1 NERVOUS SYSTEM B 1. Which of the following is controlled by the somatic nervous system? A. rate of heartbeat B. contraction of skeletal muscles C. increased blood flow to muscle tissue D. movement of food through the intestines B 2. Which of the components of the nervous system has both autonomic and somatic divisions? A. Central. B. Peripheral. C. Sympathetic. D. Parasympathetic. A 3. The central nervous system includes the A. brain and spinal cord. B. somatic nervous system. C. cranial and spinal nerves. D. parasympathetic nervous system. D 4. The somatic nervous system controls A. peristalsis. B. cardiac muscles. C. smooth muscles. D. skeletal muscles. D 5. Which of the following is involved in the initiation of a fight or flight response? A. Thyroid gland. B. Prostate gland. C. Adrenal cortex. D. Adrenal medulla. C 6. The part of a sensory neuron that transmits nerve impulses from a receptor to the cell body is the A. axon. B. synapse. C. dendrite. D. neurotransmitter. B 7. What type of neuron transmits an impulse to the central nervous system? A. Motor. B. Sensory. C. Efferent. D. Interneuron. A 8. The type of neuron that can only be found in the central nervous system (CNS) is a(n) A. interneuron. B. motor neuron. C. mixed neuron. D. sensory neuron. A 9. The type of neuron that is found only in the central nervous system is the A. interneuron. B. motor neuron. C. mixed neuron. D. sensory neuron. D 10. Which of the following is responsible for transmitting impulses to the central nervous system (CNS)? A. Effectors. B. Interneurons. C. Motor neurons. D. Sensory neurons. B 11. Sensory neurons carry messages to A. glands. B. interneurons. C. sense organs. D. muscle fibres. C 12. Sensory receptors initiate nerve impulses in A. long axons. B. short axons. C. long dendrites. D. short dendrites. D 13. Which of the following is a characteristic of a resting potential? A. secretion of calcium ions B. neurotransmitters move into the axon C. depolarization of the post-synaptic membrane D. a net negative charge on the inside of the axon C 14. During which stage of a nerve impulse does the opening of the sodium gates play an important role? A. Recovery. B. Repolarization. C. Depolarization. D. Resting potential. D 15. Resting potential in a neuron is maintained by A. osmosis. B. diffusion. C. pinocytosis. D. active transport. C 16. Which organelle would be required in large numbers by a cell whose membrane is often depolarized? A. Ribosome. B. Lysosome. C. Mitochondrion. D. Endoplasmic reticulum. B 17. Within an axon, an increased concentration of sodium ions and a decreased concentration of potassium ions is observed during A. upswing. B. downswing. C. resting potential. D. synaptic transmission. B 18. The resting potential in a neuron is maintained by A. exocytosis. B. active transport. C. passive diffusion. D. facilitated transport. C 19. The correct sequence for the transmission of a nerve impulse along a neuron is 1. Potassium gates open. 2. Sodium ions diffuse into neuron. 3. Resting potential. 4. Recovery. A. 1, 2, 3, 4 B. 2, 3, 4, 1 C. 3, 2, 1, 4 D. 4, 3, 1, 2 C 20. The correct sequence for the transmission of a nerve impulse along a neuron is 1. Potassium gates open. 2. Sodium ions diffuse into neuron. 3. Resting potential. 4. Recovery. A. 1, 2, 3, 4 B. 2, 3, 4, 1 C. 3, 2, 1, 4 D. 4, 3, 1, 2 B 21. Nerve cells are called A. axons. B. neurons. C. dendrites. D. meninges. B 22. Depolarization of a nerve cell is caused by A. the sodium potassium pump. B. sodium ions entering the cell. C. the opening of the potassium gates. D. a return of membrane potential to -60mV. A 23. Depolarization of an axon results from the movement of A. sodium ions. B hydrogen ions. C. potassium ions. D. bicarbonate ions. D 24. The distribution of sodium and potassium ions across the membrane of an axon is maintained by A. diffusion. B. exocytosis. C. phagocytosis. D. active transport. D 25. Which of the following best describes the location of ions during resting potential? A. A low concentration of sodium ions on the outside, and a high concentration of potassium ions on the inside of the neuron. B. A low concentration of sodium ions on the outside, and a low concentration of potassium ions on the inside of the neuron. C. A high concentration of sodium ions on the outside, and a low concentration of potassium ions on the inside of the neuron. D. A high concentration of sodium ions on the outside, and a high concentration of potassium ions on the inside of the neuron. C 26. The distribution of sodium and potassium ions during resting potential is maintained by A. osmosis. B. diffusion. C. active transport. D. facilitated transport. A 27. Use the following information to answer the question. 1. Sodium ions move into the axon. 2. Potassium ions move out of the axon. 3. Depolarization of the membrane occurs. 4. Repolarization of the membrane occurs. Select the correct order of the above events to describe an action potential. A. 1, 3, 2, 4 B. 2, 3, 4, 1 C. 3, 2, 4, 1 D. 1, 4, 3, 2 C 28. The speed of a nerve impulse along a sensory neuron depends on the A. dendrites. B. cell bodies. C. myelin sheath. D. sensory receptors. D 29. The myelin sheath is a protective covering that surrounds A. only motor neurons. B. all types of neurons. C. only sensory neurons. D. both motor and sensory neurons. D 30. Which of the following most accurately describes the function of the nodes of Ranvier? A. Release neurotransmitters. B. Nourish and protect the neuron. C. Cause the all or none response. D. Speed the transmission of nerve impulses. A 31. In order for a nerve impulse to pass from one neuron to the next, which of the following ions must be present at the pre-synaptic ending? A. Calcium (Ca 2+ ). B. Chloride (Cl - ). C. Phosphate (PO4 3- ). D. Magnesium (Mg 2+ ). A 32. Using the information below, what is the correct order for the transmission of an impulse across a synapse? 1. Calcium interacts with proteins. 2. Vesicles fuse with synaptic membrane. 3. Neurotransmitter diffuses into synaptic cleft. 4. Receptor sites are occupied. A. 1, 2, 3, 4 B. 2, 3, 1, 4 C. 3, 2, 1, 4 D. 4, 1, 3, 2 B 33. At a synapse, the neurotransmitters move to the receptor sites by A. osmosis. B. diffusion. C. active transport. D. facilitated transport. B 34. At a synapse, the neurotransmitters move to the receptor sites by A. osmosis. B. diffusion. C. active transport. D. facilitated transport. B The function of enzymes in the synaptic cleft is to ensure that A. neurotransmitters are released. B. neurotransmitters are destroyed. C. nerve impulses reach receptor sites. D. nerve impulses travel in both directions. B 36. The neurotransmitter used by the sympathetic nervous system is A. gastrin. B. noradrenalin. C. acetylcholine. D. acetylcholinesterase. A 37. Once a neurotransmitter has been released, it has only a short time to act because A. enzymes inactivate it. B. receptor sites break down. C. calcium ions flow into the cleft. D. the postsynaptic membrane closes. D 38. Nerve impulses are not continuously generated at a synapse because A. there are insufficient calcium ions. B. the presynaptic membrane is depolarized. C. the synaptic membranes become impermeable. D. neurotransmitters are broken down by enzymes. C 39. In an axon, the nerve impulses normally travel A. in both directions. B. toward the cell body. C. away from the cell body. D. faster as they are unmyelinated. D 40. Which of the following substances would not be found in synaptic clefts? A. Noradrenalin. B. Acetylcholine. C. Cholinesterase. D. Carbonic anhydrase. D 41. Use the following information to answer the question: 1. Axon 2. Dendrite 3. Cell body 4. Receptor The correct order for the transmission of an impulse along a sensory neuron is A. 3, 1, 4, 2 B. 3, 2, 1, 4 C. 4, 1, 3, 2 D. 4, 2, 3, 1 C 42. Nerve impulses travel in only one direction because of the location of the A. effectors. B. myelin sheath. C. synaptic vesicles. D. nodes of Ranvier. B 43. The speed of nerve impulse conduction is increased by the presence of A. axons. B. myelin. C. dendrites. D. cell bodies. D 44. Transmission across a synapse is one-way because A. the axon is myelinated. B. the potassium gates are open. C. the interior of the axon contains negative ions. D. the receptor sites are on the postsynaptic membrane. A 45. Neurotransmitters may create an action potential when they A. fit into receptor sites. B. move through protein pores. C. are broken down in the synapse. D. excite the presynaptic membrane. C 46. A pesticide that destroys an enzyme found in the synaptic cleft may cause A. denaturation of the presynaptic contractile proteins. B. an increased rate of
2 diffusion across the synaptic cleft. C. continued depolarization of the postsynaptic membrane. D. alteration of the receptors on the presynaptic membrane. A 47. Which of the following would be contained within the central nervous system? A. A neuron connecting the sensory and motor neurons. B. A sensory nerve running from a hand to the spinal cord. C. A motor nerve going from the brain to a skeletal muscle. D. A nerve running from the spinal cord to the stomach wall. B 48. In a reflex arc, interneurons initiate nerve impulses in A. effectors. B. motor neurons. C. sensory neurons. D. sensory receptors. D 49. In a reflex arc, the nerve impulse is initiated by A. the brain. B. an effector. C. a sensory neuron. D. a sensory receptor. B 50. The sympathetic nervous system is responsible for A. decreasing breathing rate. B. increasing blood glucose levels. C. increasing blood flow to the intestines. D. decreasing blood flow to the skeletal muscles. D 51. In a reflex arc, the nerve impulse is initiated by A. the brain. B. an effector. C. a sensory neuron. D. a sensory receptor. B 52. In a reflex arc, the A. brain is stimulated by the effector. B. effector is stimulated before the brain. C. sensory receptor directly stimulates the effector. D. brain is stimulated at the same time as the receptor. C 53. Reflexes involve the A. autonomic nervous system and the brain. B. sympathetic and central nervous systems. C. peripheral nervous system and the spinal cord. D. parasympathetic nervous system and the cerebrum. C 54. The type of sensation a person experiences depends on the A. speed of the impulse. B. length of the dendrites. C. part of the brain stimulated. D. amount of myelin on the neuron. B 55. The parasympathetic nervous system A. controls the central nervous system. B. lowers blood pressure and promotes digestion. C. uses noradrenalin as the neurotransmitter at synapses. D. initiates the fight or flight response in times of stress. A 56. The secretion of noradrenalin into the synaptic cleft occurs by which of the following processes? A. exocytosis B. pinocytosis C. endocytosis D. active transport D 57. Which of the following is correctly paired? A. sympathetic nervous system stimulation and acetylcholine B. sympathetic nervous system stimulation and a relaxed state C. parasympathetic nervous system stimulation and noradrenalin D. parasympathetic nervous system stimulation and a relaxed state D 58. Which of the following is a true statement about the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems? A. Sympathetic system causes increased rates of digestion while the parasympathetic system causes decreased rates of digestion. B. Sympathetic system causes decreased breathing rate while the parasympathetic system causes increased breathing rate. C. Sympathetic system causes constriction of the iris while the parasympathetic system causes dilation of the iris. D. Sympathetic system causes increased heart rate while the parasympathetic system decreases heart rate. C 59. Which of the following would result from stimulation by the sympathetic nervous system? A. Hypotension. B. Constricted pupils. C. Decreased digestive rate. D. Reduced blood flow to skeletal muscles. A 60. The hormone that initiates the fight or flight response is produced by the A. adrenal gland. B. hypothalamus. C. pituitary gland. D. medulla oblongata. C 61. Which of the following neurons would be found in the autonomic nervous system? A. Sensory neurons in the skin. B. Sensory neurons in the spinal cord. C. Motor neurons ending in the intestines. D. Motor neurons ending in skeletal muscle. B 62. The sympathetic nervous system would be most active while a person is A. digesting a large meal. B. in an athletic competition. C recovering from an illness. D. writing biology definitions. D 63. Which of the following explains why most organs are supplied by two separate autonomic nerves? A. One acts as a reserve neuron. B. One is sensory and one is motor. C. Both are needed in emergency situations. D. One stimulates the organ and one inhibits it. A 64. Increased parasympathetic stimulation of the SA node will result in A. decreased heart rate. B. decreased heart volume. C. increased diastolic pressure. D. increased ventricular contraction rate. B 65. Which of the following are immediately involved when a person is in a fight or flight situation? 1. Adrenal glands 2. Pancreas 3. Pituitary glands 4. Thyroid glands 5. Sympathetic system 6. Parasympathetic system A. 1, 3 B. 1, 5 C. 2, 4 D. 2, 6 B 66. The sympathetic nervous system is responsible for A. decreasing breathing rate. B. increasing blood glucose levels. C. increasing blood flow to the intestines. D. decreasing blood flow to the skeletal muscles. C 67. The body s response to immediate danger includes A. increased breakdown of protein in the stomach. B. decreased gas exchange during internal respiration. C. increased nervous stimulation of the adrenal medulla. D. decreased number of open capillary beds in skeletal muscle. D 68. Which of the following will occur as a result of parasympathetic nervous system stimulation? A. Increased heart rate. B. Secretion of adrenalin. C. Increased breathing rate. D. Secretion of digestive enzymes. B 69. Which of the following statements about the autonomic nervous system is false? A. It controls the internal organs. B. It functions in a voluntary manner. C. It is responsible for the fight or flight response. D. Each impulse travels through two motor neurons and one ganglion. C 70. A nerve to the heart is severed, resulting in a decreased heart rate. The severed nerve was likely a A. cranial nerve. B. somatic nerve. C. sympathetic nerve. D. parasympathetic nerve. C 71. Sharing of information between the two cerebral hemispheres is possible because of the A. cerebellum. B. hypothalamus. C. corpus callosum. D. medulla oblongata. D 72. A drug was observed to have the following effects on an individual: - increased breathing rate - increased blood pressure - increased heart rate The part of the brain affected by this drug is the A. thalamus. B. cerebellum. C. corpus callosum. D. medulla oblongata. C 73. Which of the following would increase the heart rate? A. Corpus callosum. B. Somatic nervous system. C. Sympathetic nervous system. D. Parasympathetic nervous system. A 74. Stimuli coming to the brain are sorted and channelled by the A. thalamus. B. cerebrum. C. cerebellum. D. hypothalamus. B 75. A person with a damaged medulla oblongata would have difficulty A. reading. B. breathing. C. tasting food. D. problem solving. B 76. A person recovering from a head injury finds that she has difficulty maintaining balance. Which part of the brain has been injured? A. Thalamus. B. Cerebellum. C. Hypothalamus. D. Medulla oblongata. D 77. Damage to the corpus callosum could A. stimulate the parasympathetic system. B. increase the heart rate but decrease the breathing rate. C. inhibit the hypothalamus and stimulate the thyroid gland. D. inhibit the sharing of information between cerebral hemispheres. D 78. Damage to the corpus callosum could A. stimulate the parasympathetic system. B. increase the heart rate but decrease the breathing rate. C. inhibit the hypothalamus and stimulate the thyroid gland. D. inhibit the sharing of information between cerebral hemispheres. B 79. Two functions of the medulla oblongata are to control A. body position and vision. B. heart beat and breathing rate. C. sensory areas and motor areas. D. involuntary muscle contractions and metabolic rate. A 80. The part of the brain responsible for muscle coordination is the A. cerebellum. B. hypothalamus. C. corpus callosum. D. medulla oblongata. D 81. What part of the brain is malfunctioning if nerve impulses are unable to travel from the right to the left hemisphere? A. Cerebrum. B. Cerebellum. C. Hypothalamus. D. Corpus callosum. A 82. Damage to the occipital lobe could affect A. sight. B. hearing. C. heartbeat. D. water balance. C 83. The occipital lobe of the cerebral cortex has association areas for A. taste. B. smell. C. vision. D. hearing B 84. The cerebral lobe of the brain that contains areas responsible for the sensations of touch, temperature, pressure and pain, and for the understanding of speech is the A frontal. B. parietal. C. occipital. D. temporal.
3 A 85. The part of the brain that would help you to concentrate on this examination even when other sensory stimuli are present is the A. thalamus. B. cerebellum. C. hypothalamus. D. medulla oblongata. A 86. The part of the brain responsible for consciousness is the A. cerebrum. B. cerebellum. C. hypothalamus. D. pituitary gland. C 87. Which of the following lobes of the cerebrum is responsible for vision? A. Frontal. B. Parietal. C. Occipital. D. Temporal. B 88. Which of the following is not a part of the cerebrum? A. Cortex. B. Cerebellum. C. Occipital lobe. D. Temporal lobe. D 89. In which lobe of the brain are sensory areas for hearing and smelling located? A. Frontal. B. Parietal. C. Occipital. D. Temporal. B 90. How does the hypothalamus increase the metabolic rate of cells in the body? A. It produces and releases thyroxin. B. It secretes a specific releasing hormone. C. It increases autonomic nerve stimulation. D. It causes cells to become permeable to blood glucose. C 91. A function of enzymes is to A. emulsify fats. B. carry information to nerves. C. catalyze chemical reactions. D. maintain constant blood ph. C 92. The source gland for adrenalin is the A. pancreas. B. adrenal cortex. C. adrenal medulla. D. posterior pituitary. B 93. Which of the following is a function of the hormone thyroxin? A. It decreases blood volume. B. It increases metabolic rate. C. It slows the release of insulin. D. It increases blood sodium levels. D 94. A nerve impulse passes through the following structures when the heart contracts. The correct sequence is A. AV node, Purkinje fibres, SA node. B. SA node, Purkinje fibres, AV node. C. Purkinje fibres, SA node, AV node. D. SA node, AV node, Purkinje fibres. C 95. Which of the following interacts with the pituitary gland as the neuroendocrine control centre? A. Thalamus. B. Cerebellum. C. Hypothalamus. D. Medulla oblongata. C 96. A chemical produced by the puffer fish prevents the opening of sodium gates in neurons but has no effect on chemical synapses. In which location on a sensory neuron would impulse transmission initially be stopped when this chemical is injected into the foot? A. Cell body. B. Myelin sheath. C. Node of Ranvier. D. Terminal knob of an axon. B 97. Which of the following would be a homeostatic response to a blood pressure reading of 80/50? A. Dilation of the arteries. B. Sympathetic stimulation. C. Inhibited ACTH secretion. D. Decreased ADH secretion. D 98. A hormone released by the posterior pituitary gland is A. gastrin. B. glucagon. C. parathyroid hormone (PTH). D. antidiuretic hormone (ADH). D 99. Which of the following is not a hydrolytic enzyme? A. Lipase. B. Trypsin. C. Amylase. D. Carbonic anhydrase. A 100. Which of the following are found only in the central nervous system? A. Interneurons. B. Motor neurons. C. Sensory neurons. D. Sensory receptors. B 101. The speed of nerve impulse conduction is increased by the presence of A. axons. B. myelin. C. dendrites. D. cell bodies. A 102. Which of the following are found only in the central nervous system? A. Interneurons. B. Motor neurons. C. Sensory neurons. D. Sensory receptors. B 103. A person recovering from a head injury finds that she has difficulty maintaining balance. Which part of the brain has been injured? A. Thalamus. B. Cerebellum. C. Hypothalamus. D. Medulla oblongata. D 104. Peristalsis may refer to the A. capillary beds of the digestive tract. B. closing of the glottis upon swallowing. C. activity of the sympathetic nervous system. D. rhythmic contraction of the wall of the esophagus. D 105. The somatic nervous system includes nerves that serve the A. heart. B. intestines. C. salivary glands. D. skeletal muscles. B 106. Which of the following would occur if an impulse from the SA node were blocked before it reaches the AV node? A. The heart would not contract. B. Only the atria would contract. C. Only the ventricles would contract. D. Blood would travel only to the pulmonary system. D 107. The posterior pituitary gland releases A. adrenalin. B. aldosterone. C. thyroxin. D. antidiuretic hormone (ADH). D 108. Due to a head injury, a patient s ability to breathe has been impaired. Where has the damage likely occurred? A. The cerebrum. B. The cerebellum. C. The hypothalamus. D. The medulla oblongata. C 109. In an experiment, a hormone is injected into the heart muscle of a rat. The response is an increased heart rate. Which of the following glands was the source of the hormone? A. Pancreas. B. Thymus. C. Adrenal medulla. D. Anterior pituitary. C 110. Damage to the medulla oblongata may result in A. hearing loss. B. impaired growth. C. breathing difficulty. D. loss of coordination. NERVOUS SYSTEM 1. B 2. B 3. A 4. D 5. D 6. C 7. B 8. A 9. A 10. D 11. B 12. C 13. D 14. C 15. D 16. C 17. B 18. B 19. C 20. C 21. B 22. B 23. A 24. D 25. D 26. C 27. A 28. C 29. D 30. D 31. A
4 32. A 33. B 34. B 35. B 36. B 37. A 38. D 39. C 40. D 41. D 42. C 43. B 44. D 45. A 46. C 47. A 48. B 49. D 50. B 51. D 52. B 53. C 54. C 55. B 56. A 57. D 58. D 59. C 60. A 61. C 62. B 63. D 64. A 65. B 66. B 67. C 68. D 69. B 70. C 71. C 72. D 73. C 74. A 75. B 76. B 77. D 78. D 79. B 80. A 81. D 82. A 83. C NERVOUS SYSTEM 1. Identify structures X, Y and Z and give one function of each. (6 marks: 1 mark each for name; 1 mark each for function)
5 2. Which processes are involved in the movement of molecule Y from point X to point Z? A. exocytosis and diffusion B. endocytosis and diffusion C. exocytosis and facilitated transport D. endocytosis and facilitated transport 3. The structure labeled X is the A. cerebrum. B. cerebellum. C. hypothalamus. D. corpus callosum 4. The structure labelled X is a(n) A. node. B. axon. C. synapse. D. dendrite. If an impulse started at V, it would travel to A. W and X. B. W and Z. C. X and Z. D. Y and Z. 5.
6 6. Describe the process which occurs at the circled area labelled X when a nerve impulse travels through this area. (6 marks) 7. In order for a nerve impulse to be transmitted across the synapse, the amount of excitatory neurotransmitter must exceed that of inhibitory neurotransmitter by an amount called the threshold. Which of the following combinations will result in the firing of a neuron whose threshold is 120 units? A. Y and Z B. V and W C. V, X and Y D. W, X and Y A pesticide that destroys an enzyme found in the synaptic cleft may cause A. denaturation of the presynaptic contractile proteins. B. an increased rate of diffusion across the synaptic cleft. C. continued depolarization of the postsynaptic membrane. D. alteration of the receptors on the presynaptic membrane. 8. Label and give a function for the following parts of the brain. 9. Name each of the neurons on the diagrams and for each give its role in a reflex arc (6 marks) X
7 Y Z
8 10. Distance Fibre X Fibre Y Time a) In an experiment to investigate the speed of nerve impulse transmission along two types of nerve fibres, the data produced are summarized in the above graph. i. Which of the two nerve fibres (X or Y) would have a myelin sheath (1 mark) b) explain your choice (2 marks) ii. It is found that after continuous stimulation for extended periods of time, it becomes difficult to conduct a nerve impulse along a fibre. Suggest TWO reasons for this (2 marks, 1 mark each) b) Explain each of the following: i. slices of potato placed in concentrated salt water lose mass (2 marks) ii. decreased concentration of salt in the blood may lead to decreased blood pressure (2 marks) iii. Substances containing bicarbonate ions (HCO 3 - ) are used as a remedy for heartburn or an upset stomach. Explain why HCO 3 - may be effective (2 marks) iv. If the nucleus of a cell is destroyed, the cell does not die immediately (1 mark) c) In the diagram above, If an action potential was initiated at neuron X, an impulse would be generated in A. X only. B. X andy C. X and Z. D. Y and Z.
9 Describe two ways in which a drug could block transmission of an impulse at the synapse (2 marks). 13. Dilation of the pupils is initiated by secretions from A. W B. X C. Y D. Z 14. Given the conditions in the diagram, what will occur next? A) repolarization b) depolarization c) recovery period d) synaptic transmission
10 15. a) If molecule X causes depolarization at Y, what could X be? A. sodium ions B. calcium ions C. acetylcholine D. acetylcholinesterase b) The molecules labelled X function to A. open sodium ion gates. B. speed up the transmission of impulses. C. provide an energy source for the resting potential. D. tell the brain the kind of stimulus that is being received. c) How does the molecule indicated by X move across the space above? A. Osmosis. B. Diffusion. C. Active transport. D. Facilitated transport. 16. d) Which of the following is a true statement about the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems? A. Sympathetic system causes increased rates of digestion while the parasympathetic system causes decreased rates of digestion. B. Sympathetic system causes decreased breathing rate while the parasympathetic system causes increased breathing rate. C. Sympathetic system causes constriction of the iris while the parasympathetic system causes dilation of the iris. D. Sympathetic system causes increased heart rate while the parasympathetic system decreases heart rate. 17. Name all of the structures in the above diagram (4 marks). Which letter indicates a structure that speeds the transmission of nerve impulses? A. W B. X C. Y D. Z The structure labelled X represents a(n) A. effector. B. receptor. C. interneuron. D. sensory neuron. 18. Explain how an action potential is generated in a neuron. (4 marks) 19. Describe the transmission of a nerve impulse through a neuron. (8 marks)
11 20. An axon was stimulated at one place and the voltage changes across the membrane were recorded as shown in the following graph. 21. What would be the effect if the intensity (amount) of stimulus was increased? A. The frequency of impulses would increase. B. The resting potential would increase from 60mV to 40mV. C. Each action potential would increase from +40mV to +60mV. D. Polarity changes would occur during the recovery (refractory) period. The diagram represents a simple reflex arc. Identify structures V, W, X, Y and Z and give one function of each structure. (5 marks: 1/2 mark for each name, 1/2 mark for each function) 22. The function of structure X is to A. control the breathing and heart rate. B. secrete hormones that control organs of the body. C. channel nerve impulses to the appropriate part of the brain. D. exchange information between right and left cerebral hemispheres. 23. Explain how a nerve impulse travels from one neuron to another. (4 marks) 24. Describe two ways in which a drug could block transmission of an impulse at the synapse. (2 marks) 25. Identify each part of the brain indicated in the diagram below and give one function of each. (6 marks: 1 mark each for name and 1 mark each for function) 26. A certain drug inhibits the action of a neurotransmitter. The effects of the drug are shown in the table below. This drug affected the A. cerebellum. B. corpus callosum. C. sympathetic nervous system. D. parasympathetic nervous system.
12 27. a) A chemical produced by the puffer fish prevents the opening of sodium gates in neurons but has no effect on chemical synapses. In which location on a sensory neuron would impulse transmission initially be stopped when this chemical is injected into the foot? A. Cell body. B. Myelin sheath. C. Node of Ranvier. D. Terminal knob of an axon. b) The cerebral lobe of the brain that contains areas responsible for the sensations of touch, temperature, pressure and pain, and for the understanding of speech is the A frontal. B. parietal. C. occipital. D. temporal. 28. The average heart rate (beats per minute) of a group of figure skaters was calculated every two minutes over a 14 minute period which included a ten minute skating exercise. Heart rates were recorded at both the beginning and end of the skating season. The results appear in the data table below. a) Construct a graph of the data given above. Use a solid line for heart rates at the beginning of the season and a broken line for heart rates at the end of the season. (2 marks) b) State two reasons for the change in heart rate during the skating exercise. (2 marks: 1 mark each) c) Explain the difference in the time required for heart rates to return to resting levels at the beginning and at the end of the skating season. (2 marks) 29. Give one function of each of the following parts of the nervous system. (5 marks: 1 mark each) a) Autonomic nervous system: b) Somatic nervous system: c) Thalamus: d) Cerebrum: e) Corpus callosum:
13 30. Which diagram below represents the path taken by an action potential in a reflex arc as shown by the arrows? 31. Give one role of each of the following in the transmission of a nerve impulse. (3 marks: 1 mark each) a) Na + K + pump: b) Sodium gate: c) Myelin sheath: 32. Give one function of each of the following. a) Cell membrane: (1 mark) b) Ribosome: (1 mark) c) Nucleolus: (1 mark) d) Smooth endoplasmic reticulum: (1 mark) e) Motor neuron: (1 mark) f) Myelin sheath: (1 mark) 33. On the following graph, which letters indicate the areas in which the sodium/potassium pump is operating? A. V and W B. W and Y C. X and Y D. V and Z At a synapse, the neurotransmitters move to the receptor sites by A. osmosis. B. diffusion. C. active transport. D. facilitated transport. 34. In the diagram below, the action potential at X is moving A. from an interneuron towards a muscle located at Y. B. towards an interneuron from a muscle located at Y. C. towards an interneuron from a receptor located at Y. D. from an interneuron towards a receptor located at Y.
14 35. What would be the effect of cutting the neuron at point X? A. The organism would die. B. Some sensation would be lost. C. The ability to move would be lost. D. An interneuron would take over the lost function. 36. The reflex arc consists of five distinct components. List each one and give one function for each component. (5 marks: ½ mark for component and ½ mark for function) 37. Describe the effect of the following on blood sugar levels in the human body and explain why they have this effect: a) eating a meal high in carbohydrates (2 marks) b) secretion of adrenaline (2 marks) c) secretion of insulin (2 marks) 38. Describe, using a valid example, a reflex arc. (5 marks) 39. Explain the importance of the following in nerve physiology: (10 marks) a) sodium pump (sodiumpotassium pump) b) refractory period c) synapse d) threshold e) dendrite 40. In an experimental situation, a motor neuron stimulated midway along the axon will carry impulses in both directions, but only one of the impulses will be passed on to another neuron or muscle. From your knowledge of neurophysiology: a) Explain why impulses are carried in both directions. (3 marks) b) Explain how the impulse crosses the synapse. (3 marks) 41. a) Name the two divisions of the autonomic nervous system and, using any appropriate body structure as an example, explain how each division regulates that structure. (3 marks) 42. Name one structural feature of the neuron and explain how it relates to the neuron s function. (2 marks) 43. Describe the mechanism by which an action potential passes from one neuron to another. (6 marks) 44. Assume that the action of pain killers interferes with the normal transmission from one neuron to another. Suggest two different mechanisms that would result in the brain detecting less pain. (4 marks) 45. a) Give a description of the myelin sheath found on some neurons. (2 marks) b) How does the structure of myelinated nerve increase its efficiency of conduction? (2 marks) 46. Identify the four areas of the brain shown in the diagram and give one function for each area. (1/2 mark for name, 1 mark for function. Total - 6 marks.) 47. Identify the four structures shown in the diagram and give one function for each area. (1/2 mark for name, 1 mark for function. Total - 6 marks.)
15 48. On the diagram, shade in the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes, and give two functions for each (6 marks) 49. Give ONE function for each part of the following areas of the brain: (3 marks: 1 mark each) a) Cerebrum b) Occipital lobe c) Hypothalamus 50. Predict and explain the effects of the following on the function of the nervous system. a) Administration of a drug which mimics the action of noradrenalin. (2 marks) b) Removal of a portion of the cerebellum. (1 mark) c) Introduction of a respiratory chain inhibitor. (2 marks) d) Destruction of the myelin sheath. (2 marks) 51. Describe the effect of a drug that a) blocks the release of noradrenalin b) increases the effectiveness of GABA c) prevents the reuptake of serotonin d) prevents the functioning of achetylcholinesterase e) blocks the receptor sites for GABA 52. In a study of people with an underactive thyroid gland, oxygen use data was collected and summarized on the above graph. Included in the study were people whose thyroids is functioned normally. Data were collected when the subjects were at rest (basal), during mild exercise and during strenuous exercise. (7 marks) a) Which group (A or B) has normal thyroid function? (1 mark) b) Explain why the results were different for both groups. (2 marks) c) The following symptoms were noted among those in the experimental group. For each, explain why the symptoms appear. (3 marks: 1 mark each O 2 use ml O 2 /min Basal Mild Exercise Strenuous Exercise i) lethargy (sluggishness) ii) decreased body temperature iii) weight gain d) Suggest a possible treatment for those in the experimental group. (1 mark) 53. After a severe drop in blood pressure, how will each of the following respond to maintain homeostasis? (10 marks) i) urine formation ii) aldosterone iii) sympathetic nervous system iv) tissue-capillary fluid exchange v) cardiac output 54. Blood samples from a figure skater were analyzed before and after a competition as shown in the following chart. BLOOD COMPONENT BEFORE COMPETITION AFTER COMPETITION glucose 1.010% 0.09% ph pressure 120/180 mm Hg 150/180 mm Hg temperature 37º C 39º C Explain how internal homeostasis mechanisms would help return each blood component of the figure skater to the same levels that existed before the competition began. (12 marks: 3 marks each)
16 55. The diving women of Korea and Japan collect shellfish without the aid of any special equipment. Sometimes they can reach a depth of 25 metres and hold their breath for up to two minutes while working in a water temperature of 10º C. Explain how each of the following would help them perform their tasks. a) They take several deep breaths before they dive. (2 marks) b) The blood flow to their kidneys and most of their bodies muscles is reduced during the dive. (1 mark) c) There is a decrease in their normal heart rate after they have been submerged for 40 seconds (1 mark) d) There is an increase from their normal heart rate immediately after the dive. (1 mark) e) Blood flow to their skin is reduced during the dive. (1 mark)
U N IT 10 NE RVOUS SYS TE M REVIEW 1. Which of the following is controlled by the somatic nervous system? A. rate of heartbeat B. contraction of skeletal muscles C. increased blood flow to muscle tissue
AP Biology I. Nervous System Notes 1. General information: passage of information occurs in two ways: Nerves - process and send information fast (eg. stepping on a tack) Hormones - process and send information
Name: Teacher: Olsen Hour: The Nervous System: Part 1 Textbook p216-225 41 In all exercises, quizzes and tests in this class, always answer in your own words. That is the only way that you can show that
Student Academic Learning Services Page 1 of 8 Nervous System Quiz 1. The term central nervous system refers to the: A) autonomic and peripheral nervous systems B) brain, spinal cord, and cranial nerves
Chapter 7: The Nervous System Objectives Discuss the general organization of the nervous system Describe the structure & function of a nerve Draw and label the pathways involved in a withdraw reflex Define
2 Neurophysiology 2.1 Equilibrium Potential An understanding of the concepts of electrical and chemical forces that act on ions, electrochemical equilibrium, and equilibrium potential is a powerful tool
I. General Info Integration and Coordination of the Human Body A. Both the and system are responsible for maintaining 1. Homeostasis is the process by which organisms keep internal conditions despite changes
Nerves and Nerve Impulse Terms Absolute refractory period: Period following stimulation during which no additional action potential can be evoked. Acetylcholine: Chemical transmitter substance released
2013 ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY Sample Tournament Station A: Use the diagram in answering Questions 1-5. 1. Give the name and functions of the structure labeled A on the diagram. 2. Give the name and functions
Name: Questions on The Nervous System and Gas Exchange Directions: The following questions are taken from previous IB Final Papers on Topics 6.4 (Gas Exchange) and 6.5 (Nerves, hormones and homeostasis).
Chapter 9 Nervous System Nervous System function: The nervous system is composed of neurons and neuroglia. at the ends of peripheral nerves gather information and convert it into nerve impulses. When sensory
PART I: Neurons and the Nerve Impulse Identify each of the labeled structures of the neuron below. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. Identify each of the labeled structures of the neuron below. A. dendrites B. nucleus
Autonomic Nervous System Dr. Ali Ebneshahidi Nervous System Divisions of the nervous system The human nervous system consists of the central nervous System (CNS) and the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS).
Biology 1 of 38 2 of 38 35-2 The Nervous System What are the functions of the nervous system? 3 of 38 35-2 The Nervous System 1. Nervous system: a. controls and coordinates functions throughout the body
The Autonomic Nervous System Chapter 15 The subconscious involuntary nervous system Regulates activity of smooth muscle, cardiac muscle & certain glands The Autonomic Nervous System 1 2 ANS vs. SNS Somatic
12. Nervous System: Nervous Tissue I. Introduction to the Nervous System General functions of the nervous system The nervous system has three basic functions: 1. Gather sensory input from the environment
EXPLORING PSYCHOLOGY David Myers The Biology of Mind Chapter 2 Neural Communication Neurons How Neurons Communicate How Neurotransmitters Influence Us The Nervous System The Peripheral Nervous System The
Resting membrane potential ~ -70mV - Membrane is polarized (ie) Electrical charge on the outside of the membrane is positive while the electrical charge on the inside of the membrane is negative Changes
Chapter 1 Parts of the Brain Living creatures are made up of cells. Groups of cells, similar in appearance and with the same function, form tissue. The brain is a soft mass of supportive tissues and nerve
Chapter 4 The Brain The Nervous System Central Nervous System (CNS) receives, processes, interprets and stores info (taste, sound, smell, color etc.) Sends information to muscles, glands and internal organs
Chapter 15 Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) and Visceral Reflexes general properties Anatomy Autonomic effects on target organs Central control of autonomic function 15-1 Copyright (c) The McGraw-Hill Companies,
3: Neurophysiology of Nerve Impulses (Part 2) Activity 5: The Action Potential: Measuring Its Absolute and Relative Refractory Periods Interval between stimuli Stimulus voltage (mv) Second action potential?
Grade: 10,11, and 12 Subject: Anatomy and Physiology First Marking Period Define anatomy and physiology, and describe various subspecialties of each discipline. Describe the five basic functions of living
Human Neuroanatomy Grades 9-12 Driving Question: How did the evolution of the human brain impact the structure and function it has today? Objectives: Students will be able to Describe the basic parts and
Slide 1: [Film Clip: The Brain #2- Phineas Gage] Integrated Bodily Communications Within Brain (Hemispheres and structures) The remaining Nervous System Endocrine System (Hormonal communication) Our bodies-
Nervous System Organization PNS and CNS Chapters 8 and 9 Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) connects CNS to sensory receptors, muscles and glands Central Nervous System (CNS) control/integrating center brain
AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM Somatic efferent and ANS Somatic Efferent Control is over skeletal muscles. External environment This division of the PNS responds to some change in the external environment. single
CHAPTER 21 NEURAL CONTROL AND COORDINATION One mark Questions: 1. Name the structural and functional unit of nervous system? A. Neuron. 2. What does central Nervous System consists of? A. Brain and spinal
Chapter 9 - Nervous System 9.1 Introduction (p. 215; Fig. 9.1) A. The nervous system is composed of neurons and neuroglia. 1. Neurons transmit nerve impulses along nerve fibers to other neurons. 2. Nerves
Anatomy & Physiology Bio 2401 Lecture Instructor: Daryl Beatty Nervous System Introduction Part 1 Nervous System Introduction Chapter 11 Section A Sequence 4.1 DB Nervous system 1 Intro Presentations 4.2,
Parts of the Nerve Cell and Their Functions Silvia Helena Cardoso, PhD [ 1. Cell body] [2. Neuronal membrane] [3. Dendrites] [4. Axon] [5. Nerve ending] 1. Cell body The cell body (soma) is the factory
B6 Brain & Mind B6 Key Questions How do animals respond to changes in their environment? How is information passed through the nervous system? What can we learn through conditioning? How do humans develop
Engage: Brainstorming Body s Record the structures and function of each body system in the table below. Body Nervous Circulatory Excretory Immune Digestive Respiratory Skeletal Muscular Endocrine Integumentary
Intro: Brain is made up of numerous, complex parts Frontal lobes by forehead are the brain s executive center Parietal lobes wave sensory information together (maps feeling on body) Temporal lobes interpret
Bi 360: Midterm Review Basic Neurobiology 1) Many axons are surrounded by a fatty insulating sheath called myelin, which is interrupted at regular intervals at the Nodes of Ranvier, where the action potential
Chapter 11: Functional Organization of Nervous Tissue Multiple Choice 1. The nervous system A) monitors internal and external stimuli. B) transmits information in the form of action potentials. C) interprets
Chapter 7: The Nervous System I. Organization of the Nervous System Objectives: List the general functions of the nervous system Explain the structural and functional classifications of the nervous system
Lec.13 Medical Physiology Z.H.Al-Zubaydi Functions of the Digestive System The major functions of the digestive tract include the following six processes, summarized in Figure 1: 1. Ingestion Food must
Name Class Date 31.1 The Neuron Lesson Objectives Identify the functions of the nervous system. Describe the function of neurons. Describe how a nerve impulse is transmitted. BUILD Vocabulary A. The chart
Human Physiology Study Questions-2 Action potentials: Handout-8, Chapter 8 1. Explain the positive feedback component of an action potential that is, how the opening of one voltage-gated sodium (or calcium)
Class 10 NCERT Science Text Book Chapter 7 Control and Coordination Question 1: What is the difference between a reflex action and walking? A reflex action is a rapid, automatic response to a stimulus.
FUNCTIONS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM 1. Sensory input. Sensory receptors detects external and internal stimuli. 2. Integration. The brain and spinal cord process sensory input and produce responses. 3. Homeostasis.
Module 3 Brain s Building Blocks Structure of the Brain Genes chains of chemicals that are arranged like rungs on a twisting ladder there are about 100,000 genes that contain chemical instructions that
REVIEW SHEET EXERCISE 3 Neurophysiology of Nerve Impulses Name Lab Time/Date ACTIVITY 1 The Resting Membrane Potential 1. Explain why increasing extracellular K + reduces the net diffusion of K + out of
Best Teaching Practices Conference Teacher ID: BTPC07_07 SUBJECT: BIOLOGY Class: X TOPIC: Exploring our Nervous System OBJECTIVES: Use Information Technology to enable the students to: Explain the general
A. Introduction 1. Innovation in Cnidaria - Nerve net a. We need to talk more about nerves b. Cnidaria have simple nerve net - 2 way conduction c. Basis for more complex system in Vertebrates B. Vertebrate
NAME Explore the Neuroscience for Kids Web Site (ANSWERS) Start at: http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/neurok.html On the left side, click on Explore, then click on The Neuron, then click on Millions
FUNCTIONAL ORGANIZATION OF THE HUMAN BODY The Internal Environment Physiology is the study of function in living matter; it attempts to explain the physical and chemical factors that are responsible for
Lecture 5 (Oct 8 th ): ANATOMY and FUNCTION OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM Lecture Outline 1) Basic Divisions (CNS vs. PNS, Somatic vs. Autonomic) and Directional Terms 2) The Brain (Hindbrain/ Midbrain/ Forebrain)
Endocrine System: Practice Questions #1 1. Removing part of gland D would most likely result in A. a decrease in the secretions of other glands B. a decrease in the blood calcium level C. an increase in
The Neuron and the Synapse The Neuron Functions of the neuron: Transmit information from one point in the body to another. Process the information in various ways (that is, compute). The neuron has a specialized
Peripheral nervous system (PNS) Consists of: 12 pairs of cranial nerves 31 pairs of spinal nerves The autonomic nervous system Nerves and neurons Cranial nerves There are 12 pairs They are numbered according
Biology 12 June 2003 rovincial Examination ANWER KEY / CORING GUIDE CURRICULUM: Organizers 1. Cell Biology 2. Cell rocesses and Applications 3. Human Biology ub-organizers A, B, C, D E, F, G, H I, J, K,
Chapter 3 The Brain and Behavior Learning Goals 1. Discuss the nature and basic functions of the nervous system. 2. Explain what neurons are and how they process information. 3. Identify the brain s levels
Nervous System Nervous system performs three overlapping functions of sensor input, integration, and motor output. This process is generally the same even at a very primitive level of nervous system, but
Study Guide Cells Unit Test Matching. Write the letter of the correct response on the line. You may use the responses more than once. A. proteins B. simple carbohydrates C. complex carbohydrates D. lipids
1 THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM Chapter 15 Anatomy and Physiology Lecture 2 THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) regulates the activity of smooth muscles, cardiac muscles, and certain
Chapter 15 Neurotransmitters of the ANS Neurotransmitters and Receptors How can the same ANS neurons create different effects on different target tissue? Variety of neurotransmitters Secondly, different
Brain Power Counseling and Mental Health TEA COPYRIGHT Copyright Texas Education Agency, 2012. These Materials are copyrighted and trademarked as the property of the Texas Education Agency (TEA) and may
Dr. Chris Doumen Week 7 2401 : Anatomy/Physiology The Brain Central Nervous System TextBook Readings Pages 431 through 435 and 463-467 Make use of the figures in your textbook ; a picture is worth a thousand
Human Body Tissues Levels of Organization 1. Cells 2. = groups of similar cells that perform a 3. Organ = 4. = group of organs Four Major Tissues 1. 2. 3. 4. Epithelial Tissue Nerve Tissue Muscle Tissue
Chetek-Weyerhaeuser High School Anatomy and Physiology Units and Anatomy and Physiology A Unit 1 Introduction to Human Anatomy and Physiology (6 days) Essential Question: How do the systems of the human
Mammalian Physiology Autonomic Nervous System UNLV 1 UNIVERSITY OF NEVADA LAS VEGAS PHYSIOLOGY, Chapter 11 Berne, Levy, Koeppen, Stanton Objectives Describe the organization of the autonomic nervous system
Class: Date: Anatomy & Physiology Test Eastside Invitational Jan 26, 2013 Disorders Matching Match the following disorders with their description (not all answers will be used) a. Lactose Intolerance g.
Ion Channels Graphics are used with permission of: Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings (http://www.aw-bc.com) ** There are a number of ion channels introducted in this topic which you
BIO 137: CHAPTER 1 OBJECTIVES 1. Define the terms anatomy and physiology, and explain their relationship using an example of a human structure with its corresponding function. A. ANATOMY = the study of
BIOLOGY STUDY PACKET THE BRAIN SC.912.L.14.26 AA Spring 2012 The intent of this packet is to supplement regular classroom instruction, not to replace it. This also supposes that the students have access
Digestive System Functions A. Gastrointestinal Processes 1. Ingestion: placing food in mouth (voluntary) 2. Propulsion: moving food through GI tract a. Peristalsis: alternating waves of contraction and
Chapter 13 The Nature of Somatic Reflexes Nature of Reflexes (1 of 3) A reflex is an involuntary responses initiated by a sensory input resulting in a change in a gland or muscle tissue occur without our
REVIEW for BIOLOGY UNIT TEST NOTE: The Unit Test will cover everything we have learned in the Biology Unit, starting from cell structures, cell division, various organ systems, disorders, organ donation,
Please read chapter 15,, complete this study guide, and study this material BEFORE coming to the first class. I. Introduction to the autonomic nervous system: Briefly describe the autonomic nervous system.
7 Answers to end-of-chapter questions Multiple choice questions 1 B 2 B 3 A 4 B 5 A 6 D 7 C 8 C 9 B 10 B Structured questions 11 a i Maintenance of a constant internal environment within set limits i Concentration
THE SPINAL CORD AND THE INFLUENCE OF ITS DAMAGE ON THE HUMAN BODY THE SPINAL CORD. A part of the Central Nervous System The nervous system is a vast network of cells, which carry information in the form
Hormonal Cycles Directions: a. Click the Contents button. b. Open the Endocrine System File. c. Click Animations. d. Click Hormonal Cycles. 1. Briefly describe each component of an endocrine feedback loop:
CHAPTER 11 The Nervous System Chapter Concepts 11.1 Structures and Processes of the Nervous System Homeostasis is maintained in the human body by the various parts of the nervous system. Neural transmission
CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM Central nervous system (CNS) brain and spinal cord enclosed in bony coverings Functions of the spinal cord spinal cord reflexes integration ti (summation of inhibitory and excitatory)
Chapter 2 The Biological Bases of Psychological Functioning Outline I. Neurons: The Building Blocks of the Nervous System A. A neuron is a nerve cell that transmits information from one part of the body
Blood Pressure Regulation Graphics are used with permission of: Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings (http://www.aw-bc.com) Page 1. Introduction There are two basic mechanisms for regulating
PHC 313 The 7 th. Lecture Adrenergic Agents Introduction Introduction Adrenergic agents are a broad class of agents employed in the treatment of many disorders. They are those chemical agents that exert
Overactive bladder is a common condition thought to FADE UP TO WIDE SHOT OF FEMALE MODEL WITH TRANSPARENT SKIN. URINARY BLADDER VISIBLE IN PELVIC REGION affect over 16 percent of adults. It affects men