An Broad outline of Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks Shaifali Shrivastava 1 Department of Computer Science and Engineering AITR, Indore

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1 Intrnational Journal of mrging Tchnology and dvancd nginring Wbsit: (ISSN , Volum 2, Issu 4, pril 2012) n road outlin of Rdundant rray of Inxpnsiv isks Shaifali Shrivastava 1 partmnt of Computr Scinc and nginring ITR, Indor 1 bstract: In this papr, I rviwd svral lvls of and a brif of R in th storag nvironmnt. was originally dvlopd at a tim whn R ISK wr still vry xpnsiv and lss rliabl than thy ar today. W will discuss architctur and utilitis of ach tchniqu or lvls lik 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 basd on our litratur rviw. W hav discussd or idntifid th various factors impacting th disk driv prformanc and issus for improving th functioning of th storag infrastructur. Kywords: (Rdundant array of indpndnt or inxpnsiv disk), R (Rdundant array of distributd disk), Strip (Numbr of locks), S (ot Spar), (Rdundant array of Indpndnt isk Controllr) I. INTROUCTION Information is highly important in our daily livs. W hav bcom information dpndnt of th Twnty-First Cntury, living in on-compl on-dmand world, that mans w nd information whn and whr it is rquird. SL (singl larg xpnsiv disk) was th most popular mdia for storing information. Now for providing th larg spac th organization had to hav lots of disk drivs. Thn th concpt of (Rdundant array of inxpnsiv disk) cam into pictur. Man tim btwn failurs: Th man tim btwn failurs (MTF) masurs in hours th avrag lif xpctancy of an. Today, data cntrs dploy thousand of in thir storag infrastructurs. Th gratr th numbr of s in th storag array, th gratr th probability of a disk failur in th array. Considr a storag array of 100 s ach with a Man tim btwn failurs of 650,000 hours. Th MTF of this collction of s in th array, thrfor, is 650,000/100 or 6,500 hours. This mans that a in this array is likly to fail at last onc in 6,500 hours. Thr was a nd for a way to prvnt singl disk driv failur from causing data failur within th stack of disks. is an nabling tchnology that lvrags multipl disks as part of a st, which provid data protction against failurs. Th rsult was simply th six lvls from 0 through 6. can b implmntd in two ways, ardwar and Softwar. for discussing w should know som trms which plays an important rol in th storag and managmnt. isk Striping: isk Striping braks a body of data into units across availabl disk. Thr ar two typs of disk striping: singl usr and multi-usr. Singl usr disk striping allows multipl hard disks to simultanously srvic multipl I/O rqusts from a singl workstation. Multi-usr disk striping allows multipl I/O rqusts from svral workstations to b snt to multipl hard disks. This mans that whil on hard disk is srvicing a rqust from a workstation, anothr hard disk is handling a sparat rqust from a diffrnt workstation. ISK ON ata ata C ata FI 1- ISK STRIPPIN ISK TWO ata ata ata F Mirroring: Mirroring is a tchniqu whrby data is stord on two diffrnt s, yilding two copis of information or data. In th vnt of on failur, th data is intact on th surviving hard disk driv and th controllr continus to srvic th host s data rqusts from th surviving disk of a mirrord pair. Whn th faild disk is rplacd with a nw disk, th controllr copis th data from th surviving disk of th mirrord pair. This particular activity is transparnt to th host. 388

2 ISK ON ata ata Intrnational Journal of mrging Tchnology and dvancd nginring Wbsit: (ISSN , Volum 2, Issu 4, pril 2012) ISK TWO ata ata Logical arrays ar comprisd of logical volums (LV). Th oprating systm rcognizs th LVs as if thy ar physical s managd by a controllr. Th numbr of hard disk driv in a logical array dpnds on th lvl usd. ata C ata C Physical rray FI-2 ISK MIRRORIN Parity: tcts rror in th data to nsur it is not corruptd aftr transmission. Parity is basically a mthod of protcting strippd data from failur without th cost of mirroring. n additional is addd to th strip width to hold th parity. Using a mathmatical illustration w can undrstand th concpt ISK ON ISK TWO ISK TR ata ata Chck + ost Logical rray ata C ata ata ata F Chck C+ Chck +F FI-5 COMPONNTS OF RRY Various lvls of : FI-3 PRITY NRTION ot Spar: hot spar rfrs to a spar in a array that tmporarily rplacs a faild of a st. hot spar taks th idntity of th faild in th array. Simply w can say that if any hard driv fails th hot spar will tak its plac with littl or no intrruption. FIL FI-4 OT SPR rray Componnts: array is an nclosur that contains a numbr of s and th supporting hardwar and softwar to implmnt. subst of disk driv within a array can b groupd to form logical arrays, also known as a st or a group. S LVLS RIF SCRIPTION Stripd Stack with no fault tolranc isk Mirroring with fault tolranc Paralll accss array with ddicatd parity disks 4 Stripd array with indpndnt disk and a ddicatd parity disk 5 Stripd array with indpndnt disk and dual parity 6 Stripd array with indpndnt disk and dual distributd parity 0+1 Striping than mirroring 1+0 Mirroring than striping 1. LVLS : pnding on th businss nd on can asily idntify th lvl of which suits th organization. 389

3 Intrnational Journal of mrging Tchnology and dvancd nginring Wbsit: (ISSN , Volum 2, Issu 4, pril 2012) Not a tru, it offrs no rdundancy and normally distributs th data vnly across 1+ drivs. In lvl 0, data is stripd across drivs, rsulting in highr data throughput. Sinc no rdundant information is stord, prformanc is vry good, but th failur of any disk in th array rsults in data loss. T T C F I MIRROR ST MIRROR ST FI is suitabl for applications that rquir high availability. FI-6 0 It utilizs th full disk capacity by distributing strips of data ovr multipl s in th st. To rad data all disks ar put togthr by th controllr. Whn th numbr of drivs in th array incras, prformanc incras bcaus mor data can b rad or writ simultanously strips data for high prformanc and uss parity for improvd fault tolranc. Parity information is stord on a ddicatd driv so that data can b rconstructd if a driv fails T In 1 data is mirrord to improv fault tolranc. 1 group consists of at last two hard disk drivs. s xplaind in th mirroring that vry writ is writtn to both disks, which is transparnt to th host in th hardwar implmntation. In th vnt of disk failur, th impact on data rcovry is th last among all implmntations. This is bcaus th controllr uss th mirror driv for data rcovry and continuous opration. Cp Fp Ip. FI

4 Intrnational Journal of mrging Tchnology and dvancd nginring Wbsit: (ISSN , Volum 2, Issu 4, pril 2012) Lvl 3 strips data at a byt lvl across svral drivs, with parity stord on on driv. For xampl, if thr drivs ar usd for data that thn out of thr on disk is surly usd for parity. Thrfor, th total disk spac rquird is 1.25 tims th siz of th data disks. 3 always rads and writs complt Strips of data across all disks. s th drivs oprats in paralll. Thr ar no partial writs that updat on out of many strips in a strip Lvl 4 is quit similar to 3 th only diffrnc is that it strips data at a block lvl across svral drivs, with parity stord on on driv. Th parity information allows rcovry from th failur of any singl driv. Th prformanc of a lvl 4 array is vry good for rads (th sam as lvl 0). Writs, howvr, rquir that parity data b updatd ach tim. Unlik 3 data disk in 4 can b accssd indpndntly so that spcific data lmnt can b rad or writtn on singl disk without rad or writ of an ntir strip is quit similar to 4 th only diffrnc is that th parity is distributd across th data disks. In 4, parity is writtn to a ddicatd driv, crating a writ bottlnck for th parity disk. In 5 parity is distributd across disks. Th distribution of parity in 5 ovrcoms th writ bottlnck. T Two disk failurs in a st lads to data unavailability and data loss in singl-parity schms, such as -3, 4, and 5 Incrasing numbr of drivs in an array and incrasing driv capacity lads to a highr probability of two disks failing in a st. -6 protcts against two disk failurs by maintaining two paritis. orizontal parity which is th sam as -5 parity.iagonal parity is calculatd by taking diagonal sts of data blocks from th st mmbrs vn-odd, and Rd-Solomon ar two commonly usd algorithms for calculating parity in Nstd (1+0, 0+1) Most data cntrs rquir data rdundancy and prformanc from thir array. 0+1 and 1+0 combins th prformanc bnfits of 0 with th rdundancy bnfits of 1. Thy us striping and mirroring tchniqus and combin thir bnfits. common misconcption is that 1+0 and 0+1 ar th sam. Undr normal conditions lvls 1+0 and 0+1 offrs idntical bnfits. owvr, rbuild oprations in th cas of disk failur diffr btwn th two. 1+0 is also calld strippd mirror. Th basic lmnt of 1+0 is a mirrord pair, which mans th data is first mirrord and thn both copis of data ar strippd across multipl s in th st. Whn rplacing a failur driv, only th mirror is rbuilt. Th basic lmnt of 0+1 is a strip. This mans that th procss of striping data across s is prformd initially and thn th ntir strip is mirrord. If on driv fails, thn th ntir strip is faultd. rbuild opration copis th ntir strip, copying data from ach disk in th halthy strip. F K P L Tp C Op Q Jp M R p I N S FI-9 5 o o 391

5 Intrnational Journal of mrging Tchnology and dvancd nginring Wbsit: (ISSN , Volum 2, Issu 4, pril 2012) Cost R prformanc 2 Low for both squntial and random rad 2 igh ood bttr than a singl disk 4 Modrat but mor than 5 ood for random rads ood for random rads for random rads good for squntial rads for random rads good for squntial rads WRIT igh ood igh ood prformanc ood slowr Than a singl disk Poor to fair For small Random writs Poor to fair For small Random writs Fair for random writs slowr du to priority ovrhad ood for small, random writs(has writ pnalty) Rfrncs [1] Cas for Rdundant rrays of Inxpnsiv isks () avtd Pattrson, arth ibson, and Randy Katz Computr Séanc ~v~smn [2] partmnt f lcmcal ngmrmga and Computrs clnchs 571 vans all Umvrsity of Cabforma rkly. C ky du) [3] Rdundant rray of Indpndnt isks () on P Compaq dc5750 usinss PCs [4] : Rdundant rray of [Indpndnt Inxpnsiv] isks postd: Jun 3rd, 2005 uthor: Matt Croydon [5] nvin.p., Th Mathmatics of 6, onlin papr, [6] [7] orfman P.M., From Obscurity to Utility: R, PK, POK as T Stp Programming Tools, Procdings of th SS lobal Forum 2009 Confrnc, Washington.C., papr 010, [8] rsourcs/paprs/procdings09/ pdf [9] Miln J.S., Filds and alois Thory, onlin lctur nots, [10] [11] Pattrson.., ibson., Katz R.., Cas for Rdundant rrays of Inxpnsiv isks (), Proc. CM SIMO Conf., Chicago, 1988, p [12] [13] Plank J.S., Tutorial on Rd-Solomon Coding for Fault- Tolranc in -lik Systms, Softwar Practic and xprinc (SP), 27(9), 1997, pp [14] Cas for Rdundant rrays of Inxpnsiv isks () VI. PTTRSON, RT ISON, N RNY. KTZ Computr Scinc ivision partmnt of lctrical nginring and Computr Scincs 571 vans all Univrsity of California rkly, C II. CONCLUSION asd on our discussion w driv th svral finding about th rdundant array of indpndnt disks. Prformanc of 1 is high as compard to 0 if w considr availability of data th main concrn. For th purpos of rdundancy on can go for 0 also. Raid 3 and 4 ar quit similar th only diffrnc xist only in th way both stors data. Raid 3 and 4 ar th nhancmnt of 1 bcaus thy cam with th logic of parity. Th prformanc of 5 is highr as compard to all th prvious s. nd lastly 6 is suprior than all th form or lvls of availabl. Prformanc of 6 can b improvd. 392

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