CPI Links Content Guide & Five Items Resource

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1 CPI Links Content Guide & Five Items Resource Introduction The following information should be used as a companion to the CPI Links. It provides clarifications concerning the content and skills contained in the CPI Links. Remember that instruction should be much richer than assessment and that the examples contained herein do not represent the variety of instructional strategies and supports necessary for meaningful teaching and learning of academic content. The information and examples are intended to clarify the intentions of the CPI Links so that assessment activities aligned to the links and thus to the state standards can be developed or chosen appropriately for students who participate in the NJ APA. For each standard, you will find that this resource includes The Test Specifications followed by the corresponding CPIs and Links A Glossary of terms contained in the CPI Links Further Clarifications concerning specific content, skills, language, and/or activity development considerations Five Items examples that show what constitutes five items for certain links where that may not be clear as well as the semantic intent of the link language. How to Use This Resource 1) Review the Steps to Developing an Entry in Modules IV and V of the Fall Training. 2) Remember to make your decisions regarding which CPI Link you will use to assess your students based on the individual needs of your students. Just because a particular link may be best for one student does not mean it is best for another, especially given the diverse needs of the students who participate in the NJ APA. 3) Once you have selected a CPI Link, use the Glossary to look up the definitions of any/all content vocabulary terms contained in the language of the link. This will ensure your understanding of those terms is consistent with the understanding set forth by the NJ DOE for the NJ APA. 4) Check the Further Clarifications section to see if there is additional information about the CPI and/or CPI Link you have chosen that will be helpful as you choose or design the activities you will use as the assessment evidence in your students APA portfolios. 5) If the CPI Link has an asterisk at the end of the link statement, you will find an example of that link in the Five Items section to use as a guide/reference/model NJ APA Content Guide & Five Items Resource Page 1

2 4 th Grade Science Test Specifications and Links for Standard 5.5 Characteristics of Life (Portfolio Entry 1) The following are the required CPIs and Links for Standard 5.5: Characteristics of Life. Both CPIs are from Strand A: Matter, Energy, and Organization in Living Systems. You must select a CPI Link from one of the CPIs to develop an entry for the APA portfolio. STRAND A: Matter, Energy and Organization in Living Systems You MUST CHOOSE only one of the following CPIs: CPI 5.5.4A1 Identify the roles that organisms may serve in a food chain Essence of the CPI: Understand the role organisms play in moving matter and energy in a food web Matched Link Near Link Far Link Classify organisms by whether they are herbivores, omnivores, or carnivores* Label predators and prey within a food web* Build a simple food web Label primary producers and consumers within a food web Identify organisms and their roles in a food web that includes the sun Explain how one organism can be a part of two different food webs Describe what happens when an organism of a food web is removed* OR Identify predators and prey* Identify decomposers and producers Identify the type of food herbivores, carnivores, and omnivores eat CPI 5.5.4A4 Describe the basic functions of the major systems of the human body including, but not limited to: Digestive system Circulatory system Respiratory system Nervous system Skeletal system Muscular system Reproductive system Essence of the CPI: Understand the basic functions of the systems of the human body Matched Link Near Link Far Link Outline one major system s pathway including organs and their functions* Explain the interrelationship between two systems* Identify five systems of the body and their functions* Identify the parts of a system and their functions in that system Identify at least five systems of the human body Identify the parts of a system* Please note: Always consult the Glossary and Further Clarifications sections of this resource when working with any of these Links. Additionally, an asterisk at the end of a Link statement denotes there is an example for that specific Link in the Five Items section of this resource NJ APA Content Guide & Five Items Resource Page 2

3 Glossary 5.5 Glossary 5.5 Carnivores organisms that derive energy and nutrient requirements from a diet consisting mainly or exclusively of animal tissue, whether through predation or scavenging (e.g., mountain lion, dog) Consumers organisms that get energy from eating other organisms because they are not able to make their own food (e.g., owl, fox) Decomposers organisms that get energy by breaking down dead plants and animals (e.g., bacteria, earthworms, fungi) Duodenum the first section of the small intestine Food chain a specific path of energy flow through an ecosystem (e.g., raspberry bush to rabbit to hawk) Food Chain Note: the arrows show where the energy is going. Food Web a connection of all the food chains in an ecosystem. Food chains represent a specific path of energy flow through an ecosystem. A food web shows various ways energy can flow through an ecosystem. The arrows in a food web show the direction of energy flow. Food webs are composed of producers, consumers, and decomposers. Food webs are distinct from energy pyramids. Food Web *It is important to remember that a food web is more than a food chain. Energy for most organisms can be traced back to plants and ultimately the sun. Producers (plants) convert sunlight into a form of energy they can use for life functions. Consumers eat plants or other animals for energy. Decomposers depend on dead plant and animal material for energy. The roles of organisms in a food web are producer, consumer, or decomposer NJ APA Content Guide & Five Items Resource Page 3

4 Glossary 5.5 Herbivores organisms that get energy by eating plants (e.g., rabbit, deer) Major Systems of the Human Body The major systems of the human body emphasized in 4 th Grade are 1. Digestive a. Parts: mouth, tongue, teeth, esophagus, stomach, intestines b. Function: breaks down food to be used by the body 2. Circulatory a. Parts: heart, blood vessels (arteries, veins), lungs (capillaries in alveoli) b. Function: transports materials throughout the body 3. Respiratory a. Parts: mouth, nose (nostrils, nasal passages), trachea (windpipe), and lungs (bronchi, bronchioles) b. Function: transport air into and out of the body 4. Nervous a. Parts: brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves (afferent nerves bringing signals to the brain or spinal cord and efferent nerves taking messages away from the brain or spinal cord), and sense organs (e.g., eyes, ears, nose, tongue, skin) b. Function: helps the body to react to changes in the environment 5. Skeletal a. Parts: bone b. Function: provides support and protection 6. Muscular a. Parts: muscles, tendons, ligaments, heart b. Function: movement and posture (skeletal muscle), pumping blood (heart), help organs and blood vessels function (smooth muscle) 7. Reproductive a. Parts: ovary, uterus, testes b. Function: to produce offspring Source: NJASK Test Specifications for Science Omnivores organisms that eat both plants and animals as their primary food source; they are opportunistic, general feeders, not specifically adapted to eat and digest either meat or plant material primarily (e.g., fox, human) Producers organisms able to use energy from the sun to make their own food (e.g., blueberry bush, grass, trees) NJ APA Content Guide & Five Items Resource Page 4

5 Further Clarifications 5.5 Further Clarifications 5.5 Food Webs There is a difference between a food web and a food chain. A food web shows the interconnectedness of several food chains. A source of energy is needed for all organisms to stay alive and grow. Energy for most organisms can be traced back to plants and ultimately to sunlight. Producers convert sunlight into a form of energy they can use for life functions. Consumers eat plants and/or other animals for energy. Decomposers depend on dead plant and animal material for energy. The roles of organisms in a food web are producer, consumer, or decomposer. The arrows in a food web indicate the direction of energy flow in an ecosystem. Body Systems The major systems of the human body are included in the Glossary. The parts listed for each system in the Glossary are the ones 4 th Grade students are expected to know. Therefore, those are the parts that should be used when assessing 5.5.4A4 links. CPI Link Clarification 5.5.4A1 Far Link Bullet 1 Identify predators and prey* 5.5.4A4 Matched Link Bullet 1 Outline one major system s pathway including organs and their functions* Any carnivore (or omnivore) may be identified as a predator (i.e., wolf, hawk, mountain lion, fox, snake, raccoon, etc.) Any herbivore (or decomposer that is an animal) may be identified as prey (i.e., earthworm, rabbit, deer, snail, etc.). DO NOT consider producers (i.e., plants) as prey. Here, outline means to identify the sequence of events involved for that system (i.e., first this happens, next this happens, and so on). In the course of outlining the system s pathway, the student must identify the organs involved as well as the functions of each of those organs. For more information, see the Five Items example for this link NJ APA Content Guide & Five Items Resource Page 5

6 Five Items Examples The Five Items examples are samples of activities that may be used as models when choosing or developing activities for the APA. They include specific considerations and guidelines that if not followed will likely result in unscorable codes. However, they do not show the required markings for performance (+/-) or independence (I, V, G, M, P), nor do they include student names and collection dates. They are sample activities, not sample evidence. Evidence must include all of the requirements of the Universal Scoring Rules NJ APA Content Guide & Five Items Resource Page 6

7 CPI: 5.5.4A1 Identify the roles that organisms may serve in a food chain Essence of the CPI: Understand the role organisms play in moving matter and energy in a food web Matched Link, Bullet 3: Describe what happens when an organism of a food web is removed* Directions to the student: Use the sentence strips provided at the bottom of the page to describe what would happen if there were no wild cats in this food web. Paste your answers by the numbers under the food web. This example constitutes five items. The sentence strips are used to describe five different consequences of removing a specific organism from the provided food web NJ APA Content Guide & Five Items Resource Page 7

8 CPI: 5.5.4A1 Identify the roles that organisms may serve in a food chain Essence of the CPI: Understand the role organisms play in moving matter and energy in a food web Near Link, Bullet 1: Classify organisms by whether they are herbivores, omnivores, or carnivores* Important Considerations for this Link: Across the five items of the activity, there must be at least one herbivore, one omnivore, and one carnivore. If pictures are used (such as in this example), they must be labeled so that it is clear what each picture is representing. Some organisms, like dogs, are carnivorous by nature but may sometimes eat plants (think about dog treats that contain vegetables). However, that does not make them omnivorous. They are still carnivores. Similarly, humans are omnivores, regardless if a human chooses to eat only vegetables or only meat. Directions to the student: Paste H for herbivore, C for carnivore, and O for omnivore to label the given organisms. This example constitutes five items. There are five labeled pictures of organisms, and across those five items there is at least one herbivore, one carnivore, and one omnivore NJ APA Content Guide & Five Items Resource Page 8

9 CPI: 5.5.4A1 Identify the roles that organisms may serve in a food chain Essence of the CPI: Understand the role organisms play in moving matter and energy in a food web Near Link, Bullet 2: Label predators and prey within a food web* Important Considerations for this Link: More than one food web may be used to label a total of five pairs. Across the items, both predators and preys must be labeled. In this example, the predator/prey pairs have been circled, but they do not have to be. As well, the arrows showing the flow of energy between the circled predator/prey pairs have been bolded, but they do not have to be. Both the circles and the bolded arrows were included to make the food web less complicated without compromising the link skill. Directions to the student: For each circled set of organisms in the food web, paste PR by the predator and PY by the prey. This example constitutes ten items. Each labeled organism constitutes an item. In this example, there are five labeled predators and five labeled preys for a total of ten items NJ APA Content Guide & Five Items Resource Page 9

10 CPI: 5.5.4A1 Identify the roles that organisms may serve in a food chain Essence of the CPI: Understand the role organisms play in moving matter and energy in a food web Far Link, Bullet 1: Identify predators and prey* Important Considerations for this Link: At least one predator and at least one prey must be included across the five items. The activity does not have to be presented in the context of a food web. The predators do not have to be matched to their prey. If pictures are used (such as in this example), they must be labeled so that it is clear what each picture is representing. Directions to the student: Using the cards provided, paste the organism into the correct column to identify it as either Predator or Prey. This example constitutes six items. There are six labeled pictures. Each one was placed in its appropriate column NJ APA Content Guide & Five Items Resource Page 10

11 CPI: 5.5.4A4 Describe the basic functions of the major systems of the human body including, but not limited to: digestive system, circulatory system, respiratory system, nervous system, skeletal system, muscular system, reproductive system Essence of the CPI: Understand the basic functions of the systems of the human body Matched Link, Bullet 1: Outline one major system s pathway including organs and their functions* Important Considerations for this Link: Outline means to identify the sequence of events involved for the system (i.e., first this happens, next this happens, and so on). In the course of outlining the system s pathway, the student must identify the organs involved as well as the functions of each of those organs. Directions to the student: For this activity, you need to do three things: 1. Paste the labels on the diagram to identify the main parts of the digestive system. 2. For each part, write its function. 3. Number the parts to show the digestive the digestive system s pathway. This example constitutes five items. There are three parts for each item: the link requires the student to outline the system s path, identify the organs involved, and identify the function of each of those organs. There is a difference between the number of items and the way the items may be graded. Since each of these five items has three components (part, function, and order in the pathway), it is acceptable to grade each component separately. That would result in a total of 15 markings for accuracy and independence. Or, it is also acceptable to grade each item holistically; in other words, the student must get all three components correct for the item as a whole to be considered correct. Whichever way a teacher chooses to grade an activity such as this, the grading must be consistent from the initial activity to the final activity to prevent the student s score from being artificially inflated or deflated NJ APA Content Guide & Five Items Resource Page 11

12 CPI: 5.5.4A4 Describe the basic functions of the major systems of the human body including, but not limited to: digestive system, circulatory system, respiratory system, nervous system, skeletal system, muscular system, reproductive system Essence of the CPI: Understand the basic functions of the systems of the human body Matched Link, Bullet 2: Explain the inter-relationship between two systems* Important Considerations for this Link: Any two systems that are inter-related may be used. Directions to the student: Explain how the respiratory and circulatory systems work together. Provide a description in each box. This example constitutes seven items. The student provided an explanation in each of the seven boxes NJ APA Content Guide & Five Items Resource Page 12

13 CPI: 5.5.4A4 Describe the basic functions of the major systems of the human body including, but not limited to: digestive system, circulatory system, respiratory system, nervous system, skeletal system, muscular system, reproductive system Essence of the CPI: Understand the basic functions of the systems of the human body Near Link, Bullet 1: Identify five systems of the body and their functions* Important Considerations for this Link: Any five systems may be used. Directions to the student: Using the provided labels, identify the name of the body system shown in each diagram as well as its function. This example constitutes five items. Five systems are identified as well as the functions of each of those five systems. There is a difference between the number of items and the way the items may be graded. Since each of these five items has two components (identify the system s name and identify the system s function), it is acceptable to grade each component separately. That would result in a total of 10 markings for accuracy and independence. Or, it is also acceptable to grade each item holistically; in other words, the student must get both components correct for the item as a whole to be considered correct. Whichever way a teacher chooses to grade an activity such as this, the grading must be consistent from the initial activity to the final activity to prevent the student s score from being artificially inflated or deflated NJ APA Content Guide & Five Items Resource Page 13

14 CPI: 5.5.4A4 Describe the basic functions of the major systems of the human body including, but not limited to: digestive system, circulatory system, respiratory system, nervous system, skeletal system, muscular system, reproductive system Essence of the CPI: Understand the basic functions of the systems of the human body Far Link, Bullet 2: Identify the parts of a system* Important Considerations for this Link: Any system may be used. Any five parts of a system may be identified. In the diagram below, pancreas, liver, duodenum, appendix, anus, and rectum were already labeled for the student. The student was only expected to label esophagus, stomach, gallbladder, small intestine, and large intestine. Directions to the student: Using the labels provided to you, identify the parts of the digestive system on the diagram. This example constitutes five items. The student labeled five parts of the digestive system NJ APA Content Guide & Five Items Resource Page 14

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