Fleet vehicles opportunities for carbon management

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1 Flt vhicls opportunitis for carbon managmnt Authors: Kith Robrtson 1 Dr. Kristian Stl 2 Dr. Christoph Hamlmann 3 Alksandra Krukar 4 Tdla Mzmir 5 1 Snior Sustainability Consultant & Lad Analyst, Arup 2 Snior Analyst, Advancd Tchnology & Rsarch, Arup 3 Rgional Practic Ladr HIV, Halth and Dvlopmnt, UNDP Rgional Cntr, Europ and th CIS 4 Snior Procurmnt Advisr, UNDP Nordic Offic 5 Program Managr - Global Fund Grants, UNDP Tajikistan Introduction UNDP studis hav lookd at th Scop 1, 2 and 3 carbon missions attributabl to th dlivry of Global Fund halth programms in Tajikistan, Montngro and (most rcntly) Zimbabw. Th findings of this work hav idntifid th componnts of grants which contribut most to th ovrall carbon footprint. Th challng thn bcoms how to manag and rduc this footprint, which rquirs action both at th stratgic planning stag of grant formation, but also during th dlivry phas of grant programms. During dlivry phas th opportunitis to manag carbon li with th tams rsponsibl for day-to-day dlivry of programms and th opportunity to achiv carbon rductions is dpndnt on th xtnt of control dlivry tams hav ovr how grant activitis ar carrid out. On ara whr th dlivry tams hav good influnc is ovr th us of vhicls. Emissions from vhicl us ar a common lmnt to all grant carbon footprints. This papr xamins what opportunitis xist for achiving carbon savings through this rout. 1

2 Scop Th dlivry of Global Fund halth programms maks us of larg numbrs of vhicls, undr th control of various organisations and ntitis. Ths includ: Us of vhicls in th supply and managmnt of procurd mdical quipmnt, pharmacuticals, and othr goods; Vhicls usd by th UNDP Country Offics; Vhicls usd by th Projct Implmntation Unit (PIU) for day-to-day tasks; and Vhicls usd by sub-rcipint (SR) organisations. This study has idntifid on of ths groupings us by th Projct Implmntation Unit as its focus. This is not th componnt of vhicl us likly to hav th gratst missions (which will com from fright vhicls and from us by sub-rcipints), but it is a vhicl flt which is dirctly undr th control of th UNDP PIU. If it is fasibl, and usful, to implmnt masurs to chang th way vhicls ar usd thn th PIU has th rmit and authority to mak this happn. Th othr main grouping considrd for analysis was that of vhicl us by sub-rcipints. Many grants includ th purchas of vhicls for sol us by subrcipints for th dlivry of halth activitis. Th slction of th vhicls bing procurd is undrtakn by th PIU and/or Country Offic, and so to som dgr th missions arising from sub-rcipint vhicl us can b influncd through ths procurmnt dcisions. Gnrally, sub-rcipint vhicls us ful which has also bn purchasd undr th Global Fund grants. Th day-to-day running of ths vhicls is largly th rsponsibility of th sub-rcipint organisation for which it has bn purchasd, and is thrfor out of th dirct managmnt of th PIU (albit ful us and maintnanc xpnditur ar managd as with othr xpnss of SRs). Howvr, th activitis undrtakn by sub-rcipints ar undrtakn within th trms of contracts btwn th Principal Rcipint and th Sub-rcipint, and thr may b scop for gratr control ovr th us of vhicls to b ffctd through ths agrmnts. For th purposs of this study th st of vhicls studid ar thos of th PIU in Tajikistan, supporting th dlivry of th HIV/AIDS and TB grants. Ths grants wr studid undr th prvious carbon footprint projct carrid out by UNDP and Arup. Challng Th challng is to undrstand th systms in plac for purchasing, maintaining and fulling, and managing th us of vhicls procurd through th grant funding procss for us by th PIU. It was thn to undrstand pattrns of us, and to idntify th potntial contribution of any changs to managmnt on th carbon footprint of th grants in qustion. Th flt in Tajikistan compriss six vhicls, which ar usd for carrying out a rang of programm-rlatd activitis which includ Monitoring and Evaluation activitis (M&E), gnral administrativ and planning tasks (such as dlivry and collction of documntation and occasionally quipmnt). Administrativ procsss for flt managmnt Thr ar a numbr of phass to th procurmnt and opration of vhicls within grant programms, discussd in th following sctions. Purchasing of vhicls Purchasing of vhicls for us in th vhicl flt is carrid out by th Country Offic of th rlvant country. This is du to th valu of vhicls typically bing abov th thrshold for PIU procurmnt. Managmnt of vhicl us Managmnt of th flt is undrtakn through two main administrativ procsss dpnding on whthr a journy is taking plac within th main city ara (up to approximatly 25km from th PIU location), or whthr travl furthr afild is rquird (in which cas additional scurity ovrsight is rquird). Travl within th city ara For shortr journys th procss is: 1. Staff mmbr rqusts a car/drivr through an Accss databas systm. 2. This is thn approvd by th rlvant individual within th PIU. 3. Onc approvd th information is snt to th Flt Managr, who books an availabl vhicl. 2

3 Thr is an Accss databas systm which provids th booking systm, and provids a rcord of journy bookings for latr rconciliation. Travl byond th city ara Byond th city thr is a nd for additional scurity. In this cas th procss is: An onlin rqust is mad for scurity claranc for travl. Onc claranc is grantd a Local Travl Authorisation (LTA) is prpard which forms th approval documnt for travl. This is approvd by th Programm Managr in th PIU, and by an authorisd individual from th Country Offic. Th LTA also has a function rlating to paymnt of xpnss. A vhicl is assignd for us th LTA is cratd for th passngr(s) and also th car drivr. Logging of travl information Thr ar thr main logs usd for managmnt/ rconciliation of flt vhicl costs tc.: A log which rcords milags, ful purchass and costs for ach vhicl. Containd within th log book is a rcord of vhicl maintnanc and costs. Daily log a singl sht pr day for ach car. On this is rcordd who travlld and for what purpos, whr to/from, milag, and drivr nam. Rconciliation of rcords At month nd th Daily Logs for ach vhicl ar rconcild with th two sparat systms (th Accss databas, and th LTA rcords). Costs ar thn attributd to th diffrnt grant activitis for budgting and monitoring purposs. Typically ths costs will b allocatd to: Monitoring and valuation activitis. Gnral offic administrativ budgts and/or spcific vhicl ful budgt lins. Thr is no final databas rcording all travl dtails from th two sparat systms, although th costs attributabl to all travl is ntrd into th UNDP ATLAS financial transaction systm (although this will not rcord full dtails of usag such as dstinations tc.). Maintnanc of vhicls Maintnanc of vhicls is managd by th flt managr, and dtails of ach vhicl s maintnanc rcordd in th vhicl log. This is also usd to inform th financial rconciliation, to nsur that maintnanc costs ar also allocatd to th rlvant budgt lins in th grant programm. End us of vhicls Vhicls which ar purchasd undr th funding for an individual grant ar usd by th PIU for th grant in qustion, but ar thn rtaind for us in subsqunt programms. This can crat an availabl pool of vhicls gratr than just thos idntifid undr a grant programm, as thr may b vhicls availabl from prvious programms. At th point whr vhicls rach thir nd of usful lif (through ag or damag) thr is a standardisd procss for rtiring vhicls, whrupon thy can b sold, donatd or scrappd. UNOPS 3

4 Opportunitis for carbon managmnt Thr ar various ways in which carbon missions could b rducd through th way in which th vhicl flt is managd as discussd blow. Ths includ: Purchas of mor sustainabl vhicls with lowr mbodid missions Purchas of low missions vhicls Avoidd travl Mor fficint us of vhicls for day-to-day journys Howvr, th actual capacity to achiv ths savings is dpndnt on: Having administrativ procsss which support ths activitis Not compromising th dlivry of grant programm outcoms Procurmnt of vhicls Th UN has publishd guidanc on procurmnt of vhicls, most rcntly in This guidanc sts out basic and advancd sustainability critria for vhicls. Th basic critria ar intndd to b usd within minimal cost incrass. Th critria covr a wid rang of sustainability topics (missions, quality, rcycld contnt, pdstrian safty tc.). In carbon trms thr is littl rlating to mbodid carbon, although proportion of rcycld matrial is includd as a Basic lvl critrion, with minimum standards for aluminium and stl rcycld contnt. Ful conomy is includd as a critrion in vhicl purchasing choic, with a points basd systm for prioritising vhicls with highr ful fficincy. In quantitativ trms th slction of ful fficint vhicls is likly to outwigh rcyclabl contnt in trms of potntial carbon savings. On th basis that th vhicl procurmnt critria ar bing usd whn considring vhicls for us in Tajikistan, thn th potntial savings from switching may b limitd. Howvr, thr may b a cas for nsuring an adquat mix of vhicls within th flt. It will b wholly dpndnt on location, but thr may b scop for smallr and mor ful fficint vhicls to b usd for short journys within th city ara. Efficincy of vhicl us It is gnrally accptd that travl is not undrtakn unncssarily within grant programms. But to achiv rductions in carbon missions for ths vhicls it would b ncssary to: Avoid unncssary journys Combin trips to rduc ovrall missions Us an appropriat vhicl for th trip bing undrtakn Vhicl logs for a thr month priod wr obtaind from th PIU in Tajikistan. Ths showd th following usag for th six availabl vhicls. Travl byond th city Th priod xamind was Jan-Mar Across th six vhicls: January saw 5 trips undrtakn (3 to Kulyab and 2 to Khorog) for a total of 46 days. At most thr vhicls wr allocatd concurrntly; Fbruary saw 1 trip undrtakn (Kurgan) for a total of 3 days. March saw 8 trips undrtakn (6 to Khorog, 1 to Kurgan, 1 to Khujand). At most thr vhicls wr allocatd concurrntly. Givn th volums and durations of ths journys (rlativly fw in numbr, and xpctd to mainly rlat to M&E activitis) it is xpctd that thr is littl opportunity for ths typs of journy to b avoidd. Travl within th city ara Ths trips ar far mor numrous, comprising many shortr journys. Th priod Jan Mar 2014 rcords ovr 300 journys, around 100 pr month. Examining January as an xampl saw 120 journys, all but on of which wr short trips on a singl day, and 75% of lss than 2 hours duration. Many of th journys ar to attnd mtings, to transport documnts and paprwork, and occasionally for transporting supplis. 1 procurmnt/pdfs/unsp_product%20sht_vhicls_basic%20and%20 advancd_all%20rgions.pdf 4

5 Potntial carbon savings from managmnt changs Bnchmarking of vhicl missions For th purposs of this study an xampl carbon footprint analysis has bn usd, takn from th studis carrid out in Th Round 8 Phas 2 HIV/AIDS grant programm in Tajikistan had th following profil: Inflation adjustd budgt: $15,368,588 Grant programm carbon footprint: 25,214 tonns CO 2 Vhicl us componnt of footprint (all scops): 1,581 tonns CO 2 (6%) Th stimatd missions from th of us of vhicl ful is 1,581 tonns CO 2. This includs: Budgt lins dirctly rfrncing th purchas of ful An allowanc within gnral vhicl ovrhads for purchasd ful An allowanc within gnral administration budgts for purchasd ful Vhicl ful is purchasd for a numbr of diffrnt grant activitis, som rlating to us by sub-rcipint organisations, som idntifid as bing for spcific M&E activitis, and som falling within th gnral administrativ costs for th PIU. 26% It is stimatd that around 26% of this ful us is attributabl to th PIU, with th rmaindr attributabl to us by sub-rcipint ntitis for th dlivry of spcific grant activitis, s Figur 1. This 26% is quivalnt to 415 tonns CO 2, which is approximatly 2% of th ovrall carbon footprint for th grant. Altrnativ procurmnt As st out abov, th UNDP has guidanc in plac to inform procurmnt choics of vhicls. Th prcis typs of vhicls in th flt is not known but basd on information from prvious studis thy ar xpctd to compris th following typs: Toyota Land Cruisr 200 approx. 12 litrs disl / 100 km Toyota Land Cruisr Prado approx. 14 litrs disl / 100 km It is considrd unlikly that altrnativ vhicls (of highr fficincy) could hav bn usd for out-of-city journys. For th shortr within-city journys it may hav bn possibl to us mor fficint vhicls. It is stimatd that of th 415 tonns attributabl to th PR around 75% of missions aris from within-city trips. Modlling th us of a mor fficint vhicl (such as a hybrid with typical quivalnt ful consumption of 3 litrs/100 km), and assuming an stimatd 25% of within-city trips bing carrid out with this typ of vhicl would provid gratr missions rductions. Adopting this masur would rduc th whol PIU car vhicl missions by around 15%. This rduction could b takn furthr by using full-lctric vhicls for short trips (spcially bnficial in th contxt of Tajikistan whr grid lctricity is prdominantly hydro-lctrically gnratd). 74% UNDP Activitis Sub-rcipint activitis Figur 1. Idntifid ful purchasd by nd usr Trip fficincy Th rviw of thr month s sampl data from Tajikistan provids som insight into th frquncy and typs of travl undrtakn using flt vhicls. Of ths a proportion ar out-of-city, and givn th numbr and duration of ths it is unlikly thr is potntial to manag this typ of trip mor fficintly. 5

6 Within th city ara th sampl data shows a larg numbr of short trips, with 23% lasting lss than 60 minuts, and 47% lasting btwn 60 and 120 minuts. Ovr th thr month priod 320 trips hav complt dat/tim information an avrag of 3.5 trips pr day. This frquncy of travl suggsts that thr is limitd scop to optimis journys on a day to day basis. Th narrativ supplid with journy information indicats a rang of rasons for trips many for mtings and sit visits, but also svral for documnt dlivry tc. It is unlikly that thr will b scop to manag trips to any significant xtnt for journys othr than simpl administrativ tasks. A rviw of trip information suggsts around 20% of trips ar for th purposs of transporting documnts. Thr is potntial for UNDP to achiv improvmnts in this pattrn of vhicl usag, many of which can b dlivrd through a mor advancd vhicl managmnt systm. An intgratd systm for booking, allocating, routing and logging vhicl trips could contribut significantly to achiving fficincis in flt usag. To undrstand potntial impact of changs in us, an indicativ saving of 100% of simpl documnt transfr trips (through combining ths with othr journys) would rduc th PIU ful us footprint from 416 tonns CO 2 to 353 tonns CO 2 (a 15% rduction). Cumulativ carbon savings Combining potntial savings through vhicl slction and rmoving simpl documnt trips would achiv rductions of missions attributabl to th PIU vhicl us. Carbon saving potntial Grant Carbon footprint: Vhicl us componnt of footprint (all scops): Vhicl us by PIU: Emissions aftr using mor fficint vhicls: Emissions aftr rducing th numbr of trips: Total missions aftr combining both changs: 25,214 tonns CO 2 1,581 tonns CO tonns CO tonns CO tonns CO tonns CO 2 This is furthr prsntd in Figur 2 whr it can b sn to quat to a combind rduction against PIU vhicl us of som 27%. If this wr achivd it would dlivr a rduction in ovrall grant carbon footprint of about half a prcntag point. Vhicl ful missions (tonns CO 2 ) Baslin Vhicl fficincy Rducd trips Combind ffct Figur 2. Vhicl mission rductions potntial Opportunity of hybrid tchnologis Rduction PIU Footprint Th carbon savings modlld tak a consrvativ viw of what might b achivabl through th us of mor fficint vhicls and through mor ffctiv trip and vhicl managmnt. Thr is potntial to ralis ths savings across a gratr rang of vhicls and thir us, through working with sub-rcipint organisations, and through changs to th slction of vhicls for us. A mov towards full us of hybrid vhicls (with an stimatd typical 75% rduction in vhicl missions pr km) would achiv significantly gratr impact. Implmnting full hybrid vhicl us could cut approximatly 5% from th total grant footprint, quivalnt to a saving of approximatly 1,180 tonns CO 2. This would rquir th idntification and procurmnt of hybrid vhicls capabl of oprating undr th rquird prformanc conditions. Clos work btwn UNDP and vhicl supplirs is rquird to idntify what vhicls might b currntly availabl, and th oprational conditions undr which thy would b usd across diffrnt gographical locations. 6

7 Conclusions Th initial argumnts for xamining flt vhicl us is that it is an ara within th dirct control of th PIU; and th findings of this papr indicat this potntial and th carbon saving s possibilitis it rprsnts. Th cas study rviw of Tajikistan found that th applid administration systm is not stat-of-art and uss multipl platforms, has no automatd or customizd analysis, no vhicl position systm, and rquirs a r-conciliation of manual rcording with an lctronic rquisition systm. By contrast an intgratd systm for booking, allocating, routing and logging vhicl trips could contribut significantly to achiving fficincis in usag. An intrvntion such as this would b challnging, but th subsqunt bnfits would b justifiabl if th updatd systms wr applicabl byond just th PIU xtnding to th country offic, and potntially broadr UNDP programms within othr countris. In this rgard th opportunity should b lookd at from a UNDP corporat /stratgic prspctiv and th cost fficincy, scurity and nvironmntal bnfits it could bring. It is thrfor rcommndd that th UNDP undrtak a broadr rviw of its vhicl managmnt systms, which would inform th purchas, running and maintnanc of vhicls across its oprations and th systms that support thir us. In tim this scal of intrvntion would hav potntial to influnc th bhaviour of thos partis involvd in th dlivry of transport in a rang of gographis. This influnc could partly b ralisd through xtnding ths savings into th activitis of sub-rcipint organisations (oftn govrnmnt bodis and agncis in th targt countris). As an xampl xtnding th modlld vhicl missions rductions to sub-rcipints could dlivr around a 2% rduction in th carbon footprint of a country grant programm, whil also dmonstrating dirct cost savings to projct/programm dlivry. 7

8 For furthr information plas contact: Dr. Christoph Hamlmann Rgional Practic Ladr HIV, Halth and Dvlopmnt UNDP Rgional Cntr, Europ and th CIS Dr. Kristian Stl Snior Analyst Advancd Tchnology & Rsarch Arup Disclaimr Th contnt, analysis, opinions and policy rcommndations containd in this publication do not ncssarily rflct th viws of th Unitd Nations Dvlopmnt Programm

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