1 NERVOUS SYSTEM B 1. Which of the following is controlled by the somatic nervous system? A. rate of heartbeat B. contraction of skeletal muscles C. increased blood flow to muscle tissue D. movement of food through the intestines B 2. Which of the components of the nervous system has both autonomic and somatic divisions? A. Central. B. Peripheral. C. Sympathetic. D. Parasympathetic. A 3. The central nervous system includes the A. brain and spinal cord. B. somatic nervous system. C. cranial and spinal nerves. D. parasympathetic nervous system. D 4. The somatic nervous system controls A. peristalsis. B. cardiac muscles. C. smooth muscles. D. skeletal muscles. D 5. Which of the following is involved in the initiation of a fight or flight response? A. Thyroid gland. B. Prostate gland. C. Adrenal cortex. D. Adrenal medulla. C 6. The part of a sensory neuron that transmits nerve impulses from a receptor to the cell body is the A. axon. B. synapse. C. dendrite. D. neurotransmitter. B 7. What type of neuron transmits an impulse to the central nervous system? A. Motor. B. Sensory. C. Efferent. D. Interneuron. A 8. The type of neuron that can only be found in the central nervous system (CNS) is a(n) A. interneuron. B. motor neuron. C. mixed neuron. D. sensory neuron. A 9. The type of neuron that is found only in the central nervous system is the A. interneuron. B. motor neuron. C. mixed neuron. D. sensory neuron. D 10. Which of the following is responsible for transmitting impulses to the central nervous system (CNS)? A. Effectors. B. Interneurons. C. Motor neurons. D. Sensory neurons. B 11. Sensory neurons carry messages to A. glands. B. interneurons. C. sense organs. D. muscle fibres. C 12. Sensory receptors initiate nerve impulses in A. long axons. B. short axons. C. long dendrites. D. short dendrites. D 13. Which of the following is a characteristic of a resting potential? A. secretion of calcium ions B. neurotransmitters move into the axon C. depolarization of the post-synaptic membrane D. a net negative charge on the inside of the axon C 14. During which stage of a nerve impulse does the opening of the sodium gates play an important role? A. Recovery. B. Repolarization. C. Depolarization. D. Resting potential. D 15. Resting potential in a neuron is maintained by A. osmosis. B. diffusion. C. pinocytosis. D. active transport. C 16. Which organelle would be required in large numbers by a cell whose membrane is often depolarized? A. Ribosome. B. Lysosome. C. Mitochondrion. D. Endoplasmic reticulum. B 17. Within an axon, an increased concentration of sodium ions and a decreased concentration of potassium ions is observed during A. upswing. B. downswing. C. resting potential. D. synaptic transmission. B 18. The resting potential in a neuron is maintained by A. exocytosis. B. active transport. C. passive diffusion. D. facilitated transport. C 19. The correct sequence for the transmission of a nerve impulse along a neuron is 1. Potassium gates open. 2. Sodium ions diffuse into neuron. 3. Resting potential. 4. Recovery. A. 1, 2, 3, 4 B. 2, 3, 4, 1 C. 3, 2, 1, 4 D. 4, 3, 1, 2 C 20. The correct sequence for the transmission of a nerve impulse along a neuron is 1. Potassium gates open. 2. Sodium ions diffuse into neuron. 3. Resting potential. 4. Recovery. A. 1, 2, 3, 4 B. 2, 3, 4, 1 C. 3, 2, 1, 4 D. 4, 3, 1, 2 B 21. Nerve cells are called A. axons. B. neurons. C. dendrites. D. meninges. B 22. Depolarization of a nerve cell is caused by A. the sodium potassium pump. B. sodium ions entering the cell. C. the opening of the potassium gates. D. a return of membrane potential to -60mV. A 23. Depolarization of an axon results from the movement of A. sodium ions. B hydrogen ions. C. potassium ions. D. bicarbonate ions. D 24. The distribution of sodium and potassium ions across the membrane of an axon is maintained by A. diffusion. B. exocytosis. C. phagocytosis. D. active transport. D 25. Which of the following best describes the location of ions during resting potential? A. A low concentration of sodium ions on the outside, and a high concentration of potassium ions on the inside of the neuron. B. A low concentration of sodium ions on the outside, and a low concentration of potassium ions on the inside of the neuron. C. A high concentration of sodium ions on the outside, and a low concentration of potassium ions on the inside of the neuron. D. A high concentration of sodium ions on the outside, and a high concentration of potassium ions on the inside of the neuron. C 26. The distribution of sodium and potassium ions during resting potential is maintained by A. osmosis. B. diffusion. C. active transport. D. facilitated transport. A 27. Use the following information to answer the question. 1. Sodium ions move into the axon. 2. Potassium ions move out of the axon. 3. Depolarization of the membrane occurs. 4. Repolarization of the membrane occurs. Select the correct order of the above events to describe an action potential. A. 1, 3, 2, 4 B. 2, 3, 4, 1 C. 3, 2, 4, 1 D. 1, 4, 3, 2 C 28. The speed of a nerve impulse along a sensory neuron depends on the A. dendrites. B. cell bodies. C. myelin sheath. D. sensory receptors. D 29. The myelin sheath is a protective covering that surrounds A. only motor neurons. B. all types of neurons. C. only sensory neurons. D. both motor and sensory neurons. D 30. Which of the following most accurately describes the function of the nodes of Ranvier? A. Release neurotransmitters. B. Nourish and protect the neuron. C. Cause the all or none response. D. Speed the transmission of nerve impulses. A 31. In order for a nerve impulse to pass from one neuron to the next, which of the following ions must be present at the pre-synaptic ending? A. Calcium (Ca 2+ ). B. Chloride (Cl - ). C. Phosphate (PO4 3- ). D. Magnesium (Mg 2+ ). A 32. Using the information below, what is the correct order for the transmission of an impulse across a synapse? 1. Calcium interacts with proteins. 2. Vesicles fuse with synaptic membrane. 3. Neurotransmitter diffuses into synaptic cleft. 4. Receptor sites are occupied. A. 1, 2, 3, 4 B. 2, 3, 1, 4 C. 3, 2, 1, 4 D. 4, 1, 3, 2 B 33. At a synapse, the neurotransmitters move to the receptor sites by A. osmosis. B. diffusion. C. active transport. D. facilitated transport. B 34. At a synapse, the neurotransmitters move to the receptor sites by A. osmosis. B. diffusion. C. active transport. D. facilitated transport. B The function of enzymes in the synaptic cleft is to ensure that A. neurotransmitters are released. B. neurotransmitters are destroyed. C. nerve impulses reach receptor sites. D. nerve impulses travel in both directions. B 36. The neurotransmitter used by the sympathetic nervous system is A. gastrin. B. noradrenalin. C. acetylcholine. D. acetylcholinesterase. A 37. Once a neurotransmitter has been released, it has only a short time to act because A. enzymes inactivate it. B. receptor sites break down. C. calcium ions flow into the cleft. D. the postsynaptic membrane closes. D 38. Nerve impulses are not continuously generated at a synapse because A. there are insufficient calcium ions. B. the presynaptic membrane is depolarized. C. the synaptic membranes become impermeable. D. neurotransmitters are broken down by enzymes. C 39. In an axon, the nerve impulses normally travel A. in both directions. B. toward the cell body. C. away from the cell body. D. faster as they are unmyelinated. D 40. Which of the following substances would not be found in synaptic clefts? A. Noradrenalin. B. Acetylcholine. C. Cholinesterase. D. Carbonic anhydrase. D 41. Use the following information to answer the question: 1. Axon 2. Dendrite 3. Cell body 4. Receptor The correct order for the transmission of an impulse along a sensory neuron is A. 3, 1, 4, 2 B. 3, 2, 1, 4 C. 4, 1, 3, 2 D. 4, 2, 3, 1 C 42. Nerve impulses travel in only one direction because of the location of the A. effectors. B. myelin sheath. C. synaptic vesicles. D. nodes of Ranvier. B 43. The speed of nerve impulse conduction is increased by the presence of A. axons. B. myelin. C. dendrites. D. cell bodies. D 44. Transmission across a synapse is one-way because A. the axon is myelinated. B. the potassium gates are open. C. the interior of the axon contains negative ions. D. the receptor sites are on the postsynaptic membrane. A 45. Neurotransmitters may create an action potential when they A. fit into receptor sites. B. move through protein pores. C. are broken down in the synapse. D. excite the presynaptic membrane. C 46. A pesticide that destroys an enzyme found in the synaptic cleft may cause A. denaturation of the presynaptic contractile proteins. B. an increased rate of
2 diffusion across the synaptic cleft. C. continued depolarization of the postsynaptic membrane. D. alteration of the receptors on the presynaptic membrane. A 47. Which of the following would be contained within the central nervous system? A. A neuron connecting the sensory and motor neurons. B. A sensory nerve running from a hand to the spinal cord. C. A motor nerve going from the brain to a skeletal muscle. D. A nerve running from the spinal cord to the stomach wall. B 48. In a reflex arc, interneurons initiate nerve impulses in A. effectors. B. motor neurons. C. sensory neurons. D. sensory receptors. D 49. In a reflex arc, the nerve impulse is initiated by A. the brain. B. an effector. C. a sensory neuron. D. a sensory receptor. B 50. The sympathetic nervous system is responsible for A. decreasing breathing rate. B. increasing blood glucose levels. C. increasing blood flow to the intestines. D. decreasing blood flow to the skeletal muscles. D 51. In a reflex arc, the nerve impulse is initiated by A. the brain. B. an effector. C. a sensory neuron. D. a sensory receptor. B 52. In a reflex arc, the A. brain is stimulated by the effector. B. effector is stimulated before the brain. C. sensory receptor directly stimulates the effector. D. brain is stimulated at the same time as the receptor. C 53. Reflexes involve the A. autonomic nervous system and the brain. B. sympathetic and central nervous systems. C. peripheral nervous system and the spinal cord. D. parasympathetic nervous system and the cerebrum. C 54. The type of sensation a person experiences depends on the A. speed of the impulse. B. length of the dendrites. C. part of the brain stimulated. D. amount of myelin on the neuron. B 55. The parasympathetic nervous system A. controls the central nervous system. B. lowers blood pressure and promotes digestion. C. uses noradrenalin as the neurotransmitter at synapses. D. initiates the fight or flight response in times of stress. A 56. The secretion of noradrenalin into the synaptic cleft occurs by which of the following processes? A. exocytosis B. pinocytosis C. endocytosis D. active transport D 57. Which of the following is correctly paired? A. sympathetic nervous system stimulation and acetylcholine B. sympathetic nervous system stimulation and a relaxed state C. parasympathetic nervous system stimulation and noradrenalin D. parasympathetic nervous system stimulation and a relaxed state D 58. Which of the following is a true statement about the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems? A. Sympathetic system causes increased rates of digestion while the parasympathetic system causes decreased rates of digestion. B. Sympathetic system causes decreased breathing rate while the parasympathetic system causes increased breathing rate. C. Sympathetic system causes constriction of the iris while the parasympathetic system causes dilation of the iris. D. Sympathetic system causes increased heart rate while the parasympathetic system decreases heart rate. C 59. Which of the following would result from stimulation by the sympathetic nervous system? A. Hypotension. B. Constricted pupils. C. Decreased digestive rate. D. Reduced blood flow to skeletal muscles. A 60. The hormone that initiates the fight or flight response is produced by the A. adrenal gland. B. hypothalamus. C. pituitary gland. D. medulla oblongata. C 61. Which of the following neurons would be found in the autonomic nervous system? A. Sensory neurons in the skin. B. Sensory neurons in the spinal cord. C. Motor neurons ending in the intestines. D. Motor neurons ending in skeletal muscle. B 62. The sympathetic nervous system would be most active while a person is A. digesting a large meal. B. in an athletic competition. C recovering from an illness. D. writing biology definitions. D 63. Which of the following explains why most organs are supplied by two separate autonomic nerves? A. One acts as a reserve neuron. B. One is sensory and one is motor. C. Both are needed in emergency situations. D. One stimulates the organ and one inhibits it. A 64. Increased parasympathetic stimulation of the SA node will result in A. decreased heart rate. B. decreased heart volume. C. increased diastolic pressure. D. increased ventricular contraction rate. B 65. Which of the following are immediately involved when a person is in a fight or flight situation? 1. Adrenal glands 2. Pancreas 3. Pituitary glands 4. Thyroid glands 5. Sympathetic system 6. Parasympathetic system A. 1, 3 B. 1, 5 C. 2, 4 D. 2, 6 B 66. The sympathetic nervous system is responsible for A. decreasing breathing rate. B. increasing blood glucose levels. C. increasing blood flow to the intestines. D. decreasing blood flow to the skeletal muscles. C 67. The body s response to immediate danger includes A. increased breakdown of protein in the stomach. B. decreased gas exchange during internal respiration. C. increased nervous stimulation of the adrenal medulla. D. decreased number of open capillary beds in skeletal muscle. D 68. Which of the following will occur as a result of parasympathetic nervous system stimulation? A. Increased heart rate. B. Secretion of adrenalin. C. Increased breathing rate. D. Secretion of digestive enzymes. B 69. Which of the following statements about the autonomic nervous system is false? A. It controls the internal organs. B. It functions in a voluntary manner. C. It is responsible for the fight or flight response. D. Each impulse travels through two motor neurons and one ganglion. C 70. A nerve to the heart is severed, resulting in a decreased heart rate. The severed nerve was likely a A. cranial nerve. B. somatic nerve. C. sympathetic nerve. D. parasympathetic nerve. C 71. Sharing of information between the two cerebral hemispheres is possible because of the A. cerebellum. B. hypothalamus. C. corpus callosum. D. medulla oblongata. D 72. A drug was observed to have the following effects on an individual: - increased breathing rate - increased blood pressure - increased heart rate The part of the brain affected by this drug is the A. thalamus. B. cerebellum. C. corpus callosum. D. medulla oblongata. C 73. Which of the following would increase the heart rate? A. Corpus callosum. B. Somatic nervous system. C. Sympathetic nervous system. D. Parasympathetic nervous system. A 74. Stimuli coming to the brain are sorted and channelled by the A. thalamus. B. cerebrum. C. cerebellum. D. hypothalamus. B 75. A person with a damaged medulla oblongata would have difficulty A. reading. B. breathing. C. tasting food. D. problem solving. B 76. A person recovering from a head injury finds that she has difficulty maintaining balance. Which part of the brain has been injured? A. Thalamus. B. Cerebellum. C. Hypothalamus. D. Medulla oblongata. D 77. Damage to the corpus callosum could A. stimulate the parasympathetic system. B. increase the heart rate but decrease the breathing rate. C. inhibit the hypothalamus and stimulate the thyroid gland. D. inhibit the sharing of information between cerebral hemispheres. D 78. Damage to the corpus callosum could A. stimulate the parasympathetic system. B. increase the heart rate but decrease the breathing rate. C. inhibit the hypothalamus and stimulate the thyroid gland. D. inhibit the sharing of information between cerebral hemispheres. B 79. Two functions of the medulla oblongata are to control A. body position and vision. B. heart beat and breathing rate. C. sensory areas and motor areas. D. involuntary muscle contractions and metabolic rate. A 80. The part of the brain responsible for muscle coordination is the A. cerebellum. B. hypothalamus. C. corpus callosum. D. medulla oblongata. D 81. What part of the brain is malfunctioning if nerve impulses are unable to travel from the right to the left hemisphere? A. Cerebrum. B. Cerebellum. C. Hypothalamus. D. Corpus callosum. A 82. Damage to the occipital lobe could affect A. sight. B. hearing. C. heartbeat. D. water balance. C 83. The occipital lobe of the cerebral cortex has association areas for A. taste. B. smell. C. vision. D. hearing B 84. The cerebral lobe of the brain that contains areas responsible for the sensations of touch, temperature, pressure and pain, and for the understanding of speech is the A frontal. B. parietal. C. occipital. D. temporal.
3 A 85. The part of the brain that would help you to concentrate on this examination even when other sensory stimuli are present is the A. thalamus. B. cerebellum. C. hypothalamus. D. medulla oblongata. A 86. The part of the brain responsible for consciousness is the A. cerebrum. B. cerebellum. C. hypothalamus. D. pituitary gland. C 87. Which of the following lobes of the cerebrum is responsible for vision? A. Frontal. B. Parietal. C. Occipital. D. Temporal. B 88. Which of the following is not a part of the cerebrum? A. Cortex. B. Cerebellum. C. Occipital lobe. D. Temporal lobe. D 89. In which lobe of the brain are sensory areas for hearing and smelling located? A. Frontal. B. Parietal. C. Occipital. D. Temporal. B 90. How does the hypothalamus increase the metabolic rate of cells in the body? A. It produces and releases thyroxin. B. It secretes a specific releasing hormone. C. It increases autonomic nerve stimulation. D. It causes cells to become permeable to blood glucose. C 91. A function of enzymes is to A. emulsify fats. B. carry information to nerves. C. catalyze chemical reactions. D. maintain constant blood ph. C 92. The source gland for adrenalin is the A. pancreas. B. adrenal cortex. C. adrenal medulla. D. posterior pituitary. B 93. Which of the following is a function of the hormone thyroxin? A. It decreases blood volume. B. It increases metabolic rate. C. It slows the release of insulin. D. It increases blood sodium levels. D 94. A nerve impulse passes through the following structures when the heart contracts. The correct sequence is A. AV node, Purkinje fibres, SA node. B. SA node, Purkinje fibres, AV node. C. Purkinje fibres, SA node, AV node. D. SA node, AV node, Purkinje fibres. C 95. Which of the following interacts with the pituitary gland as the neuroendocrine control centre? A. Thalamus. B. Cerebellum. C. Hypothalamus. D. Medulla oblongata. C 96. A chemical produced by the puffer fish prevents the opening of sodium gates in neurons but has no effect on chemical synapses. In which location on a sensory neuron would impulse transmission initially be stopped when this chemical is injected into the foot? A. Cell body. B. Myelin sheath. C. Node of Ranvier. D. Terminal knob of an axon. B 97. Which of the following would be a homeostatic response to a blood pressure reading of 80/50? A. Dilation of the arteries. B. Sympathetic stimulation. C. Inhibited ACTH secretion. D. Decreased ADH secretion. D 98. A hormone released by the posterior pituitary gland is A. gastrin. B. glucagon. C. parathyroid hormone (PTH). D. antidiuretic hormone (ADH). D 99. Which of the following is not a hydrolytic enzyme? A. Lipase. B. Trypsin. C. Amylase. D. Carbonic anhydrase. A 100. Which of the following are found only in the central nervous system? A. Interneurons. B. Motor neurons. C. Sensory neurons. D. Sensory receptors. B 101. The speed of nerve impulse conduction is increased by the presence of A. axons. B. myelin. C. dendrites. D. cell bodies. A 102. Which of the following are found only in the central nervous system? A. Interneurons. B. Motor neurons. C. Sensory neurons. D. Sensory receptors. B 103. A person recovering from a head injury finds that she has difficulty maintaining balance. Which part of the brain has been injured? A. Thalamus. B. Cerebellum. C. Hypothalamus. D. Medulla oblongata. D 104. Peristalsis may refer to the A. capillary beds of the digestive tract. B. closing of the glottis upon swallowing. C. activity of the sympathetic nervous system. D. rhythmic contraction of the wall of the esophagus. D 105. The somatic nervous system includes nerves that serve the A. heart. B. intestines. C. salivary glands. D. skeletal muscles. B 106. Which of the following would occur if an impulse from the SA node were blocked before it reaches the AV node? A. The heart would not contract. B. Only the atria would contract. C. Only the ventricles would contract. D. Blood would travel only to the pulmonary system. D 107. The posterior pituitary gland releases A. adrenalin. B. aldosterone. C. thyroxin. D. antidiuretic hormone (ADH). D 108. Due to a head injury, a patient s ability to breathe has been impaired. Where has the damage likely occurred? A. The cerebrum. B. The cerebellum. C. The hypothalamus. D. The medulla oblongata. C 109. In an experiment, a hormone is injected into the heart muscle of a rat. The response is an increased heart rate. Which of the following glands was the source of the hormone? A. Pancreas. B. Thymus. C. Adrenal medulla. D. Anterior pituitary. C 110. Damage to the medulla oblongata may result in A. hearing loss. B. impaired growth. C. breathing difficulty. D. loss of coordination. NERVOUS SYSTEM 1. B 2. B 3. A 4. D 5. D 6. C 7. B 8. A 9. A 10. D 11. B 12. C 13. D 14. C 15. D 16. C 17. B 18. B 19. C 20. C 21. B 22. B 23. A 24. D 25. D 26. C 27. A 28. C 29. D 30. D 31. A
4 32. A 33. B 34. B 35. B 36. B 37. A 38. D 39. C 40. D 41. D 42. C 43. B 44. D 45. A 46. C 47. A 48. B 49. D 50. B 51. D 52. B 53. C 54. C 55. B 56. A 57. D 58. D 59. C 60. A 61. C 62. B 63. D 64. A 65. B 66. B 67. C 68. D 69. B 70. C 71. C 72. D 73. C 74. A 75. B 76. B 77. D 78. D 79. B 80. A 81. D 82. A 83. C NERVOUS SYSTEM 1. Identify structures X, Y and Z and give one function of each. (6 marks: 1 mark each for name; 1 mark each for function)
5 2. Which processes are involved in the movement of molecule Y from point X to point Z? A. exocytosis and diffusion B. endocytosis and diffusion C. exocytosis and facilitated transport D. endocytosis and facilitated transport 3. The structure labeled X is the A. cerebrum. B. cerebellum. C. hypothalamus. D. corpus callosum 4. The structure labelled X is a(n) A. node. B. axon. C. synapse. D. dendrite. If an impulse started at V, it would travel to A. W and X. B. W and Z. C. X and Z. D. Y and Z. 5.
6 6. Describe the process which occurs at the circled area labelled X when a nerve impulse travels through this area. (6 marks) 7. In order for a nerve impulse to be transmitted across the synapse, the amount of excitatory neurotransmitter must exceed that of inhibitory neurotransmitter by an amount called the threshold. Which of the following combinations will result in the firing of a neuron whose threshold is 120 units? A. Y and Z B. V and W C. V, X and Y D. W, X and Y A pesticide that destroys an enzyme found in the synaptic cleft may cause A. denaturation of the presynaptic contractile proteins. B. an increased rate of diffusion across the synaptic cleft. C. continued depolarization of the postsynaptic membrane. D. alteration of the receptors on the presynaptic membrane. 8. Label and give a function for the following parts of the brain. 9. Name each of the neurons on the diagrams and for each give its role in a reflex arc (6 marks) X
7 Y Z
8 10. Distance Fibre X Fibre Y Time a) In an experiment to investigate the speed of nerve impulse transmission along two types of nerve fibres, the data produced are summarized in the above graph. i. Which of the two nerve fibres (X or Y) would have a myelin sheath (1 mark) b) explain your choice (2 marks) ii. It is found that after continuous stimulation for extended periods of time, it becomes difficult to conduct a nerve impulse along a fibre. Suggest TWO reasons for this (2 marks, 1 mark each) b) Explain each of the following: i. slices of potato placed in concentrated salt water lose mass (2 marks) ii. decreased concentration of salt in the blood may lead to decreased blood pressure (2 marks) iii. Substances containing bicarbonate ions (HCO 3 - ) are used as a remedy for heartburn or an upset stomach. Explain why HCO 3 - may be effective (2 marks) iv. If the nucleus of a cell is destroyed, the cell does not die immediately (1 mark) c) In the diagram above, If an action potential was initiated at neuron X, an impulse would be generated in A. X only. B. X andy C. X and Z. D. Y and Z.
9 Describe two ways in which a drug could block transmission of an impulse at the synapse (2 marks). 13. Dilation of the pupils is initiated by secretions from A. W B. X C. Y D. Z 14. Given the conditions in the diagram, what will occur next? A) repolarization b) depolarization c) recovery period d) synaptic transmission
10 15. a) If molecule X causes depolarization at Y, what could X be? A. sodium ions B. calcium ions C. acetylcholine D. acetylcholinesterase b) The molecules labelled X function to A. open sodium ion gates. B. speed up the transmission of impulses. C. provide an energy source for the resting potential. D. tell the brain the kind of stimulus that is being received. c) How does the molecule indicated by X move across the space above? A. Osmosis. B. Diffusion. C. Active transport. D. Facilitated transport. 16. d) Which of the following is a true statement about the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems? A. Sympathetic system causes increased rates of digestion while the parasympathetic system causes decreased rates of digestion. B. Sympathetic system causes decreased breathing rate while the parasympathetic system causes increased breathing rate. C. Sympathetic system causes constriction of the iris while the parasympathetic system causes dilation of the iris. D. Sympathetic system causes increased heart rate while the parasympathetic system decreases heart rate. 17. Name all of the structures in the above diagram (4 marks). Which letter indicates a structure that speeds the transmission of nerve impulses? A. W B. X C. Y D. Z The structure labelled X represents a(n) A. effector. B. receptor. C. interneuron. D. sensory neuron. 18. Explain how an action potential is generated in a neuron. (4 marks) 19. Describe the transmission of a nerve impulse through a neuron. (8 marks)
11 20. An axon was stimulated at one place and the voltage changes across the membrane were recorded as shown in the following graph. 21. What would be the effect if the intensity (amount) of stimulus was increased? A. The frequency of impulses would increase. B. The resting potential would increase from 60mV to 40mV. C. Each action potential would increase from +40mV to +60mV. D. Polarity changes would occur during the recovery (refractory) period. The diagram represents a simple reflex arc. Identify structures V, W, X, Y and Z and give one function of each structure. (5 marks: 1/2 mark for each name, 1/2 mark for each function) 22. The function of structure X is to A. control the breathing and heart rate. B. secrete hormones that control organs of the body. C. channel nerve impulses to the appropriate part of the brain. D. exchange information between right and left cerebral hemispheres. 23. Explain how a nerve impulse travels from one neuron to another. (4 marks) 24. Describe two ways in which a drug could block transmission of an impulse at the synapse. (2 marks) 25. Identify each part of the brain indicated in the diagram below and give one function of each. (6 marks: 1 mark each for name and 1 mark each for function) 26. A certain drug inhibits the action of a neurotransmitter. The effects of the drug are shown in the table below. This drug affected the A. cerebellum. B. corpus callosum. C. sympathetic nervous system. D. parasympathetic nervous system.
12 27. a) A chemical produced by the puffer fish prevents the opening of sodium gates in neurons but has no effect on chemical synapses. In which location on a sensory neuron would impulse transmission initially be stopped when this chemical is injected into the foot? A. Cell body. B. Myelin sheath. C. Node of Ranvier. D. Terminal knob of an axon. b) The cerebral lobe of the brain that contains areas responsible for the sensations of touch, temperature, pressure and pain, and for the understanding of speech is the A frontal. B. parietal. C. occipital. D. temporal. 28. The average heart rate (beats per minute) of a group of figure skaters was calculated every two minutes over a 14 minute period which included a ten minute skating exercise. Heart rates were recorded at both the beginning and end of the skating season. The results appear in the data table below. a) Construct a graph of the data given above. Use a solid line for heart rates at the beginning of the season and a broken line for heart rates at the end of the season. (2 marks) b) State two reasons for the change in heart rate during the skating exercise. (2 marks: 1 mark each) c) Explain the difference in the time required for heart rates to return to resting levels at the beginning and at the end of the skating season. (2 marks) 29. Give one function of each of the following parts of the nervous system. (5 marks: 1 mark each) a) Autonomic nervous system: b) Somatic nervous system: c) Thalamus: d) Cerebrum: e) Corpus callosum:
13 30. Which diagram below represents the path taken by an action potential in a reflex arc as shown by the arrows? 31. Give one role of each of the following in the transmission of a nerve impulse. (3 marks: 1 mark each) a) Na + K + pump: b) Sodium gate: c) Myelin sheath: 32. Give one function of each of the following. a) Cell membrane: (1 mark) b) Ribosome: (1 mark) c) Nucleolus: (1 mark) d) Smooth endoplasmic reticulum: (1 mark) e) Motor neuron: (1 mark) f) Myelin sheath: (1 mark) 33. On the following graph, which letters indicate the areas in which the sodium/potassium pump is operating? A. V and W B. W and Y C. X and Y D. V and Z At a synapse, the neurotransmitters move to the receptor sites by A. osmosis. B. diffusion. C. active transport. D. facilitated transport. 34. In the diagram below, the action potential at X is moving A. from an interneuron towards a muscle located at Y. B. towards an interneuron from a muscle located at Y. C. towards an interneuron from a receptor located at Y. D. from an interneuron towards a receptor located at Y.
14 35. What would be the effect of cutting the neuron at point X? A. The organism would die. B. Some sensation would be lost. C. The ability to move would be lost. D. An interneuron would take over the lost function. 36. The reflex arc consists of five distinct components. List each one and give one function for each component. (5 marks: ½ mark for component and ½ mark for function) 37. Describe the effect of the following on blood sugar levels in the human body and explain why they have this effect: a) eating a meal high in carbohydrates (2 marks) b) secretion of adrenaline (2 marks) c) secretion of insulin (2 marks) 38. Describe, using a valid example, a reflex arc. (5 marks) 39. Explain the importance of the following in nerve physiology: (10 marks) a) sodium pump (sodiumpotassium pump) b) refractory period c) synapse d) threshold e) dendrite 40. In an experimental situation, a motor neuron stimulated midway along the axon will carry impulses in both directions, but only one of the impulses will be passed on to another neuron or muscle. From your knowledge of neurophysiology: a) Explain why impulses are carried in both directions. (3 marks) b) Explain how the impulse crosses the synapse. (3 marks) 41. a) Name the two divisions of the autonomic nervous system and, using any appropriate body structure as an example, explain how each division regulates that structure. (3 marks) 42. Name one structural feature of the neuron and explain how it relates to the neuron s function. (2 marks) 43. Describe the mechanism by which an action potential passes from one neuron to another. (6 marks) 44. Assume that the action of pain killers interferes with the normal transmission from one neuron to another. Suggest two different mechanisms that would result in the brain detecting less pain. (4 marks) 45. a) Give a description of the myelin sheath found on some neurons. (2 marks) b) How does the structure of myelinated nerve increase its efficiency of conduction? (2 marks) 46. Identify the four areas of the brain shown in the diagram and give one function for each area. (1/2 mark for name, 1 mark for function. Total - 6 marks.) 47. Identify the four structures shown in the diagram and give one function for each area. (1/2 mark for name, 1 mark for function. Total - 6 marks.)
15 48. On the diagram, shade in the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes, and give two functions for each (6 marks) 49. Give ONE function for each part of the following areas of the brain: (3 marks: 1 mark each) a) Cerebrum b) Occipital lobe c) Hypothalamus 50. Predict and explain the effects of the following on the function of the nervous system. a) Administration of a drug which mimics the action of noradrenalin. (2 marks) b) Removal of a portion of the cerebellum. (1 mark) c) Introduction of a respiratory chain inhibitor. (2 marks) d) Destruction of the myelin sheath. (2 marks) 51. Describe the effect of a drug that a) blocks the release of noradrenalin b) increases the effectiveness of GABA c) prevents the reuptake of serotonin d) prevents the functioning of achetylcholinesterase e) blocks the receptor sites for GABA 52. In a study of people with an underactive thyroid gland, oxygen use data was collected and summarized on the above graph. Included in the study were people whose thyroids is functioned normally. Data were collected when the subjects were at rest (basal), during mild exercise and during strenuous exercise. (7 marks) a) Which group (A or B) has normal thyroid function? (1 mark) b) Explain why the results were different for both groups. (2 marks) c) The following symptoms were noted among those in the experimental group. For each, explain why the symptoms appear. (3 marks: 1 mark each O 2 use ml O 2 /min Basal Mild Exercise Strenuous Exercise i) lethargy (sluggishness) ii) decreased body temperature iii) weight gain d) Suggest a possible treatment for those in the experimental group. (1 mark) 53. After a severe drop in blood pressure, how will each of the following respond to maintain homeostasis? (10 marks) i) urine formation ii) aldosterone iii) sympathetic nervous system iv) tissue-capillary fluid exchange v) cardiac output 54. Blood samples from a figure skater were analyzed before and after a competition as shown in the following chart. BLOOD COMPONENT BEFORE COMPETITION AFTER COMPETITION glucose 1.010% 0.09% ph pressure 120/180 mm Hg 150/180 mm Hg temperature 37º C 39º C Explain how internal homeostasis mechanisms would help return each blood component of the figure skater to the same levels that existed before the competition began. (12 marks: 3 marks each)
16 55. The diving women of Korea and Japan collect shellfish without the aid of any special equipment. Sometimes they can reach a depth of 25 metres and hold their breath for up to two minutes while working in a water temperature of 10º C. Explain how each of the following would help them perform their tasks. a) They take several deep breaths before they dive. (2 marks) b) The blood flow to their kidneys and most of their bodies muscles is reduced during the dive. (1 mark) c) There is a decrease in their normal heart rate after they have been submerged for 40 seconds (1 mark) d) There is an increase from their normal heart rate immediately after the dive. (1 mark) e) Blood flow to their skin is reduced during the dive. (1 mark)
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