1 (poor), 2 (fair), 3 (avrag), 4 (good), and 5 (xcllnt). Tabl A-3: Administrator Prformanc Masurmnt Itms (adaptd from Ohio Stat Univrsity (1983)) Administrator Prformanc School Dvlopmnt Planning Instructional Managmnt Prsonnl Managmnt No Prformanc Componnts 1 Dvlop school dsird outcoms Dvlop programs to achiv school dsird 2 outcoms Dvlop spnding plan to support school 3 programs 4 Dvlop school rvnu plan 5 Dirct curriculum dvlopmnt Guid th dvlopmnt and improvmnt of 6 instruction 7 Manag th dvlopmnt of mastr schdul Support school staff in dvloping 8 comptncy basd taching matrials 9 Apprais school staff dvlopmnt nds 10 Facilitat school staff dvlopmnt program 11 Assign school staff in rlvant subjcts 12 Support school staff crativitis and innovations 13 Manag school staff affairs Lvl of Prformanc

121 Administrator Prformanc Studnt Managmnt School Facility Managmnt Financial Managmnt School- Community Rlations Instructional Ladrship & School Cultur Dv. Profssional Dvlopmnt Suprvision/ Monitoring and Evaluation No Prformanc Componnts 14 Manag studnt rcruitmnt and admissions 15 Provid systmatic guidanc srvics 16 Maintain school disciplin 17 Provid studnt placmnt srvics 18 Provid facilitis rquird to run schools 19 Manag (maintain and rpair) school facilitis 20 Manag th purchas of school facilitis 21 Prpar school budgts 22 Idntify financial rsourcs for school 23 Manag th us of mony 24 Involv th world of work in school dvlopmnt 25 Organiz and work with th world of work for studnt work xprinc 26 Promot school to community 27 Provid instructional ladrship to school staff 28 Dvlop larning community at th school 29 Facilitat school cultur dvlopmnt 30 Encourag continuing profssional dvlopmnt for school staff 31 Plan for school principal profssional dvlopmnt 32 Suprvis school staff 33 Evaluat school staff prformanc Lvl of Prformanc

122 VARIABLE 4: INSTRUMENT OF VOCATIONAL SCHOOL TEACHER S PERFORMANCE Rat th vocational school tachr s prformanc lvl on ach of th following prformanc componnt. Indicat th lvl of th vocational school tachr s prformanc by placing an X in th appropriat column undr th lvl of prformanc hading. Not: 1 (poor), 2 (fair), 3 (avrag), 4(good), and 5 (xcllnt). Tabl A-4: Tachr Prformanc Masurmnt Itms (adaptd from Ohio Stat Univrsity (1983)) Tachr Prformanc Instructional Planning Instructional Excution Instructional Evaluation No Prformanc Componnts 1 Dvlop studnt prformanc objctivs 2 Dvlop a unit of instruction 3 Dvlop a lsson plan 4 Prpar instructional matrials Introduc, prsnt, and summariz a lsson in a 5 good mannr (ffctiv and fficint) Us/mploy varitis of taching mthods 6 appropriat for diffrnt lssons Us/mploy varitis of taching mdias 7 appropriat for diffrnt lssons 8 Dirct studnt laboratory xprinc 9 Employ projct mthod 10 Dmonstrat a manipulativ skill 11 Individualiz instruction 12 Encourag larning motivation and high curiosity 13 Establish studnt prformanc critria 14 Assss studnt prformanc (knowldg, attituds, and skills) 15 Evaluat tachr s instructional ffctivnss Lvl of Prformanc Instructional Managmnt 16 Projct instructional rsourc nds 17 Organiz th vocational laboratory 18 Manag th vocational laboratory 19 Provid for studnt safty 110

123 Tachr Prformanc No Prformanc Componnts Vocational Guidanc Vocational Studnt Organization School-Community Rlations 20 Gathr studnt data 21 Us confrncs to hlp mt studnt nds 22 Provid information on ducational and carr opportunitis 23 Assist studnts in applying for mploymnt or furthr ducation 24 Establish a studnt vocational organization 25 Prpar studnt vocational organization mmbrs for ladrship rols Assist studnt vocational organization mmbrs 26 in dvloping and financing a yarly program of activitis 27 Suprvis activitis of th studnt vocational organization 28 Guid participation in studnt vocational organization contsts 29 Dvlop a school-community rlations plan for tachr s vocational program 30 Dvlop brochurs to promot tachr s vocational program 31 Giv prsntations to promot tachr s vocational program 32 Work with mmbrs of th community 33 Obtain fdback about tachr s vocational program Lvl of Prformanc Profssional Dvlopmnt 34 Kp up-to-dat profssionally 35 Joint/participat activly in profssional organization 111

124 APPENDIX B: HUMAN SUBJECTS REVIEW APPROVAL LETTER 112

125 113

REPORT' Meeting Date: April 19,201 2 Audit Committee

REPORT' Meeting Date: April 19,201 2 Audit Committee REPORT' Mting Dat: April 19,201 2 Audit Committ For Information DATE: March 21,2012 REPORT TITLE: FROM: Paul Wallis, CMA, CIA, CISA, Dirctor, Intrnal Audit OBJECTIVE To inform Audit Committ of th rsults

More information

A Project Management framework for Software Implementation Planning and Management

A Project Management framework for Software Implementation Planning and Management PPM02 A Projct Managmnt framwork for Softwar Implmntation Planning and Managmnt Kith Lancastr Lancastr Stratgis Kith.Lancastr@LancastrStratgis.com Th goal of introducing nw tchnologis into your company

More information

Job Description. Programme Leader & Subject Matter Expert

Job Description. Programme Leader & Subject Matter Expert Job titl: Programm Ladr & Subjct Mattr xprt Arbitration Pathways, ducation and Training Dpartmnt Salary band: 47,500 to 56,500 (dpndnt upon xprinc) Hours: 35 hours a wk Trm: Full Tim, Prmannt Accountabl

More information

SCHOOLS' PPP : PROJECT MANAGEMENT

SCHOOLS' PPP : PROJECT MANAGEMENT Rport Schools' PPP Sub Committ 22 April 2004 2 SCHOOLS' PPP : PROJECT MANAGEMENT 1 Rason for Rport To provid Mmbrs with information on th structur of th Schools' PPP Projct Tam 2 Background 21 Dumfris

More information

WORKERS' COMPENSATION ANALYST, 1774 SENIOR WORKERS' COMPENSATION ANALYST, 1769

WORKERS' COMPENSATION ANALYST, 1774 SENIOR WORKERS' COMPENSATION ANALYST, 1769 08-16-85 WORKERS' COMPENSATION ANALYST, 1774 SENIOR WORKERS' COMPENSATION ANALYST, 1769 Summary of Dutis : Dtrmins City accptanc of workrs' compnsation cass for injurd mploys; authorizs appropriat tratmnt

More information

FACULTY SALARIES FALL 2004. NKU CUPA Data Compared To Published National Data

FACULTY SALARIES FALL 2004. NKU CUPA Data Compared To Published National Data FACULTY SALARIES FALL 2004 NKU CUPA Data Compard To Publishd National Data May 2005 Fall 2004 NKU Faculty Salaris Compard To Fall 2004 Publishd CUPA Data In th fall 2004 Northrn Kntucky Univrsity was among

More information

Asset set Liability Management for

Asset set Liability Management for KSD -larning and rfrnc products for th global financ profssional Highlights Library of 29 Courss Availabl Products Upcoming Products Rply Form Asst st Liability Managmnt for Insuranc Companis A comprhnsiv

More information

EFFECT OF GEOMETRICAL PARAMETERS ON HEAT TRANSFER PERFORMACE OF RECTANGULAR CIRCUMFERENTIAL FINS

EFFECT OF GEOMETRICAL PARAMETERS ON HEAT TRANSFER PERFORMACE OF RECTANGULAR CIRCUMFERENTIAL FINS 25 Vol. 3 () January-March, pp.37-5/tripathi EFFECT OF GEOMETRICAL PARAMETERS ON HEAT TRANSFER PERFORMACE OF RECTANGULAR CIRCUMFERENTIAL FINS *Shilpa Tripathi Dpartmnt of Chmical Enginring, Indor Institut

More information

GOAL SETTING AND PERSONAL MISSION STATEMENT

GOAL SETTING AND PERSONAL MISSION STATEMENT Prsonal Dvlopmnt Track Sction 4 GOAL SETTING AND PERSONAL MISSION STATEMENT Ky Points 1 Dfining a Vision 2 Writing a Prsonal Mission Statmnt 3 Writing SMART Goals to Support a Vision and Mission If you

More information

5.3.2 APPROACH TO PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT

5.3.2 APPROACH TO PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Chaptr 5: Prformanc Managmnt Systm 5. APPROACH TO PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Th Municipal Systms Act () rquirs municipalitis to dvlop a prformanc managmnt systm suitabl for thir own circumstancs. According

More information

union scholars program APPLICATION DEADLINE: FEBRUARY 28 YOU CAN CHANGE THE WORLD... AND EARN MONEY FOR COLLEGE AT THE SAME TIME!

union scholars program APPLICATION DEADLINE: FEBRUARY 28 YOU CAN CHANGE THE WORLD... AND EARN MONEY FOR COLLEGE AT THE SAME TIME! union scholars YOU CAN CHANGE THE WORLD... program AND EARN MONEY FOR COLLEGE AT THE SAME TIME! AFSCME Unitd Ngro Collg Fund Harvard Univrsity Labor and Worklif Program APPLICATION DEADLINE: FEBRUARY 28

More information

The example is taken from Sect. 1.2 of Vol. 1 of the CPN book.

The example is taken from Sect. 1.2 of Vol. 1 of the CPN book. Rsourc Allocation Abstract This is a small toy xampl which is wll-suitd as a first introduction to Cnts. Th CN modl is dscribd in grat dtail, xplaining th basic concpts of C-nts. Hnc, it can b rad by popl

More information

Adverse Selection and Moral Hazard in a Model With 2 States of the World

Adverse Selection and Moral Hazard in a Model With 2 States of the World Advrs Slction and Moral Hazard in a Modl With 2 Stats of th World A modl of a risky situation with two discrt stats of th world has th advantag that it can b natly rprsntd using indiffrnc curv diagrams,

More information

STATEMENT OF INSOLVENCY PRACTICE 3.2

STATEMENT OF INSOLVENCY PRACTICE 3.2 STATEMENT OF INSOLVENCY PRACTICE 3.2 COMPANY VOLUNTARY ARRANGEMENTS INTRODUCTION 1 A Company Voluntary Arrangmnt (CVA) is a statutory contract twn a company and its crditors undr which an insolvncy practitionr

More information

QUANTITATIVE METHODS CLASSES WEEK SEVEN

QUANTITATIVE METHODS CLASSES WEEK SEVEN QUANTITATIVE METHODS CLASSES WEEK SEVEN Th rgrssion modls studid in prvious classs assum that th rspons variabl is quantitativ. Oftn, howvr, w wish to study social procsss that lad to two diffrnt outcoms.

More information

Rural and Remote Broadband Access: Issues and Solutions in Australia

Rural and Remote Broadband Access: Issues and Solutions in Australia Rural and Rmot Broadband Accss: Issus and Solutions in Australia Dr Tony Warrn Group Managr Rgulatory Stratgy Tlstra Corp Pag 1 Tlstra in confidnc Ovrviw Australia s gographical siz and population dnsity

More information

TIME MANAGEMENT. 1 The Process for Effective Time Management 2 Barriers to Time Management 3 SMART Goals 4 The POWER Model e. Section 1.

TIME MANAGEMENT. 1 The Process for Effective Time Management 2 Barriers to Time Management 3 SMART Goals 4 The POWER Model e. Section 1. Prsonal Dvlopmnt Track Sction 1 TIME MANAGEMENT Ky Points 1 Th Procss for Effctiv Tim Managmnt 2 Barrirs to Tim Managmnt 3 SMART Goals 4 Th POWER Modl In th Army, w spak of rsourcs in trms of th thr M

More information

by John Donald, Lecturer, School of Accounting, Economics and Finance, Deakin University, Australia

by John Donald, Lecturer, School of Accounting, Economics and Finance, Deakin University, Australia Studnt Nots Cost Volum Profit Analysis by John Donald, Lcturr, School of Accounting, Economics and Financ, Dakin Univrsity, Australia As mntiond in th last st of Studnt Nots, th ability to catgoris costs

More information

Development of Financial Management Reporting in MPLS

Development of Financial Management Reporting in MPLS 1 Dvlopmnt of Financial Managmnt Rporting in MPLS 1. Aim Our currnt financial rports ar structurd to dlivr an ovrall financial pictur of th dpartmnt in it s ntirty, and thr is no attmpt to provid ithr

More information

Improving Managerial Accounting and Calculation of Labor Costs in the Context of Using Standard Cost

Improving Managerial Accounting and Calculation of Labor Costs in the Context of Using Standard Cost Economy Transdisciplinarity Cognition www.ugb.ro/tc Vol. 16, Issu 1/2013 50-54 Improving Managrial Accounting and Calculation of Labor Costs in th Contxt of Using Standard Cost Lucian OCNEANU, Constantin

More information

Architecture of the proposed standard

Architecture of the proposed standard Architctur of th proposd standard Introduction Th goal of th nw standardisation projct is th dvlopmnt of a standard dscribing building srvics (.g.hvac) product catalogus basd on th xprincs mad with th

More information

Remember you can apply online. It s quick and easy. Go to www.gov.uk/advancedlearningloans. Title. Forename(s) Surname. Sex. Male Date of birth D

Remember you can apply online. It s quick and easy. Go to www.gov.uk/advancedlearningloans. Title. Forename(s) Surname. Sex. Male Date of birth D 24+ Advancd Larning Loan Application form Rmmbr you can apply onlin. It s quick and asy. Go to www.gov.uk/advancdlarningloans About this form Complt this form if: you r studying an ligibl cours at an approvd

More information

C H A P T E R 1 Writing Reports with SAS

C H A P T E R 1 Writing Reports with SAS C H A P T E R 1 Writing Rports with SAS Prsnting information in a way that s undrstood by th audinc is fundamntally important to anyon s job. Onc you collct your data and undrstand its structur, you nd

More information

Universities as role models for sustainable development

Universities as role models for sustainable development EUA Annual confrnc "Th Sustainability of Europan Univrsitis", Warwick, 120322-23. Sssion - "Sustainabl Campuss" Univrsitis as rol modls for sustainabl dvlopmnt Pam Frdman Vic-Chancllor /miljo Structur

More information

Free ACA SOLUTION (IRS 1094&1095 Reporting)

Free ACA SOLUTION (IRS 1094&1095 Reporting) Fr ACA SOLUTION (IRS 1094&1095 Rporting) Th Insuranc Exchang (301) 279-1062 ACA Srvics Transmit IRS Form 1094 -C for mployrs Print & mail IRS Form 1095-C to mploys HR Assist 360 will gnrat th 1095 s for

More information

FEASIBILITY STUDY OF JUST IN TIME INVENTORY MANAGEMENT ON CONSTRUCTION PROJECT

FEASIBILITY STUDY OF JUST IN TIME INVENTORY MANAGEMENT ON CONSTRUCTION PROJECT FEASIBILITY STUDY OF JUST IN TIME INVENTORY MANAGEMENT ON CONSTRUCTION PROJECT Patil Yogndra R. 1, Patil Dhananjay S. 2 1P.G.Scholar, Dpartmnt of Civil Enginring, Rajarambapu Institut of Tchnology, Islampur,

More information

Deer: Predation or Starvation

Deer: Predation or Starvation : Prdation or Starvation National Scinc Contnt Standards: Lif Scinc: s and cosystms Rgulation and Bhavior Scinc in Prsonal and Social Prspctiv s, rsourcs and nvironmnts Unifying Concpts and Procsss Systms,

More information

Presentation on Short-Term Certificates to the CAPSEE Conference. September 18, 2014

Presentation on Short-Term Certificates to the CAPSEE Conference. September 18, 2014 Prsntation on Short-Trm Crtificats to th CAPSEE Confrnc Sptmbr 18, 2014 Th first goal of City Collgs Rinvntion is focusd on nsuring studnts arn crdntials of conomic valu Rinvntion Goals Incras numbr of

More information

Sci.Int.(Lahore),26(1),131-138,2014 ISSN 1013-5316; CODEN: SINTE 8 131

Sci.Int.(Lahore),26(1),131-138,2014 ISSN 1013-5316; CODEN: SINTE 8 131 Sci.Int.(Lahor),26(1),131-138,214 ISSN 113-5316; CODEN: SINTE 8 131 REQUIREMENT CHANGE MANAGEMENT IN AGILE OFFSHORE DEVELOPMENT (RCMAOD) 1 Suhail Kazi, 2 Muhammad Salman Bashir, 3 Muhammad Munwar Iqbal,

More information

606 EDUCATIONAL LEADERSHIP

606 EDUCATIONAL LEADERSHIP 606 EDUCATONAL LEADERSHP j-l VCTOR W. DOHERTY AND LNDA B. PETERS O f th many aspcts of school systm planning and valua tion, prhaps th most critical and lusiv is that of goals and objc tivs. Until th aims

More information

CARE QUALITY COMMISSION ESSENTIAL STANDARDS OF QUALITY AND SAFETY. Outcome 10 Regulation 11 Safety and Suitability of Premises

CARE QUALITY COMMISSION ESSENTIAL STANDARDS OF QUALITY AND SAFETY. Outcome 10 Regulation 11 Safety and Suitability of Premises CARE QUALITY COMMISSION ESSENTIAL STANDARDS OF QUALITY AND SAFETY Outcom 10 Rgulation 11 Safty and Suitability of Prmiss CQC Rf 10A 10A(1) Lad Dirctor / Lad Officr Rspons Impact Liklihood Lvl of Concrn

More information

School Improvement Plan. Community Ed. Resource Center

School Improvement Plan. Community Ed. Resource Center Lak Orion Community Schools Mrs. Kristin Sliwinski 455 EAST SCRIPPS RD LAKE ORION, MI 48360-2249 Documnt Gnratd On Sptmbr 11, 2015 TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction 1 Excutiv Summary Introduction 3 Dscription

More information

Econ 371: Answer Key for Problem Set 1 (Chapter 12-13)

Econ 371: Answer Key for Problem Set 1 (Chapter 12-13) con 37: Answr Ky for Problm St (Chaptr 2-3) Instructor: Kanda Naknoi Sptmbr 4, 2005. (2 points) Is it possibl for a country to hav a currnt account dficit at th sam tim and has a surplus in its balanc

More information

Analyzing Product Attributes using Logical Framework of Quality Function Deployment (Phase I): Concept and Application

Analyzing Product Attributes using Logical Framework of Quality Function Deployment (Phase I): Concept and Application Intrnational Journal Enginring Rsarch & Tchnology (IJERT) Vol. 2 Issu 10, Octobr - 2013 Analyzing Product Attributs using Logical Framwork Quality Function Dploymnt (Phas I): Concpt and Application Dvndra

More information

Global Sourcing: lessons from lean companies to improve supply chain performances

Global Sourcing: lessons from lean companies to improve supply chain performances 3 rd Intrnational Confrnc on Industrial Enginring and Industrial Managmnt XIII Congrso d Ingniría d Organización Barclona-Trrassa, Sptmbr 2nd-4th 2009 Global Sourcing: lssons from lan companis to improv

More information

Keywords: Knowledge Management Foundations, Probst et al., Model, Knowledge Management, Albroz Electric Power Distribution Companies

Keywords: Knowledge Management Foundations, Probst et al., Model, Knowledge Management, Albroz Electric Power Distribution Companies THE ANALYSIS OF KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT IN THE ELECTRIC POWER DISTRIBUTION COMPANIES IN IRAN (CASE STUDY: ALBORZ ELECTRICITY PROVINCE DISTRIBUTION COMPANY) *Mortza Shikhi Dpartmnt of Industrial Managmnt,

More information

5 2 index. e e. Prime numbers. Prime factors and factor trees. Powers. worked example 10. base. power

5 2 index. e e. Prime numbers. Prime factors and factor trees. Powers. worked example 10. base. power Prim numbrs W giv spcial nams to numbrs dpnding on how many factors thy hav. A prim numbr has xactly two factors: itslf and 1. A composit numbr has mor than two factors. 1 is a spcial numbr nithr prim

More information

Genetic Drift and Gene Flow Illustration

Genetic Drift and Gene Flow Illustration Gntic Drift and Gn Flow Illustration This is a mor dtaild dscription of Activity Ida 4, Chaptr 3, If Not Rac, How do W Explain Biological Diffrncs? in: How Ral is Rac? A Sourcbook on Rac, Cultur, and Biology.

More information

ITIL & Service Predictability/Modeling. 2006 Plexent

ITIL & Service Predictability/Modeling. 2006 Plexent ITIL & Srvic Prdictability/Modling 1 2 Plxnt Th Company 2001 Foundd Plxnt basd on an Expandd ITIL Architctur, CMMI, ISO, and BS15000 - itdna 2003 Launchd itdna Srvic Offring 2003 John Groom, past Dirctor

More information

Gold versus stock investment: An econometric analysis

Gold versus stock investment: An econometric analysis Intrnational Journal of Dvlopmnt and Sustainability Onlin ISSN: 268-8662 www.isdsnt.com/ijds Volum Numbr, Jun 202, Pag -7 ISDS Articl ID: IJDS20300 Gold vrsus stock invstmnt: An conomtric analysis Martin

More information

Generic Assessment Rubrics for Computer Programming Courses

Generic Assessment Rubrics for Computer Programming Courses Gnric Assssmnt Rubrics for Computr Programming Courss Aida MUSTAPHA, Noor Azah SAMSUDIN, Nuriz ARBAIY, Rozlini MOHAMED, Isrdza Rahmi HAMID Faculty of Computr Scinc Information Tchnology, Univrsiti Tun

More information

Category 7: Employee Commuting

Category 7: Employee Commuting 7 Catgory 7: Employ Commuting Catgory dscription This catgory includs missions from th transportation of mploys 4 btwn thir homs and thir worksits. Emissions from mploy commuting may aris from: Automobil

More information

Sample Green Belt Certification Examination Questions with Answers

Sample Green Belt Certification Examination Questions with Answers Sampl Grn Blt Crtification Examination Qustions with Answrs (Grn Blt crtification xaminations assum that that th participant has succssfully compltd th Champion crtification xamination at th Univrsity

More information

Version Issue Date Reason / Description of Change Author Draft February, N/A 2009

Version Issue Date Reason / Description of Change Author Draft February, N/A 2009 Appndix A: CNS Managmnt Procss: OTRS POC Documnt Control Titl : CNS Managmnt Procss Documnt : (Location of Documnt and Documnt numbr) Author : Ettin Vrmuln (EV) Ownr : ICT Stratgic Srvics Vrsion : Draft

More information

Keywords Cloud Computing, Service level agreement, cloud provider, business level policies, performance objectives.

Keywords Cloud Computing, Service level agreement, cloud provider, business level policies, performance objectives. Volum 3, Issu 6, Jun 2013 ISSN: 2277 128X Intrnational Journal of Advancd Rsarch in Computr Scinc and Softwar Enginring Rsarch Papr Availabl onlin at: wwwijarcsscom Dynamic Ranking and Slction of Cloud

More information

Fleet vehicles opportunities for carbon management

Fleet vehicles opportunities for carbon management Flt vhicls opportunitis for carbon managmnt Authors: Kith Robrtson 1 Dr. Kristian Stl 2 Dr. Christoph Hamlmann 3 Alksandra Krukar 4 Tdla Mzmir 5 1 Snior Sustainability Consultant & Lad Analyst, Arup 2

More information

AP Calculus AB 2008 Scoring Guidelines

AP Calculus AB 2008 Scoring Guidelines AP Calculus AB 8 Scoring Guidlins Th Collg Board: Conncting Studnts to Collg Succss Th Collg Board is a not-for-profit mmbrship association whos mission is to connct studnts to collg succss and opportunity.

More information

SMART 2020 Germany Addendum. The ICT sector as the driving force on the way to sustained climate protection.

SMART 2020 Germany Addendum. The ICT sector as the driving force on the way to sustained climate protection. . Th ICT sctor as th driving forc on th way to sustaind climat protction. Situation. Climat chang is happning fastr than was prdictd just a fw yars ago. Climat chang is a thrat to businss and socity. Information

More information

A Theoretical Model of Public Response to the Homeland Security Advisory System

A Theoretical Model of Public Response to the Homeland Security Advisory System A Thortical Modl of Public Rspons to th Homland Scurity Advisory Systm Amy (Wnxuan) Ding Dpartmnt of Information and Dcision Scincs Univrsity of Illinois Chicago, IL 60607 wxding@uicdu Using a diffrntial

More information

Intermediate Macroeconomic Theory / Macroeconomic Analysis (ECON 3560/5040) Final Exam (Answers)

Intermediate Macroeconomic Theory / Macroeconomic Analysis (ECON 3560/5040) Final Exam (Answers) Intrmdiat Macroconomic Thory / Macroconomic Analysis (ECON 3560/5040) Final Exam (Answrs) Part A (5 points) Stat whthr you think ach of th following qustions is tru (T), fals (F), or uncrtain (U) and brifly

More information

Where design facilitates health to lead innovation

Where design facilitates health to lead innovation Whr dsign facilitats halth to lad innovation 18 March, 2015 Carolin Hummls, c.c.m.hummls@tu.nl Univrsity of Tchnology /dp. of Industrial Dsign / thm Participatory Halth & Wllbing /dp. of All dpartmnts

More information

Review and Analysis of Cloud Computing Quality of Experience

Review and Analysis of Cloud Computing Quality of Experience Rviw and Analysis of Cloud Computing Quality of Exprinc Fash Safdari and Victor Chang School of Computing, Crativ Tchnologis and Enginring, Lds Mtropolitan Univrsity, Hadinly, Lds LS6 3QR, U.K. {F.Safdari,

More information

Planning and Managing Copper Cable Maintenance through Cost- Benefit Modeling

Planning and Managing Copper Cable Maintenance through Cost- Benefit Modeling Planning and Managing Coppr Cabl Maintnanc through Cost- Bnfit Modling Jason W. Rup U S WEST Advancd Tchnologis Bouldr Ky Words: Maintnanc, Managmnt Stratgy, Rhabilitation, Cost-bnfit Analysis, Rliability

More information

Have Debit Cards Changed Thai Consumer Shopping Behavior?

Have Debit Cards Changed Thai Consumer Shopping Behavior? Intrnational Journal of Markting Studis Novmbr, 2009 Hav Dbit Cards Changd Thai Consumr Shopping Bhavior? Chtsada Noknoi Economics and Businss Administration Faculty, Thaksin Univrsity 140 Moo 4, Kanajanavanit

More information

Leading professional learning

Leading professional learning DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING Lading profssional larning Th litmus tst of all ladrship is whthr it mobiliss popl s commitmnt to putting thir nrgis into actions dsignd to improv things. Michal Fullan

More information

WORKLOAD STANDARD DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING. for the. Workload Committee : P.N. Gaskin (Chair) J.W. Kamphuis K. Van Dalen. September 24, 1997

WORKLOAD STANDARD DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING. for the. Workload Committee : P.N. Gaskin (Chair) J.W. Kamphuis K. Van Dalen. September 24, 1997 WORKLOAD STANDARD for th DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING Sptmbr 24, 1997 Workload Committ : P.N. Gaskin (Chair) J.W. Kamphuis K. Van Daln 9 2 TABLE OF CONTENTS l. INTRODUCTION... 3 2. DEFINITION OF WORKLOAD

More information

Chi-Square. Hypothesis: There is an equal chance of flipping heads or tails on a coin. Coin A. Expected (e) (o e) (o e) 2 (o e) 2 e

Chi-Square. Hypothesis: There is an equal chance of flipping heads or tails on a coin. Coin A. Expected (e) (o e) (o e) 2 (o e) 2 e Why? Chi-Squar How do you know if your data is th rsult of random chanc or nvironmntal factors? Biologists and othr scintists us rlationships thy hav discovrd in th lab to prdict vnts that might happn

More information

Data warehouse on Manpower Employment for Decision Support System

Data warehouse on Manpower Employment for Decision Support System Data warhous on Manpowr Employmnt for Dcision Support Systm Amro F. ALASTA, and Muftah A. Enaba Abstract Sinc th us of computrs in businss world, data collction has bcom on of th most important issus du

More information

Siemens IT Solutions and Services Pvt. Ltd.

Siemens IT Solutions and Services Pvt. Ltd. Simns IT Solutions and Srvics Pvt. Ltd. Transforming IT into Businss Valu In 10 yars tim our plant will b populatd by 8 billion popl. Th challngs ahad supply of ncssary goods and srvics, clan nrgy, smart

More information

Category 1: Purchased Goods and Services

Category 1: Purchased Goods and Services 1 Catgory 1: Purchasd Goods and Srvics Catgory dscription T his catgory includs all upstram (i.., cradl-to-gat) missions from th production of products purchasd or acquird by th rporting company in th

More information

education counselor education

education counselor education ducation counslor ducation mastr of scinc srvics crdntials Program Dscription Th Mastr of Scinc Dgr in Counsling prpars comptnt spcialists in counsling for profssional mploymnt in a numbr of sttings such

More information

Cisco Data Virtualization

Cisco Data Virtualization Cisco Data Virtualization Big Data Eco-systm Discussion with Bloor Group Bob Ev, David Bsmr July 2014 Cisco Data Virtualization Backgroundr Cisco Data Virtualization is agil data intgration softwar that

More information

Entity-Relationship Model

Entity-Relationship Model Entity-Rlationship Modl Kuang-hua Chn Dpartmnt of Library and Information Scinc National Taiwan Univrsity A Company Databas Kps track of a company s mploys, dpartmnts and projcts Aftr th rquirmnts collction

More information

Use a high-level conceptual data model (ER Model). Identify objects of interest (entities) and relationships between these objects

Use a high-level conceptual data model (ER Model). Identify objects of interest (entities) and relationships between these objects Chaptr 3: Entity Rlationship Modl Databas Dsign Procss Us a high-lvl concptual data modl (ER Modl). Idntify objcts of intrst (ntitis) and rlationships btwn ths objcts Idntify constraints (conditions) End

More information

UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI SCHOOL OF COMPUTING & INFORMATICS IMPROVING APPLICATION OF KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS IN ORGANIZATIONS:

UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI SCHOOL OF COMPUTING & INFORMATICS IMPROVING APPLICATION OF KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS IN ORGANIZATIONS: UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI SCHOOL OF COMPUTING & INFORMATICS IMPROVING APPLICATION OF KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS IN ORGANIZATIONS: CASE OF NAIROBI CITY WATER AND SEWERAGE COMPANY By TABITHA MBETE NGEI P58/63441/2011

More information

Personal Identity Verification (PIV) Enablement Solutions

Personal Identity Verification (PIV) Enablement Solutions Prsonal Idntity Vrification (PIV) Enablmnt Solutions pivclass Govrnmnt Solutions Affordabl Prsonal Idntity Vrification (PIV) Enablmnt Solutions from a Singl, Trustd Supplir Complt Solution for PIV Enablmnt

More information

intro Imagine that someone asked you to describe church using only the bible. What would you say to them?

intro Imagine that someone asked you to describe church using only the bible. What would you say to them? intro Imagin that somon askd you to dscrib church using only th bibl. What would you say to thm? So many of th things w'v mad church to b arn't ssntial in scriptur. W'r on a journy of r-imagining what

More information

Product Overview. Version 1-12/14

Product Overview. Version 1-12/14 Product Ovrviw Vrsion 1-12/14 W ar Grosvnor Tchnology Accss Control Solutions W dvlop, manufactur and provid accss control and workforc managmnt solutions th world ovr. Our product offring ompasss hardwar,

More information

Defining Retirement Success for Defined Contribution Plan Sponsors: Begin with the End in Mind

Defining Retirement Success for Defined Contribution Plan Sponsors: Begin with the End in Mind Dfining Rtirmnt Succss for Dfind Contribution Plan Sponsors: Bgin with th End in Mind David Blanchtt, CFA, CFP, AIFA Had of Rtirmnt Rsarch Morningstar Invstmnt Managmnt david.blanchtt@morningstar.com Nathan

More information

Teaching Computer Networking with the Help of Personal Computer Networks

Teaching Computer Networking with the Help of Personal Computer Networks Taching Computr Ntworking with th Hlp of Prsonal Computr Ntworks Rocky K. C. Chang Dpartmnt of Computing Th Hong Kong Polytchnic Univrsity Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong csrchang@comp.polyu.du.hk ABSTRACT

More information

EVALUATING EFFICIENCY OF SERVICE SUPPLY CHAIN USING DEA (CASE STUDY: AIR AGENCY)

EVALUATING EFFICIENCY OF SERVICE SUPPLY CHAIN USING DEA (CASE STUDY: AIR AGENCY) Indian Journal Fundamntal and Applid Lif Scincs ISSN: 22 64 (Onlin) An Opn Accss, Onlin Intrnational Journal Availabl at www.cibtch.org/sp.d/jls/20/0/jls.htm 20 Vol. (S), pp. 466-47/Shams and Ghafouripour

More information

Defense Logistics Agency STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE

Defense Logistics Agency STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE Dfns Logistics Agncy STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE DLA Information Oprations SOP 6100.04 March 12, 2015 Prformanc Optimization, J613 SUBJECT: IT Procss Improvmnt (ITPI) Standard Oprating Procdur (SOP) REFERENCES:

More information

SIMULATION OF THE PERFECT COMPETITION AND MONOPOLY MARKET STRUCTURE IN THE COMPANY THEORY

SIMULATION OF THE PERFECT COMPETITION AND MONOPOLY MARKET STRUCTURE IN THE COMPANY THEORY 1 SIMULATION OF THE PERFECT COMPETITION AND MONOPOLY MARKET STRUCTURE IN THE COMPANY THEORY ALEXA Vasil ABSTRACT Th prsnt papr has as targt to crat a programm in th Matlab ara, in ordr to solv, didactically

More information

Title: Patient Safety Improvements through Real-Time Inventory Management

Title: Patient Safety Improvements through Real-Time Inventory Management Titl: Patint Safty Improvmnts through Ral-Tim Invntory Managmnt Author: Lynda Wilson, Administrativ Projct Analyst/Crtifid Six Sigma Black Blt Mrcy Ds Moins - Mrcy Hart Hospital 411 Laurl Strt, Suit 1225

More information

Relationship between Cost of Equity Capital And Voluntary Corporate Disclosures

Relationship between Cost of Equity Capital And Voluntary Corporate Disclosures Rlationship btwn Cost of Equity Capital And Voluntary Corporat Disclosurs Elna Ptrova Eli Lilly & Co, Sofia, Bulgaria E-mail: ptrova.lnaa@gmail.com Gorgios Gorgakopoulos (Corrsponding author) Amstrdam

More information

PROJECT FOCUS: More Key Skills in Music Year 5 Project 2

PROJECT FOCUS: More Key Skills in Music Year 5 Project 2 PROJECT FOCUS: Mor Ky Skills in Music Yar 5 Projct 2 This projct dvlops som of th ky skills that will b important for studying music throughout Yars 5 through 8. Pupils will work to improv thir skill lvl

More information

Examining the effectiveness of the advertisements of Maskan Bank of Hormozgan by use of AIDA model

Examining the effectiveness of the advertisements of Maskan Bank of Hormozgan by use of AIDA model Examining th ffctivnss of th advrtismnts of Maskan Bank of Hormozgan by us of AIDA modl Mohammad Mahmoudi Mimanad 1, Elham Ahmadi 1 Associatd profssor of Dpartmnt of Businss Administration & MBA, Payam

More information

The Matrix Exponential

The Matrix Exponential Th Matrix Exponntial (with xrciss) 92.222 - Linar Algbra II - Spring 2006 by D. Klain prliminary vrsion Corrctions and commnts ar wlcom! Th Matrix Exponntial For ach n n complx matrix A, dfin th xponntial

More information

Abstract. Introduction. Statistical Approach for Analyzing Cell Phone Handoff Behavior. Volume 3, Issue 1, 2009

Abstract. Introduction. Statistical Approach for Analyzing Cell Phone Handoff Behavior. Volume 3, Issue 1, 2009 Volum 3, Issu 1, 29 Statistical Approach for Analyzing Cll Phon Handoff Bhavior Shalini Saxna, Florida Atlantic Univrsity, Boca Raton, FL, shalinisaxna1@gmail.com Sad A. Rajput, Farquhar Collg of Arts

More information

A copy of the Consultation Paper is in the Members Library and further details are available at www.scotland~qov.umpublications/2012/12/5980

A copy of the Consultation Paper is in the Members Library and further details are available at www.scotland~qov.umpublications/2012/12/5980 To: CORPORATE SERVICES COMMITTEE NORTH LANARKSHIRE COUNCIL REPORT Subjct: CONSULTATION: CIVIL LAW OF DAMAGES - ISSUES IN PERSONAL INJURY From: HEAD OF LEGAL SERVICES Dat: 30 JANUARY 2013 Rf: AL LE CSN

More information

IBM Healthcare Home Care Monitoring

IBM Healthcare Home Care Monitoring IBM Halthcar Hom Car Monitoring Sptmbr 30th, 2015 by Sal P. Causi, P. Eng. IBM Halthcar Businss Dvlopmnt Excutiv scausi@ca.ibm.com IBM Canada Cloud Computing Tigr Tam Homcar by dfinition 1. With a gnsis

More information

FACILITY MANAGEMENT SCHEMES FOR SCHOOLS IN THE UK:A STUDY OF VARIATIONS IN SUPPORT SERVICES COSTS AND CAPITAL EFFICIENCY RATIOS

FACILITY MANAGEMENT SCHEMES FOR SCHOOLS IN THE UK:A STUDY OF VARIATIONS IN SUPPORT SERVICES COSTS AND CAPITAL EFFICIENCY RATIOS FACILITY MANAGEMENT SCHEMES FOR SCHOOLS IN THE UK:A STUDY OF VARIATIONS IN SUPPORT SERVICES COSTS AND CAPITAL EFFICIENCY RATIOS By Rui PdroPrira Magalhas 1 Sptmbr 2013 A Dissrtation submittd in part fulfilmnt

More information

District Improvement Plan 2015-16. Plainwell Community Schools. Ms. Susan Wakefield, Superintendent 600 School Drive Plainwell, MI 49080-1582

District Improvement Plan 2015-16. Plainwell Community Schools. Ms. Susan Wakefield, Superintendent 600 School Drive Plainwell, MI 49080-1582 District Improvmnt Plan 2015-16 Plainwll Community Schools Ms. Susan Wakfild, Suprintndnt 600 School Driv Plainwll, MI 49080-1582 Documnt Gnratd On Jun 19, 2015 TBLE OF CONTENTS Ovrviw 1 Goals Summary

More information

(1) the capital programme decision making process; and. (2) the resultant outline capital programme for 2001-2.

(1) the capital programme decision making process; and. (2) the resultant outline capital programme for 2001-2. SNH/01/4/Info2 CAPITAL INVESTMENT STRATEGY 2001-02 Summary 1. `This information papr provids an ovrviw of th critria and prioritis usd by Managmnt Tam in dtrmining SNH s annual capital programm, as rqustd

More information

est with berkeley / uc berkeley With Berkeley exten be your best with berkeley c berkeley extension / be your best w

est with berkeley / uc berkeley With Berkeley exten be your best with berkeley c berkeley extension / be your best w c rk xt yor st w rkly c rk xt st with rkly c rk xtn Crtificat yor Program st in with rkly c rk xt yor st with rkl c rk xt yor st w rkly Bsinss c rk xt st with rkly c rk xtn Administration yor st with rkly

More information

BERKELEY CITY COLLEGE April 16, 2015 Curriculum Committee Meeting Agenda

BERKELEY CITY COLLEGE April 16, 2015 Curriculum Committee Meeting Agenda Procss Titl Nw br Full Titl ART 175A Studio Art Laboratory Effcti v Trm Committ Mting Agnda Units Hours Grading Prrqisits Catalog Dscription Top Cod Justification List of Changs 1 3 hours Prrquisit: ART

More information

Essays on Adverse Selection and Moral Hazard in Insurance Market

Essays on Adverse Selection and Moral Hazard in Insurance Market Gorgia Stat Univrsity ScholarWorks @ Gorgia Stat Univrsity Risk Managmnt and Insuranc Dissrtations Dpartmnt of Risk Managmnt and Insuranc 8--00 Essays on Advrs Slction and Moral Hazard in Insuranc Markt

More information

erkeley / uc berkeley extension Be YoUR Best / be est with berkeley / uc berkeley With BerkELEY exten xtension / be your best with berkele

erkeley / uc berkeley extension Be YoUR Best / be est with berkeley / uc berkeley With BerkELEY exten xtension / be your best with berkele c rkley xtnsion yor st w rkly c rkley xtnsion st with rkly c rkley xtn Crtificat yor Program st in with rkly c rk xtnsion yor st with rkl c rkley xtnsion yor st w rkly Financial c Planning rkley xtnsion

More information

Colombia: COLCIENCIAS Departamento Administrativo de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación

Colombia: COLCIENCIAS Departamento Administrativo de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Colombia: COLCIENCIAS Dpamnto Administrativo d Cincia, Tcnología Innovación Initial Funding Committmnt 100.000 Who can apply? Thmatic Ara BIODIVERSITY / CLIMATE Rsarch, tchnological dvlopmnt and / or innovation

More information

Lecture 3: Diffusion: Fick s first law

Lecture 3: Diffusion: Fick s first law Lctur 3: Diffusion: Fick s first law Today s topics What is diffusion? What drivs diffusion to occur? Undrstand why diffusion can surprisingly occur against th concntration gradint? Larn how to dduc th

More information

Human Resources and Organisational Development Services. Service Area Name: Services to Schools Account Manager:

Human Resources and Organisational Development Services. Service Area Name: Services to Schools Account Manager: Srvic Ara Nam: Human Rsourcs and Organisational Dvlopmnt Srvics Srvics to Schools Account Managr: Nam: Tracy Palmr Position: Had of HR Managmnt Contact Numbr: 0191 561 1722 Email: tracy.palmr@sundrland.gov.uk

More information

YouthWorks Youth Works (yüth- w rkz), n.

YouthWorks Youth Works (yüth- w rkz), n. YouthWorks Youth Works(yüth- w rkz),n. 1. Baltimor City s summr jobs program. 2. Crats carr pathways for Baltimor City youth. 3. Givs Baltimor mployrs opportunitis to train thir futur workforc. Opportunity

More information

Developing Economies and Cloud Security: A Study of Africa Mathias Mujinga School of Computing, University of South Africa mujinm@unisa.ac.

Developing Economies and Cloud Security: A Study of Africa Mathias Mujinga School of Computing, University of South Africa mujinm@unisa.ac. Journal of Emrging Trnds in Computing and Information Scincs 2009-2012 CIS Journal. All rights rsrvd. Dvloping Economis and Cloud Scurity: A Study of Africa Mathias Mujinga School of Computing, Univrsity

More information

Category 11: Use of Sold Products

Category 11: Use of Sold Products 11 Catgory 11: Us of Sold Products Catgory dscription T his catgory includs missions from th us of goods and srvics sold by th rporting company in th rporting yar. A rporting company s scop 3 missions

More information

(Analytic Formula for the European Normal Black Scholes Formula)

(Analytic Formula for the European Normal Black Scholes Formula) (Analytic Formula for th Europan Normal Black Schols Formula) by Kazuhiro Iwasawa Dcmbr 2, 2001 In this short summary papr, a brif summary of Black Schols typ formula for Normal modl will b givn. Usually

More information

Resource Management and Audit Scrutiny Panel. Apologies for absence were received from Councillors Child, Gilchrist, Maginnis and O Donnell.

Resource Management and Audit Scrutiny Panel. Apologies for absence were received from Councillors Child, Gilchrist, Maginnis and O Donnell. + ED I N BVRG H + THE CITY OF EDINBURGH CUNClL Itm no 4 Committ Mi n Uts Rsourc Managmnt and Audit Scrutiny Panl Edinburgh, Prsnt:- Councillors Jackson (Convnr), Aldridg, Milligan, Munro, Paisly (substitut

More information

Incomplete 2-Port Vector Network Analyzer Calibration Methods

Incomplete 2-Port Vector Network Analyzer Calibration Methods Incomplt -Port Vctor Ntwork nalyzr Calibration Mthods. Hnz, N. Tmpon, G. Monastrios, H. ilva 4 RF Mtrology Laboratory Instituto Nacional d Tcnología Industrial (INTI) Bunos irs, rgntina ahnz@inti.gov.ar

More information

IHE IT Infrastructure (ITI) Technical Framework Supplement. Cross-Enterprise Document Workflow (XDW) Trial Implementation

IHE IT Infrastructure (ITI) Technical Framework Supplement. Cross-Enterprise Document Workflow (XDW) Trial Implementation Intgrating th Halthcar Entrpris 5 IHE IT Infrastructur (ITI) Tchnical Framwork Supplmnt 10 Cross-Entrpris Documnt Workflow (XDW) 15 Trial Implmntation 20 Dat: Octobr 13, 2014 Author: IHE ITI Tchnical Committ

More information

June 2012. Enprise Rent. Enprise 1.1.6. Author: Document Version: Product: Product Version: SAP Version: 8.81.100 8.8

June 2012. Enprise Rent. Enprise 1.1.6. Author: Document Version: Product: Product Version: SAP Version: 8.81.100 8.8 Jun 22 Enpris Rnt Author: Documnt Vrsion: Product: Product Vrsion: SAP Vrsion: Enpris Enpris Rnt 88 88 Enpris Rnt 22 Enpris Solutions All rights rsrvd No parts of this work may b rproducd in any form or

More information